Top PDF A Geospatial Assessment of Small-Scale Hydropower Potential in Sub-Saharan Africa

A Geospatial Assessment of Small-Scale Hydropower Potential in Sub-Saharan Africa

A Geospatial Assessment of Small-Scale Hydropower Potential in Sub-Saharan Africa

One explanation of these results may derive from the fact that the total area in the power pools is different, as shown in Table 4. That is, the extent of river network is bigger and therefore more potential sites were identified. On top of that, the impact of restriction zones on the final results should also be denoted. As indicated in Table 4, densely populated areas (e.g., western or eastern Africa) with intense agriculture activities have lost a considerable amount of suitable land for the development of hydropower due to the application of the restriction filters presented in Section 2.6. That obviously affected the identified potential as well; in the western African power pool the final potential was 56.8% lower than the theoretical potential (no application of restriction zones) as shown in Figure 8. Interestingly, the southern Africa power pool had the lowest loss rate, with 27.5% of the total identified sites falling within a restricted area; hence excluded. This indicates that the results are quite sensitive to the selection of restriction zones, which need to be selected appropriately so that they reflect the existing social, economic, technical and environmental limitations in each area.
Show more

21 Read more

Hydropower dependency and climate change in sub-Saharan Africa: A nexus framework and evidence-based review

Hydropower dependency and climate change in sub-Saharan Africa: A nexus framework and evidence-based review

the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP). They find that RE potential is several times greater than demand in many countries and mostly economically competitive, and thus it signifi- cantly contribute to meeting this demand. International interconnections are however necessary to render this potential economically feasible for the region as a whole. Also, interconnections that support the best RE options are dif- ferent from those planned for a counterfactual scenario of domestic large-scale hydropower expansion. The same direction is pointed by Barasa et al. (2018), who estimate electricity generation potential throughout SSA (divided into 16 sub-regions) at a hourly resolution according to four scenarios over the trans- mission grid development. They show that RE is alone sufficient to cover 866 TWh electricity demand for 2030, and that existing hydro dams can be used to balance large-scale solar PV and wind integration. All scenarios represent pathways of substantial diversification away from hydropower, which compared to other RE would have a significant smaller share. The authors highlight that this finding is at odds with the New Policies Scenario of the IEA, which projects that by 2040 hydropower may account for 26% of electricity generation in SSA. Similar results are highlighted in Schwerhoff & Sy (2019), who compare results from Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), finding that different sustainable energy supply pathways for Africa which are also compatible with the 2C climate target. Some scenarios determine a 100% switch to RE over the medium-run, provided sufficient transboundary transmission infrastructure is put into place. Another significant aspect concerns the small-scale hydropower potential and its role for delivering electricity access to remote communities. Several techni- cal assessments have been carried out for SSA (Korkovelos et al., 2018; Ebhota & Inambao, 2017; Kaunda et al., 2012), highlighting the significant potential (e.g., 9.9 GW in the Southern African Power Pool, and 5.7, 5.6, and 3.9 GW in the Central, Eastern, and Western African Power Pools, respectively). Least- cost techno-economic electrification models then show (Mentis et al., 2017b,a; Korkovelos et al., 2019) that these technologies can be the cheapest option to provide power to mini-grids in a number of settlements throughout SSA. Yet, little research has hitherto been performed to assess the reliability and vulner- ability of such small-scale technologies to long-lived changes in the discharge or short-lived disruptions.
Show more

50 Read more

Continental-scale, data-driven predictive assessment of eliminating the vector-borne disease, lymphatic filariasis, in sub-Saharan Africa by 2020

Continental-scale, data-driven predictive assessment of eliminating the vector-borne disease, lymphatic filariasis, in sub-Saharan Africa by 2020

