Since mining work began, 300 pits, drift mines and 73 vertical shafts have been opened, so the hydraulic system of small multilayer aquifers has evolved into a karst type hydraulic system (Pendás and Loredo, 2006) due to traditional mining methods In the Vital Álvarez Buylla Hospital in Mieres (Asturias, Spain), the energy supply for the heating and air conditioning system relies on a geothermal facility that uses minewater from the abandoned and flooded Barredo-Santa Bárbara system of coal mines. This water is being used in the most powerful geothermal facilities in Spain and one of the biggest of its kind in Europe, where water pumped out of the Barredo mine shaft yields up to 3.5 MWt passing through a heat exchanger. The Research Building of the University Campus of Mieres (University of Oviedo, Spain) is also heated by the same geothermal resource. An important role is played by the use of the minewater, and the energy benefits derived from it represents a rational and sustainable use of a traditional mining area after cessation of its activity, aiding envi- ronmental and economic development in places where mining activity once ruled the local economy.
In addition to energy savings, geothermal energy usage prevents the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants, helping to keep a healthy living environment in Arizona. If these businesses used fossil fuels to generate the heat that geothermalwater provides, not only would most be unable to afford to stay in business, but they would emit at least 82,800 tonnes of carbon dioxide each year — the equivalent of 195,550 barrels of oil. In addition, they would emit 139 tonnes of nitrogen oxides and 137 tonnes of sulfur dioxides each year into Arizona’s air (Table 1). Social benefits
LGB and LUWG (2010) for equivalent formations of the South Eifel region. The Luxembourg Sandstone Formation is a shallow aquifer in the northeastern part of the TLE (Figure 6, cross section B*) and is significantly used as a drinking water resource, which creates a conflicting use (ACT 2014). Therefore, the Luxembourg Sandstone may only be exploited in the southwestern part of Luxembourg where its thickness is in the range of 70 to 100 m and its top reaches a depth of 300 to 400 m (Figure 6). The Upper Muschelkalk aquifer has a regional occurrence but presents both a relatively im- permeable margin facies and a reduced thickness in the western part of the TLE. The basin facies generally presents a thickness in the range of 40 to 60 m with an average value of about 55 m in the southeastern part of the TLE. The natural porosity is very low (2%), except in the eastern part of the TLE where a dense fault network and shal- low position lead to a locally very high permeability. The lowermost aquifer in the TLE is the Buntsandstein (Figure 6) encompassing mainly three (locally four if the Lower Muschelkalk aquifer is considered) stratigraphical units, namely the Voltziensandstein (so2), the Zwischenschichten (so1), and the Vogesensandstein (sm+su; Table 1). The generally least permeable basin facies in the northwestern part of the TLE is up to 150 m thick, whereas the most permeable basin facies of the Buntsandstein in the southeastern part of the TLE is mostly about 150 to 300 m thick (Schintgen and Förster 2013; Weiler 1991). Figure 7 presents the top and base, thus the geometry, of the Buntsandstein aquifer mapped using conceptual models in the form of cross sections for Luxembourg by Schintgen and Förster (2013) and LGB and LUWG (2010) and Wagner and Dittrich (2010) for Germany. Additional data is provided by boreholes in Luxembourg, France, and Germany as well as the most recent geological maps of Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, and France. For the top of the Buntsandstein aquifer, additional depth maps by Coiffait and Ricour (1982) and Weiler (1972) were con- sidered. Due to its appropriate depth and temperature and known excellent hydraulic properties (Agence de l’eau Rhin-Meuse 2002; Weiler 1972, 1991; Weidenfeller et al. 2004), the Buntsandstein aquifer is important for geothermaluse and considered in more detail. The amount of geothermal energy extractable from a hydrothermal reservoir is a function of fluid properties such as temperature and mineralization, but achievable flow rates are crucial.
