In this paper, we found that age of mother tree had important role on their offspring' seed germination and seedling growth. The seeds of P. elata showed better purity percentages (64.28% and 70%), respectively, in mother tree diameter classes [40- 50cm[ and [50-60cm[, with about 4450 seeds per kg for the mother tree belonging to the lowest diameter classes and 3500 seeds per kg for the mother tree belonging to the highest diameter classes [70-80cm[, [80-90cm[ and 90-100cm[. P. elata expressed a germination period of eight to nine days. The best germination percentage observed in this study was 42%, for the middle mother tree diameter class, ie [60-70cm[. The percentage of germination shows a strongly relation with the diameters of mother trees. At the end of the 120 days of seedling follow-up, the best viability rate of the seedlings is 98%, resulting from the seeds belonging to the mother tree class diameter [70-80cm[. The study of the growth parameters, in particular the height and the diameter of the seedlings, reveals that, in a selection framework of P. elata seedlings, the best seedlings would be those belonging to the mother tree diameter class [70-80cm[. It seems that, in various plant species, seeds with different germinability develop on the same mother plant and on plants of the same species growing in different environments; maternal position and environmental factors cause these differences by their influence on plant development and seed maturation. However, in cases where seeds are collected from plants grown under natural conditions, it is difficult to distinguish between true age effects and the effect of the changed seasonal environment under which the later seeds develop. Moreover, we should also consider maternal effects and physical environments and their interaction in order to elucidate natural regeneration mechanism of the P. elata.
Observations in our study showed that, according to Table 1 in the radiation samples in comparision to control, the percentage of pollen germination decreased that was significantly (p<0.05). In control pollens , pollen germination and pollen tube growth is normal (after 48-72h of pollen culture) (Fig.6). Treatment under pollens with electromagnetic fields 2mT-10,20 min have shorter and folded pollen tube (Fig. 7,8), but treatment under pollens with electromagnetic fields 4mT-10min have very short pollen tube (Fig.9) and treatment under pollens with electromagnetic fields 4mT-20min have not germination (Fig. 10). In Achillea wilhelmsii plants electromagnetic field exposure caused significant decrease in pollen viability (p<0.05) (Table 1). The decreasing in the viability of pollens are considered as an important response of electromagnetic field radiation.
In vitro pollen germination is the most commonly used test for assessing pollen viability. It is rapid, reasonabally simple and fully quantitative (Shivanna and Johri, 1985). Germination is the first critical morphogenetic event in pollen to fulfilling its ultimate function of discharge of male gametes in the embryo sac. The stigma provide suitable site of pollen germination. It is possible to germinate pollen grain of a number of taxa using rather a simple nutrient medium and to achieve a reasonable length of tube growth. Our knowledge of physiology and biochemistry of pollen germination and tube growth comes largely from in vitro studies. Due to involvement of the pistillate tissue in the nature, physiological and biochemical investigations on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vivo are rather difficult. In vitro germination techniques have therefore been used extensively on a variety of pollen systems.
The present investigation was to study pollen morphology, viability, germination and tube growth of some plant species in basic culture medium. The morphological observations of the studied taxa showed that most of the pollen grains are three zonicolporate, prolate or subprolate with three apertures. The results of the pollen viability revealed that the maximum staining was observed at 90 minutes at 55ºC and colour variation ranging from center of mass red, edges to pink, slightly orange, pink and red. The results of the germination and tube growth revealed the medium containing growth hormones such as IAA, 2,4-D was the most suitable for rapid pollen germination and formation of long pollen tubes than the medium treated with sucrose, boron and KCl in all the experimental plant species.
The seeds of Verbena hybrida were kept at three storage chambers viz., ambient storage, cold storage (0-4 0 C and 90 2.7% RH) and incubator (20-22 0 C and 75 1.5% RH) after packing in five different packaging (cloth bag in desiccator, poly set bin, polyethylene bag (600 gauze), cloth bag and aluminum foil pack for a period of 18 months. The cold storage resulted in highest germination (23.39%) and aluminum foil packaging gave the maximum germination (22.24%), followed by desiccator (22.18%) irrespective of storage temperature at the end of storage period. The cold store maintained the maximum seed viability (32.30%) and desiccator recorded the highest viability (28.48%). The highest viability was obtained in desiccator (36.24%) in cold store followed by aluminum foil (34.30%).
