6 | Green foreign, I will define each and explain how it has shaped the rhetoric around right-wing populism in Germany, specifically after WorldWarII until present day.
This paper was inspired by the quick rise in support for the current right-wing populist party, the Alternative for Deutschland (AfD). The AfD is by no means the first right-wing populist party to ever exist in Germany, but it is the first to gain the number of seats in the Bundestag that it holds today since WWII, specifically after the Nazi’s lost power. It might seem simple to only look at the history of the AfD itself and what may have caused its rise, but I will look deeper into the historical trends of right-wing populism as a movement in Germany and from there, extrapolate to understand the importance of the record breaking performance of the AfD. My aim is to spark some concern in the possibility of a permanent switch to more nationalistic, xenophobic sentiments in Germany by assessing how the AfD has learned from former right-wing populist groups that has led to greater prosperity for the party than ever before. The rest of the world is right to be at least slightly alarmed by this idea, which is why it is
in both land and population.
A more important factor which helped keep Sweden out of the war was Hitler's military priorities. France, Poland and Russia were all more populous than Sweden,
but were attacked because they were higher priorities for Germany, even though they brought higher costs than an Invasion of Sweden. As Gunner HagglBf put It, Sweden wasn't attacked due to "the simple fact that Hitler had other plans to p u r s u e . H e argues that when Hitler attacked Norway and Denmark, he also had plans to attack France, and too many military units would delay 1t . ^ After the Norwegian and Danish invasions April 9, 1940, the next big war scare for Sweden occurred in February, 1942. During that month, rumors of a pending German In- vasion began floating. Erik Boheman, who was then Secretary-General of the Swedish Foreign Ministry, believes that Hitler decided against an attack because
A ‘Basic Plan for a Public Relations Administration’ was approved by the joint Army-Navy board almost as soon as war broke out in Europe, and submitted to the White House on 10 th June 1940, the day that Italy joined the German attack on France. 166 This was intended to pave the way for the development of a propaganda apparatus with which to win over sceptical portions of the American populace to the interventionist cause by informing them of the gravity of the European situation and its implications for the United States. Like Neville Chamberlain, who was initially reticent about the creation of MoI as a state propaganda instrument in Britain, 167 and presumably similarly mindful of the pejorative connotations which had remained attached to propaganda since the Great War, Roosevelt took no position regarding the Plan, relying instead on private individuals and organisations to “marshal the opinion” 168 of American citizens toward interventionism. Commercial radio, indeed, played an important part in the transition of dominant American public opinion from isolationist to interventionist. All four major networks broadcast round-the-clock coverage of political and military developments, 169 making a name for reporters such as Raymond Gram Swing, H. V. Kaltenborn, Edward R. Murrow and Elmer Davis, the future head of OWI. 170 The historian Alfred Haworth Jones has noted that Murrow’s reports from London “presented an intentionally sympathetic view of the English, while the tone of William L. Shirer’s voice as he broadcast from Berlin, as well as his much-publicized difficulties with Nazi censors, left little doubt as to his attitude toward the Third Reich.” 171 With 82.8% of Americans owning radio sets by
This electronic book tells the story of a sightseeing tour of Germany at the end of the
European War. In May 1945, thousands of men who had, in countless ways, played a part in the aerial attack on Germany received their first opportunity to see the fruits of their labors. The Royal Air Force (RAF), the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (AAF, USAAF) all played a part in the destruction. The author, Markus Lenz, was born in 1975 and lives in Frankfurt, Germany. He is a private pilot and an economic historian. While this electronic book is only a short summary, there are available a print book with more than 250 pages of content and a website at http://www.trolley-mission.de.