Forest plantations currently cover approxi mately 1% of the tropics (40-50 million hectares), supporting the increasing local and global wood demands (1, 2). Eucalyptus is the dominant genus of hardwood tropical plantations, but despite the vast silvicultural knowledge, we know little about the ecophysiology of stand-level wateruse, limita tion, and wood production per unit of water used (3). For example, in an earlier paper (4) we exam ined the rate of wateruse and wood production along a rainfall gradient of 850 to 1650 mm yr –1
In other work, Thuy et al.  reported that filtration with six layers of gravel, activated carbon, manganese sand, and sea sand can remove Fe ions very rapidly (approximately 97% in groundwater treatment). Different materials and water samples achieve very specific results. However, the use of more layers of filter media tends to increase cost and require a reactor with a bigger volume. Error! Reference source not found. shows a comparison of our results with those obtained in previous work. The Mn removal from diamond-mine-tailings water by filtration also shows a higher removal percentage (compared to Figure 8) than that for Fe. This result is opposite to that reported by Thuy et al. , where the Mn removal was just 35.7% (lower than that obtained in this work), less than that for Fe. This findings is likely explained through the following equations (1–3):
d) Multi-Attribute Tradeoff Analysis (MATA) – As a further extension of MAE, MATA goes beyond threshold and critical value analysis to estimate actual relative values held by individuals and groups with a stake in the decision. A structured process is used to elicit value judgements from interested parties on what they believe the tradeoffs between objectives to be (e.g., what reduction in recreational values would be acceptable to save a fish spawning ground). There are numerous techniques for conducting MATA, including rating-and-weighting schemes, pairwise comparisons, and conjoint analysis, each of which varies in its complexity, ability to handle different kinds of infor- mation, and other characteristics. The choice of technique will depend on the specific wateruse application.
In this paper, a practical hydrogeological physical model is constructed based on Visual Modflow, and the simulation results of the two methods are compared with the actual situation so as to obtain the advancement, practicability and correctness of the numerical simulation of the mining area under the interference flow field according to the mining sequence. In order to highlight the practicability of the method, the study in Dong Baowei coal mine as an example, (mining area distribution as shown in figure 1), according to the actual circumstance of the geological condition, the stratum from top to bottom can be generalized as three layers model: quaternary pore aquifer, sand and mudstone relative water-resisting layer
environmental surroundings, minimizing the land use footprint and often allowing for activities such as farming, skiing, and hunting on the same lands in compliance with the BLM’s multiple use strategy. Pipelines, for example, which connect the geothermal resource base to the power plant, can be elevated so that small animals can roam freely and native vegetation can flourish. Natural color paint is a BLM requirement for power plants and piping on public land: for example, Ormat’s Mammoth Geothermal Power Plant on the eastern slope of the Sierra Mountains in California blends in with the high-desert terrain. 54 Surface features such as geysers or fumaroles are not used during geothermal development, though some deterioration may occur if located near a facility, so sometimes special efforts are made to prevent this, especially if the features are of cultural significance. 5.3. How do geothermal developers control noise levels?
equilibrium controlling the alkali geothermometers in chloride waters, such as Na/K and Na/K/Ca, appeared to be present at medium to higher temperatures of 150 to 230 °C, in the non-chloride water reservoir. The thermal equilibrium that existed in the shallower parts of the reservoir indicated that the upper non-chloride reservoir was an integral part of the geothermal system and indeed was probably as important a component in the system, as the lower chloride water reservoir. The ready deposition of calcite and anhydrite in the shallow reservoir and the general reactivity of the chemical species present, give rise to a relatively impermeable rock matrix. In contrast, the steam and non-condensable gas pressures and the changing acidity of the fluids present in the upper parts of the deep reservoir both add to the ability of the reservoir to retain major mass permeability. Wells drilled into this matrix may produce very large amounts of steam even though the overall matrix permeability is rather small. Similarly the permeability and rock porosity are very much in favour of steam rather than hot water production. Above the main zones of stabilised fluids, stabilised in the sense that the waters are partly or wholly in temperature equilibrium with the confining rocks, the hot surface water compositions are mainly controlled by rock water interaction, oxidation and mineral precipitation.
In Iceland, geothermal areas are divided into two main groups, i.e. high- and low-temperature areas. The high-temperature areas are found only within the area of active volcanism within the rift zones, characterized by active volcanoes and fissure swarms. They are localized features mostly confined to a central volcano or volcanic complexes. The temperature in the high-temperature areas is above 200°C at 1 km depth. The uppermost 1000 m of the rift zone are made up of highly porous and permeable basaltic lava successions and hyaloclastites. Due to an abundance of cold groundwater, low temperature gradients characterize the uppermost kilometre within the rift zone outside the localized high temperature areas. The low-temperature areas flank the rift zones, and involve geothermal systems with temperatures lower than 150°C at 1 km depth; they are located within the Pleistocene and Tertiary rocks. The low-temperature areas derive their heat from a hot crust, through active and localised convection in near-vertical fractures. Away from the fractures the bedrock is less permeable and heat transfer is dominated by conduction (Flóvenz and Saemundsson, 1993 & references therein).