Executing large continental-scale model discovery and simulation programs presents a further challenge associated with the handling and processing of large datasets. While we have created a plausible data man- agement and scientific workflow system to tackle the issues of discovery, assembly, and data transforma- tions/interpolations required to provide the input data for identifying the locally applicable LF models, we note that there is a need to automate our current ap- proaches to speed up these data delivery and process- ing activities. We are currently working with computer scientists to develop a server-side infection data processing system based on using data ware- house principles and methods [27, 30, 31] to address this issue. A similar requirement for running data- intensive models across a large heterogeneous spatial domain is looking at advances in software and hard- ware to speed up the computational discovery and simulation process. This means not only optimizing our current Matlab codes for running on batch com- pute multicore systems and clusters, but also examin- ing more flexible and faster code implementations using C, C++, or even Java [11]. Speeding up data- base and simulation scalability using hardware accel- eration employing graphics processing units (GPUs) or similar accelerated parallel computing platforms [72] presents another current option we are investi- gating to overcome the high performance and mem- ory overheads connected with our data-driven modeling approach. We expect that the effective reso- lution of these challenges will allow us to accomplish the next stage of the work reported here, viz., the provision of intervention simulations for decision making at the small spatial scale of the village or community.
Show more

23 Read more

Rural Transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Rural Transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Assessment of the options in terms of social inclusion: Option A ignores the aspect of social inclu- sion. It recommends the release of small-holders from agriculture but fails to address the question of income-generating opportunities outside the farming sector. This may be based on the tacit (market- liberal) assumption that a massive influx of job-seekers will reduce wage levels to the extent that Afri- can production sites can compete with South Asian low-income countries. Industrial mass production would then be moved to Africa. Option B aspires to social inclusion with support measures targeting all small-holder groups. Despite the goal of actively promoting non-farm income opportunities for the “stepping-out” group, the weakness of this option is its perception of non-farm labour markets and their capacity for absorption as “a challenge to be met”. Social inclusion takes centre stage in the strategic considerations of Options C and D. They base their plea to uphold and strengthen small-holder cultivation not least on its function as a social holding centre, bearing in mind the ab- sence of dynamic employment development in other sectors. Given growing worldwide demand and the prevailing ecological challenges, they see both the need for and the potential of inclusive small-holder promotion. While advocates of Option C see an opportunity for resource-poor small- holders to be competitive with a range of cash crop varieties even on international markets, e.g., through contract farming based on producer organizations, proponents of Option D fail to see this as a desirable prospect and instead focus exclusively on making progress in local, regional and na- tional markets.
Show more

102 Read more

Rural development from a territorial perspective: lessons and potential in sub Saharan Africa

Rural development from a territorial perspective: lessons and potential in sub Saharan Africa

unemployment and poverty (Aliber, 2003). The majority of people are resource poor and have insufficient incomes and often also limited access to basic services to satisfy their elementary needs. While the achievements made over the last ten years in addressing the social needs of the poor are quite impressive, concerns remain about the sustainability of these often strongly subsidized interventions (Bond, 2003; Rogerson, 2003). Another question in point concerns the extent to which these interventions have contributed towards long-term growth and improved income generation for disadvantaged households. Whilst the poverty situation in the old homeland areas resemble the rural situations of other Sub-Saharan countries, the one major difference is that the rural poor in the homelands have far better linkages with wage incomes earned elsewhere, as well as transfer payments in the form of pensions and other subsidies. The communities are in the first instance not small-scale producers, but rather receivers of transfer income and/or job seeker societies. Only 3percent of the households living in the former homelands were estimated to derive their most
Show more

46 Read more

Childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional insight into small-scale geographical inequalities from Census data

Childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional insight into small-scale geographical inequalities from Census data