From Germany's point of view, the wars were not only dangerous in that they finally ruined virtually every town and city, devastated the countryside and dismembered the nation; they were irrelevant. In 1890 Germany was in a position from which, within a generation, she would economically dominate the whole of Europe. Inevitably, with that economic hegemony, political hegemony would soon follow, if not even precede. By 1910 the process was well in train; had no one done anything to stop her, Germany would have achieved the Kaiser's dreams without war by the mid 1920s. The col- lapse of Imperial Germany in 1918, fol- lowed by temporary occupation, inflation and national humiliation, set Germany back only a few years. Despite the disas- ters of WorldWar I and its aftermath, Germany was quickly recovering her old position - roughly that of 1910 - by the time Hitler took power in 1933. By 1938 German power in Europe was greater than ever before, and Britain had to face the old question once again. Could she condone German political dominance of the Continent?
Just after the surrender of Germany in WorldWarII, three Danish children are trapped aboard a renegade German submarine attempting to escape to South America with Nazi treasure.
F Elm Elmer, Robert. Far from the storm. Minneapolis : Bethany House, c1995.
After WorldWarII, Peter and Elise seek to discover who is trying to destroy Uncle Morten for his work with the Danish Underground.
According to the minute-taker, Colonel Friedrich Hossbach, Hitler opened the meeting by suggesting that the subject for discussion was of the utmost importance, indeed too important for a wider discussion in the Reichstag. Hitler, Hossbach wrote, then went on to add that in the event of his death, the points he made at the meeting regarding Germany’s long-term policy should be regarded as his ‘last will and testament’. Hitler proceeded by stating that the key aim of German policy was to secure and preserve the racial community and to enlarge it. He then addressed the questions of when and how. Hitler suggested that after the period 1943–45, the international situation would not be favourable to German ambitions; the re-equipping and organization of the armed forces was nearly complete, and any delay could result in ‘their obsolescence’. The meeting considered scenarios in which France would be less of a threat, e.g. domestic problems or a war with another nation, and the necessity of Germany seizing the initiative to take territory (e.g.
And I will say this, that I believe the Czechs, left to themselves and told they were going to get no help from the Western Powers, would have been able to make better terms than they have got -- they could hardly have worse -- after all this tremendous perturbation. . . .
. . . I have always held the view that the maintenance of peace depends upon the accumulation of deterrents against the aggressor, coupled with a sincere effort to redress grievances. . . . After [Hitler's] seizure of Austria in March . . . I ventured to appeal to the Government . . . to give a pledge that in conjunction with France and other Powers they would guarantee the security of Czechoslovakia while the Sudeten-Deutsch question was being examined either by a League of Nations Commission or some other impartial body, and I still believe that if that course had been followed events would not have fallen into this disastrous state. . . . France and Great Britain together, especially if they had maintained a close contact with Russia, which certainly was not done, would have been able in those days in the summer, when they had the prestige, to inﬂuence many of the smaller States of Europe, and I believe they could have determined the attitude of Poland. Such a combination, prepared at a time when the German dictator was not deeply and irrevocably committed to his new adventure, would, I believe, have given strength to all those forces in Germany which resisted this departure, this new design. They were varying forces, those of a military character which declared that Germany was not ready to undertake a worldwar, and all that mass of moderate opinion and popular opinion which dreaded war, and some elements of which still have some inﬂuence upon the German Government. Such action would have given strength to all that intense desire for peace which the helpless German masses share with their British and French fellow men. . . .
soldiers and weapons they could not replace. From that point on, the Nazis could do little but retreat.
LIBERATION OF THE DEATH CAMPS Meanwhile, Allied troops pressed eastward into the German heartland, and the Soviet army pushed westward across Poland toward Berlin. Soviet troops were the first to come upon one of the Nazi death camps, in July 1944. As the Soviets drew near a camp called Majdanek in Poland, SS guards worked feverishly to bury and burn all evidence of their hideous crimes. But they ran out of time. When the Soviets entered Majdanek, they found a thousand starving prisoners bare- ly alive, the world’s largest crematorium, and a storehouse containing 800,000 shoes. “This is not a concentration camp,” reported a stunned Soviet war correspondent, “it is a gigantic murder plant.” The Americans who later liber- ated Nazi death camps in Germany were equally horrified.