Water is precious and fast becoming a scarce natural resource which is required to be conserved, augmented and harvested by applying suitable conventional as well as innovative techniques. Water harvesting is a technique of developing surface water resources that can be used in dry regions to provide water for livestock, for domestic use, and for agro forestry and small scale subsistence farming. Water harvesting systems may be defined as artificial methods whereby precipitation can be collected and stored until it is beneficially used. The system includes: 1) a catchment area, usually prepared in some manner to improve run off efficiency and 2) a storage facility for the harvested water, unless the water is to be immediately concentrated in the soil profile of a smaller area for growing drought-hardy plants. A water distribution scheme is also required for the systems devoted to subsistence farming for irrigation during dry periods. Mining activities disturb groundwater aquifers. Underground mining disturbs deep aquifers whereas opencast mining disturbs both shallow and deep aquifers. In order to extract coal, large quantity of water accumulated at the pit bottom is required to be pumped out to the surface. Therefore coal mining areas are always subjected to acute water crisis unless suitable care is taken to ensure the proper water supply and in this context, rain water harvesting is one of the most appropriate technology to conserve the water management in the study area. With these concepts in the background, the present study has been carried out in context with the Chasnalla Group of Mines, ISP, SAIL.
from the formation water or dissolution of shale (GWPC and ALL, 2009). The flowback water is typically impounded at the surface for subsequent disposal, treatment, or reuse. Due to the large water volume, high concentration of dissolved solids, and complex physical-chemical composition of the flowback water, there is growing public concern about management of flowback water. These concerns result from the potential for human health and environmental impacts associated with release of untreated or inadequately treated flowback water to the environment (Kargbo et al., 2010). Flowback water management options in Marcellus Shale are confounded by high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and a lack of physical infrastructure for disposal in Class II underground injection control wells (Arthur et al., 2009; Kargbo et al., 2010). Hence, most of the flowback water in Marcellus Shale is reused for hydraulic fracturing of subsequent gas wells.
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.63003 24 Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection Water-resource utilization should involve the integrated management of sur- face water, groundwater, coal-minewater and other water sources in accordance with sustainable development principles, which will obtain the greatest social, economic and environmental benefits. Enhancing the water-conservation awareness of society, especially the mine company, is necessary to achieve this goal. It is important to push forward the industrial and living water-saving technologies, strictly restrain new projects with high pollution and water con- sumption, promote new water-saving technology, research and develop the new equipment to reduce wateruse, advocate agricultural water saving technology, and constantly improve water quality and standards.
The next stage, the main project design units should invest Soil and water conservation measures and programs into the design of the main project, conducting further soil and water conservation measures design work. It adjusted, review, and deepen the content of the program design. In particular, gangue field should be designed in accordance with the soil and water conservation requirements and the requirements of tailings reservoir to further prepare the design work to ensure the stability and safety of tailings reservoir.
The piece of investigation was carried out to study the surface water quality and physico-chemical characteristics of Hindusthan Lalpeth Coal Mines (HLCM) surface water Chandrapur district,(M.S) during the period October 2011 to March 2012. Chandrapur district is located in the eastern edge of Maharastra in Nagpur Division, the coal mining industry has to dispose of millions of litres of water everyday to dig out coal from this mine . The water is the main source of various water supplies in the thickly populated coal field and general use. Chandrapur city is surrounded by many other major and minor coal industries. In this study, water samples from Hindusthan Lalpeth coal mine were collected and analyzed. Attempt is made to reflect the impact of mining on surrounding water quality of these areas. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the minewater were analysed with respect to different parameters like Temperature, pH, TDS, DO, Chloride, Fluoride, Turbidity, Hardness and metal like Fe, to get clear picture of quality parameter in HLCM water of the Chandrapur town. This investigation reveals that mining activity, markedly pollute the minewater. Minewater is of highly complex nature and of widely varying composition and nearly neutral or slightly alkaline in nature. By observing the result it can be concluded that the parameters which were taken for study the surface water quality such as Turbidity, Chloride, Alkalinity, COD, Total Dissolved solids are more than that of permissible limits. Where as Total Hardness , Fluoride, Iron is less than permissible limit. And Dissolved Oxygen is almost same as per WHO standards.