Several studies have shown that child survival in the fi rst 5 years of life is in fl uenced by a myriad of risk factors. For instance, Becher et al 2 quanti fi ed the effect of risk factors for childhood mortality in a typical rural setting of Burkina Faso. They performed a survival ana- lysis of births within a population from a demographic surveillance system in 39 villages. In another study in rural Tanzania, Armstrong-Schellenberg et al 3 conducted a community-based nested case – control study of post- neonatal deaths in children under 5 years, in which they investigated demographic and socio-economic factors, health-seeking behaviour, the household environment including accessibility to healthcare and individual child care factors. A similar population-based case – control study was carried out to investigate potential risk factors for postneonatal and child mortality in northern Ghana. 4 Child mortality demonstrated gender-based dis- parities, 5 varied with socio-economic inequalities 2 and was in fl uenced by variation in coverage of interven- tions. 4 At times, living in either urban or rural areas can disadvantage under- fi ve children ’ s health. 6 The general picture is that major causes of childhood mortality, sum- marised as disease and malnutrition, are exacerbated by socio-economic differences and varied intervention coverage, 7 and these risk factors apply at both individual and community levels. 8
Show more

12 Read more

Childhood mortality in sub Saharan Africa : cross sectional insight into small scale geographical inequalities from Census data

Childhood mortality in sub Saharan Africa : cross sectional insight into small scale geographical inequalities from Census data

Several studies have shown that child survival in the fi rst 5 years of life is in fl uenced by a myriad of risk factors. For instance, Becher et al 2 quanti fi ed the effect of risk factors for childhood mortality in a typical rural setting of Burkina Faso. They performed a survival ana- lysis of births within a population from a demographic surveillance system in 39 villages. In another study in rural Tanzania, Armstrong-Schellenberg et al 3 conducted a community-based nested case – control study of post- neonatal deaths in children under 5 years, in which they investigated demographic and socio-economic factors, health-seeking behaviour, the household environment including accessibility to healthcare and individual child care factors. A similar population-based case – control study was carried out to investigate potential risk factors for postneonatal and child mortality in northern Ghana. 4 Child mortality demonstrated gender-based dis- parities, 5 varied with socio-economic inequalities 2 and was in fl uenced by variation in coverage of interven- tions. 4 At times, living in either urban or rural areas can disadvantage under- fi ve children ’ s health. 6 The general picture is that major causes of childhood mortality, sum- marised as disease and malnutrition, are exacerbated by socio-economic differences and varied intervention coverage, 7 and these risk factors apply at both individual and community levels. 8
Show more

14 Read more

ARMS EXPORTS AND TRANSFERS: FROM Sub-Saharan AFRICA TO Sub-Saharan AFRICA

ARMS EXPORTS AND TRANSFERS: FROM Sub-Saharan AFRICA TO Sub-Saharan AFRICA

Africa In 2008 the well-known case of the ship docked in Durban, South Africa ready to offload arms shipped from China to Zimbabwe at a time when political violence in the country had reached unprecedented levels. Human rights activists fearing the arms would be used against civilians seen as enemies of the State, worked tirelessly to ensure the arms would not find their way into Zimbabwe. A South African judge ruled that the cargo of rocket-propelled grenades, mortar rounds and ammunition could not be transported overland.

11 Read more

Cesarean section in sub-Saharan Africa

Cesarean section in sub-Saharan Africa

that IOL plays in the increasing rate of CS in LMIC is in order. An analysis of the WHO Global Survey on Mater- nal and Neonatal health dataset was used to try to under- stand the patterns and outcomes of IOL in Africa and Asia [13]. The results suggested that IOL was generally less common in LMIC than in HIC, that prostaglandin use was rare, and oxytocin was the most common method utilized. IOL accounted for 4.4 and 12.1 % of deliveries in Africa and Asia, respectively [13]. The success rates were generally over 80 %. Medically indicated inductions in both regions were associated with an Apgar score of <7 at 5 min, low birthweight, NICU admission, and fresh still- birth [13]. The analysis concluded that despite the fact that one-third of elective inductions were reportedly performed at less than 39 weeks gestational age, the risks of maternal, neonatal, and fetal mortalities were not elevated [13]. While this analysis suggests that IOL does not increase the rate of CS and may actually result in the converse, the authors of this analysis warn that despite growing use of elective labor induction globally, ques- tions remain about the safety, risks, benefits, and cost- effectiveness. They assert that IOL should only be per- formed in the context of informed consent, access to comprehensive EmOC, and appropriate maternal and fetal monitoring and supervision [14].
Show more