According to Charlotte, Kurt was very impressed with the Saints in the other German mission.
When the American army advanced toward
Strasbourg in the late summer of 1944, Kurt Schneider received permission from his company to move his family to the town of Schönwald, in Germany’s Black Forest. The move was not very far (forty-five miles), but it took them back into Germany and made it nearly impossible for him to maintain contact with members of the Church on the other side of the Rhine. The reconquest of Strasbourg by the Allies returned the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine to France and made Germans like Kurt Schneider unwelcome there.
7.1 The Volewijckers from Amsterdam-Noord became known as a resistance club. That was largely because of the two brothers Gerben and Douwe Wagenaar. Gerben, left midfi elder and team captain, became a key leader in the resistance. He was wanted by the Germans, so he could no longer play football. Led by his brother Douwe, who was club chairman, the Volewijckers players showed their anti-German colours. On 3 August 1943, they played a match against VUC in orange shirts instead of their green and white club shirts. Says Douwe: “I was arrested immediately after the match. (…) After three days I was released again.” The club ensured that the players did not have to work in Germany. Douwe: “One of our members worked at the labour offi ce. If one of our boys was under threat of being called up for forced labour, he would put their cards to the back of the box again.” Manager Jaap van der Leck remembers how a young man walked into the dressing room after a match against ADO in 1944. “There was a sudden raid and he was afraid he would be arrested. We got him to safety using the laundry basket.”
Roosevelt’s successor was the former Vice- President, Harry S. Truman. Truman had been kept in the dark about much of Roosevelt’s foreign policy and had very little experience in dealing with these matters. He represented the United States at the next “Big Three” conference in 1945, this time in Potsdam, Germany, after the surrender of the Nazis. The Soviets were able to keep Germany divided, as they had hoped. They wanted to be paid back by Germany for the tremendous damages and destruction the Nazis had caused to their country. But Truman and the British did not allow Stalin to take reparations from all of Germany–just the eastern part that the Soviets controlled. The democratic nations felt very strongly that they did not want to repeat the mistakes of WorldWar I. They recognized that draining the financial resources from a defeated country would only lead to economic disaster. And they did not want another
In the following years the memorial’s finances saw no improvement, even after it received statutory recognition and was formally established by the Australian War Memorial Act 1925. In fact, section 4 of the Act restricted the memorial’s previously relatively unfettered ability to acquire pictures, subject to available funds, by authorising the minister to acquire exhibits out of moneys appropriated by parliament ‘for the purpose’. Thus, in order to carry out its picture scheme the memorial was made dependent on parliament allocating funds to the minister for the specific purpose of acquiring pictures. If pictures were to be paid for from public revenue, the memorial had to approach parliament for the required funds cap in hand. And until after the end of the 1928/29 financial year, that remained the situation.
In the conducted examinations we determined that the leading center in myopia research after WorldWarII in Poland is the Pomeranian Medical Academy (Pomeranian Medical University). In Szczecin after the WorldWarII, various areas of ophthalmology developed significantly. Particularly intense development occurred in the field of myopia. In the conducted studies, attention was paid to epidemiology, clinical trials, surgical and conservative treat- ment, as well as the publication of review articles on myopia. The research findings of scientists from Szczecin were published all over the world in many prestigious journals. Their works were mostly known in the field of myopia occurrence, as well as surgical and conservative myopia treatment. The results obtained allowed the development of new methods of myopia management. The Pomeranian Medical Academy (Pomeranian Medical University) was the leading center in Poland conducting research on myopia. The researchers working in this center dealt with epi- demiology, pathogenesis as well as the possibilities of surgical and conservative myopia treatment. They also pointed to the potential of using the results of experimental studies in the treatment of progressive myopia. Based on the scientific achievements of researchers of the Polish medical community after WorldWarII, it can be assumed that in the future, scientific research will focus on the pathogenesis and treatment of myopia. The doctors place great hope on genetic treatment in inhibiting myopia progression.