water per hour to avoid flooding inside the mine . This water carries out 200 mg of coal spoil per liter. Precipitator is used to settle the spoil from drainage water. But tons of coal spoils per month still overflows with the drainage water that is discharged from the mine to the nearby areas. Due to lacking of improper mine waste water disposal and unknown data about the production and catego- ries of coal mining wastes in Barapukuria, the environment is being ruined day by day. Drainage water containing CS is causing environmental pollution be- cause most coal spoils are in tyrannically heavily loaded with heavy metals  with coal dust. Moreover, in dried conditions these fine particles can produce serious dusting problem. This spoil is used as fuel in domestic and small indus- tries which may not be appropriate as per its quality. So, proper characterization of this spoil is required to upgrade this material for proper economic utilization, which eventually will reduce pollution. In this work, an attempt was made to characterize this coal spoil in order to find a solution of pollution problem and appropriate economic utilizations.
Abstract — This study aims to determine the best type of local plants as aquatic plants phytoremediation candidate in acid minewater management system with a passive model of wetland / aerobic wetland rise by testing several kinds of local plants around the coal mines as a medium of Phytoremediation. System used multilevel methods to be more effective in lowering the levels of acid, metals absorb capability and in accordance with the characteristics of each of these plants. Local plants used in order to found a new species that is easy to apply in the field and also to reduce costs and also more friendly to the surrounding ecosystem-especially in the coal mining company in South Kalimantan and generally in Indonesia. Management of acid minewater by means phytoremediation using aerobic wetland system to test 5 different water plants as candidates who are at the mine, namely: 1. Eleocharis dulcis, 2.Cyperus odoratus, 3.Hydrilla Vercilata, 4.Ipomea aquatic, 5. Pistia Stratatiotes with a retention period of each plant for 29 demonstrate the ability to reduce the acid levels in the water to raise the pH of acid mine average of 41% and lower levels of iron (Fe) with an average index bioremediation 7% and lower levels of manganese (Mn) with an average of 19% index bioremediation. The best candidates phytoremediation plants to lower acid levels by raising the pH is Kale Water (Ipomea aquatic) to raise the pH of 53%. To reduce levels of iron in acid minewater is to use Eleocharis dulcis reduce levels of iron (Fe) 70% to reduce manganese from the water so it is Pistia Stratatiotes lower levels of manganese (Mn) as much as 55%.
From the analysis herein, the study showed a growing frequency in geothermal power indices in terms of generated capacity, market capacity, rankings, production and installed facilities as well as some variations in averages, totals, and changes in growth rates among various indicators over the years. This is driven chiefly by socio-economic and ecological benefits that come with geothermaluse and production in the energy sector of Kenya. While mix scale models of descriptive statistics and GIS were on target in the analysis as carried out on the use of geothermal energy in the country. The study area saw the emergence of observable spatial patterns in sync with present usage, sites location and production. In as much as the GIS mapping displayed precise clusters and dispersal forms of the individual geothermal energy indicators made up of assets, elevation values, infrastructure and facilities over time among the selected points in space. The emerging geographic patterns which remained steady in some areas and only to change at times provided a road map and snapshots on activities of the industry in terms of production, ranking, investment, energy consumed and geothermal power facilities in the Rift Valley region, its vicinity and other areas in East Africa. With over 50% of the East African total geothermal energy reserves located in the study area, the nation’s power capacity surpasses those in neighboring countries in the region by a much higher margin in every category from the percentage levels and quantity. This is very important seeing the pertinent roles of geothermal energy in the domains of business and economy, employment generation, global horticultural export, urban and city quality of life, affordable electricity power supply, and CO 2 emission abatement. This
Mining operations like most human activities (agriculture, the production of residential and industrial wastes and urban wastewater) result in the discharge of dissolved and particulate metals into surrounding soils, rivers and stream sediment which can have a significant impact on the sustainability of water resources . Mining activities are often regarded as a major source of contaminant metals in environment -. Nowadays the mining sector reputation is founded on past examples of environmental degradation and impact on human health . As a result mining operations are increasingly being challenged by local populations and environmental protection organizations. However extraction of minerals, base and precious metals is essential to everyday life, making up numerous products we all use. They are also vital raw materials in a large number of