10 Read more

A School Library in Sub-Saharan Africa

A School Library in Sub-Saharan Africa

Similar conclusions regarding cultural preferences and traits feature throughout the discourse on libraries and literacy in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting a limited role or cultural ceiling for reading. However, these claims are contradicted in the few qualitative studies that have been undertaken. When assessing the information needs of a rural sub Saharan African community (Sturges and Chimseu 1996) observed that print material is widely valued and that some traits of an oral culture actually facilitate access to the written word. For example it is “shared by the literate (often school children) with the non-literate”. A South African initiative called “Born to Read” (Mtshweni, 2003, 9), which encouraged non-literate mothers to become library members and read with their children by using the pictures in books to tell a story, found that this was welcomed as it promoted traditional storytelling. Instead of the reading culture being stifled by an oral tradition where some may say it had no place, the mothers could identify similarities of storytelling in their own culture with the storytelling using books, thus enabling them to use their experience to introduce their children to reading in a way that they were comfortable with. By gaining an understanding of the local culture and what was important to the participants it was possible to take an approach that exploited synergies between oral and literate cultures.
Show more

13 Read more

Dairy marketing in sub-saharan Africa

Dairy marketing in sub-saharan Africa

In sub-Saharan Africa, most dairy output is produced by nomads with traditional objectives of subsistence and survival over long periods of drought and regeneration. Each family requires a basic stock of animals for survival. However, as families expand, this stock is expanded. Consequently, overstocking and overgrazing deteriorate the range land. Milk yields of these producers are low. For example, in Ethiopia, a livestock exporting country, cows do not reach maturity for three to four years, calve every two years, and produce only about 250 kg of milk per lactation. This is a very low yield, even in comparison with neighbouring countries. In Egypt, for example, the average estimated milk yield of a native cow is about 578 to 756 kg per lactation (Soliman and Fitch, 1982). The commercial dairy sector, with a small share of production, is operated both by the government and private sector. Large parastatal farms are using specialised management skills, which minimise input supply and transportation problems, and have substantial economies of scale. However, in most cases they are faced with high production costs and require subsidies to be able to operate. The high costs stem from high labour costs, poor management, the use of highly capital-intensive technologies and reliance on purchased feed rather than pastures.
Show more

389 Read more

The State of Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa

The State of Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa

We use the Penn World Tables' (PWT 6.3) chain weighted real GDP per capita series and the Polity IV democracy index which distributes over a range spanning the interval between perfect autocracies (score of -10) and perfect democracies (score of 10). Our sample includes 105 countries, 42 of which are in Sub-Saharan Africa 4 . Figure 1 shows that on average incomes and polity scores have risen over time. While incomes have grown relatively smoothly, in the late 1980s, the polity index jumped discontinuously from -0.4 in 1989 to 1.9 in 1992. As seen in Figure 2, there are important regional differences in the movement toward democracy. Latin America democratized prior to the fall of Communism. Africa and the Middle East both democratized after 1990. The polity scores then diverged, with those in Sub-Saharan improving more rapidly.
Show more

31 Read more

Women and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

Women and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

Women are at a greater physiological risk of contracting HIV than men. This is in part because women have a greater mucosal surface area exposed to pathogens and in- fectious fluid for longer periods during sexual intercourse and are likely to face increased tissue injury. Young women are at particularly high risk due to cervical ectopy which facilitates greater exposure of target cells to trauma and pathogens in the vagina [16]. It has been well docu- mented that STIs increase the risk of HIV acquisition [17]. For women, the risk is increased due to difficulty in diag- nosing STIs which are often asymptomatic in presentation [18], thus making treatment difficult [16]. A study by Ramjee et al. [5] determined the prevalence of STIs (such as Neisseria Gonorrhea, Chlamydia Trachomatis, Syphilis, and Trichomonas Vaginalis) at 4 clinical trials sites namely Durban and Hlabisa (South Africa), Lusaka (Zambia) and Moshi (Tanzania). The study showed that women at the South African sites were 3 times more likely to acquire an STI than participants at the Tanzanian and Zambian sites. Studies on HIV/STI “hot spots” among women in com- munities in the greater Durban area in the province of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) theorize an overlap of prevalence and incidence of these infections, suggesting increased risk of HIV acquisition in STI/HIV “hot spot” areas within these communities [19].
Show more

9 Read more

A review of the consideration of climate change in the planning of hydropower schemes in sub-Saharan Africa

A review of the consideration of climate change in the planning of hydropower schemes in sub-Saharan Africa

2. Background to hydropower in sub-Saharan Africa The World Bank has asserted that promoting the development of hydropower will lower the generation costs of electricity, reduce carbon emissions and help to insulate countries in sub-Saharan Africa from increases in the price of fossil fuels (World Bank, 2009). In the next 20 to 30 years, based on planned schemes, the hydropower generating capacity in Africa could almost quadruple to almost 100 GW (Hamududu & Killingtveit, 2012). Figure 2 shows the potential for the development of hydropower in Africa compared to other continents. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa’s are already highly dependent on hydropower, and an increase in this dependency will augment the risks from droughts (e.g. a reduction in power generation) (see Cole et al., 2013). There is already evidence of drought-induced power cuts in many “hydro-dependent” sub-Saharan Africa countries leading to reductions in Gross Domestic Product (see Lumbroso et al., 2014). In Africa, regional power generation and interconnection projects play a significant role in the strategies for increased access to electricity. The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) promote regional power projects and trade through their respective power pools shown in Figure 3. The percentage of installed capacity in terms of the four main types of power generation (i.e. hydropower, diesel, coal and gas) is shown in Figure 3. In sub-Saharan Africa, hydropower makes up just under 20% of the installed generating capacity i.e. around 19.7 GW. However, when South Africa is excluded, from the overall figures, hydropower
Show more

14 Read more

Malaria and urbanization in sub Saharan Africa

Malaria and urbanization in sub Saharan Africa

Urbanization is a recent phenomenon in Africa: in 1960 there were no African cities with one million inhabitants, today there are forty. Has malaria become a serious prob- lem within these huge cities and their peri-urban envi- rons? Data presented from studies in a number of sub- Saharan African cities (Brazzavile, Congo; Dakar, Senegal; Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Cotonou, Benin; Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Accra and Kumasi, Ghana) showed clearly that malaria is a consider- able urban health problem in Africa. The studies demon- strated great heterogeneities in malariometric indices both between and within cities. It was recognized that not only the major cities of Africa, but also many medium sized regional towns, home to a large proportion of the Africa population, have considerable levels of malaria [5]. With malaria risk unevenly distributed across urban envi- ronments, interventions must be preceded by the identifi- cation and prioritization of the most vulnerable. Vulnerability is not simply the result of low socio-eco- nomic status [6], although this is often a major contribu- tory factor, but reflects factors beyond the individual level such as the proximity of the household to sites of urban agriculture or environmental/cultural factors working at the community level. Discussion focussed on research to define this risk, to improve access to correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment and effective preventative meas- ures, and to identify accurate monitoring and evaluation tools tailored to the urban context.
Show more

5 Read more

evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Interestingly, population growth has a positive impact on economic growth once we control for initial GDP, institutions, trade, investment ratio and human capital.. This outcome is supp[r]

75 Read more

The Role of Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa

The Role of Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa was not always in the state we find it in today. Historically, the region has been the site of many empires and kingdoms, including the Axum, Wagadu (Ghana), Mali, Nok, Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, Benin, and Great Zimbabwe (New World Encyclopedia 2015). However, with European interest in Africa increasing dramatically in the late 19 th century, Africa was divided among the main powers of Europe. In the 1960’s, sub-Saharan countries pushed for democracy and independence from the European colonies and protectorates as they aimed for equal status and more control over their political future, government, and natural resources. Historical legacies play a role in subsequent patterns of armed conflict. Most African countries left colonial dominance without armed conflict. The countries that had a violent struggle for independence were much more prone to conflict as independent states. 4 Today, sub-Saharan Africa is the poorest region in the world, still suffering from the legacies of colonialism, slavery, native corruption, economic polices dictated by international organizations, and inter-ethnic conflict. 5 Moreover, the region contains many of the least developed countries in the world.
Show more

36 Read more

Information flows in sub-Saharan Africa

Information flows in sub-Saharan Africa

Tunstall (ibid.) noted that by the 1990’s within English speaking southern Africa substantial cross- border radio audiences had emerged, creating a par- tially unified linguistic media market extending from, and dominated by, South Africa, north through Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia – but excluding Portuguese speaking Angola and Mozam- bique. A 1993 survey apparently showed 33 percent of Zambians regularly listening to South African ra- dio and substantial listenership as well of radio from neighbouring Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, as well as the English language international services of the BBC and Voice of America. But readership of one country’s press in a neighbouring country remains rare outside of limited elite and expatriate circles (such as the small readership of some South African newspapers in neighbouring countries).
Show more

8 Read more

HIPSSA. Regulatory accounting and cost modelling in Sub-Saharan Africa. Southern Africa Country assessment

HIPSSA. Regulatory accounting and cost modelling in Sub-Saharan Africa. Southern Africa Country assessment

These detailed assessments, which reflect sub-regional and country-specific particularities, served as the basis for the model policies and legislative texts that offer the prospect of a legislative landscape for which the whole region can be proud. The project is certain to become an example to follow for the stakeholders who seek to harness the catalytic force of ICTs to accelerate economic integration and social and economic development. I take this opportunity to thank the European Commission and ACP Secretariat for their financial contribution. I also thank the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC), East African Community (EAC), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Southern African Development Community (SADC), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Communication Regulators' Association of Southern Africa (CRASA), Telecommunication Regulators’ Association of Central Africa (ARTAC), United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), and West Africa Telecommunications Regulators' Association (WATRA), for their contribution to this work. Without political will on the part of beneficiary countries, not much would have been achieved. For that, I express my profound thanks to all the ACP governments for their political will which has made this project a resounding success.
Show more

46 Read more

Trade Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa

Trade Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa

This section looks at the productivity of the agricultural sector as an important ingredient for later discussions on competitiveness. On the whole, the annual productivity of the agricultural worker in all three countries is quite low. On average, during the period 1980–2015 and measured in constant 2010 US$, it was lowest in Ethiopia (339 US$) and highest in Zambia (803 US$), with Benin being in the middle (761 US$). These productivity figures compare unfavourably with the world average over the same period, which was 1,478 US$. This low productivity can be associat- ed with the low capital intensity in all three countries, which are especially weak in terms of mechanization. In fact, the number of tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land in Benin is on average less than one, while in Zambia it was on average 14 for the period 1961–1987 (Figure 12), against a world average of 148 during the same period (World Bank, 2016a). Out of the three countries, Zambia appears to be the only one with a substantial degree of mechanization in the agricultural sector, originating from its colonial history, as large-scale farms were established by European settlers in the early 20th century. However, the vast majority of the smallholder farm- ers there have not mechanized their production yet. Similarly to the low levels of mechanization, agriculture in all three countries is hardly irrigated (Figure 13). The upward trend observed in the case of Ethiopia as compared to Benin reflects higher levels of, mostly public, investment made in the agricultural sector in Ethiopia.
Show more

84 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...