It is known that the nutritive reserve in seeds is essential for their vital functions and he seedlings (Marcos-Filho, 2015), as well as physiological changes that are characterized by the low percentage of germination of the seeds, slow growth of seedlings and production of abnormal seedlings ut impaired the vigor and viabilitygermination values above 60%, which allows the use of these cuts for DNA extraction and then the use of the remnant to form the ¾) were also performed and significant losses in GT, SGI, FRM, FSM and TMF were not observed when compared to whole seedlings. However, we could not obtain genomic DNA from the 25% portion of the rice seed (A ¼). portion (A ¼) of both bean and corn seeds, thus we present the results of the analysis of the physiological quality for the portions of ½, ¾ p-value> 0.5) between germination percentage for whole seeds (BW) and B ¾, with mean values of 83 and 84.5%, respectively (Figure 3A, Table 1). This test, GT, indicates that even after reducing the energy reserves by 25%, the seeds presented germination capacity with equal entages compared to whole seeds. Complementary to GT, we found that seeds with 75% of their total portion presented the same vigor of the seeds without cuts, as demonstrated by the GFC, GSI, TFM and TDM tests (Figure 3B, C, D and E).
To achieve a good production of a crop, it is essential to know the ability of the species to successfully complete two critical stages in the life cycle such as germination and seedling establishment. In this paper we study in compara- tive form structure of the seed, the importance of tegument in dormancy, the effect of accelerated aging on seed germination and viability, and the early and late growth in J. curcas and J. macrocarpa . External morphology of the seeds allow difference and internally also the embryos show evident differ- ences. J. macrocarpa germination is around 0% - 4%. The total removal of tegument showed a 50% increase and the other treatments between 0% - 10%. Aging accelerated by Tetrazolium test allowed a comparative analysis of VP and GP. J. curcas maintains both to 96 h, while J . macrocarpa the seed viability is registered along the all treatment. J. macrocarpa seeds have less synchronicity than those of J. curcas . ABA and JAs were detected in tegument of J. macro- carpa and J. curcas seeds. JA could have a roll in inhibition of germination of J. macrocarpa seeds. Early and late growth, FW and DW of root, hypocotyl, epi- cotyl and leaf of J. curcas were significantly different in both species.
A b s t r a c t. Literature sources state that an electromagnetic field causes physiological-biochemical changes in seeds. Water assimilation becomes faster, breathing of a germinating seed intensifies and its viability improves. Having reviewed the data about using electromagnetic fields in stimulating seed viability by different authors, it becomes obvious that research of seed germi- nation dynamics is scarce. In addition, viability of ill- condition seeds is rarely indicated. The research reported herein was perfor- med with carrot, radish, beet, beetroot and barley seeds, using corona discharge electric field of continuous current. During the research it was established that the germination density function of the seeds affected by corona discharge field is described by lognormal distribution and that of the non-affected seeds – by normal distribution. This fact shows that the seeds affected by corona discharge field germinate faster than those non-affected, and their germination dynamics is greater. Due to the influence of the stimulating field, carrot seed viability increased by 24%, that of radish and beetroot – by 12%, beet seeds – 7%, and barley seeds – 9%. Viability increase was also substantial.
Zingiberaceous plants are predominantly propagated through underground rhi- zomes and seeds. In this study, the viability of pollen, rate of pollen germination and length of pollen tube of the Philippine endemic Hornstedtia conoidea were examined. Four petri plates containing pollen samples were prepared, of which two petri plates were used immediately after the collection, while the other two petri plates were stored for one week. The determination of pollen viability was made employing stain tests using IKI (iodine + potassium iodide) solution and safranin and measured immediately after the collection and after one week. Like- wise, pollen germination test was carried out in vitro on agar medium and meas- ured after 24 hours and one week of incubation. Data revealed that pollen viability was higher in the samples which were sown immediately with safranin with per- centage pollen viability of 92.43%, while IKI test was lower with 89.36%. On the other hand, the pollen stored for one week measured 47.29% for safranin test and 33.14% for IKI test. The percentage germination of pollen after 24 hours was 72.65%, while 11.13% after one week. The pollen samples which were subjected for tube growth were examined for two weeks and gave positive results. Overall, it can be concluded that H. conoidea pollen can successfully be collected and stored for certain time. Knowledge regarding the pollen viability, pollen germina- tion and pollen tube growth of this species will give practical benefit for plant breeding and conservation purposes, since H. conoidea is found in the wild, and as of now, the species has been recorded only in the Philippines.
Seeds of three herbal species namely Achillea millefolium, Gentiana kurroo and Podophyllum hexandrum were used in the present study. A one time collection of seeds of Achillea was done in the month of July 2001 and 2002, whereas seeds of Podophyllum and Gentiana were collected from their natural sites during the last weak of August and September, respectively. Thereafter, seeds were cleaned, air-dried, sorted and stored in plastic jars at room temperature (19ºC average temperature). Uniform and healthy seeds of A. millefolium, G. kurroo and P. hexandrum were surface sterilized with 0.1 per cent HgCl 2 for 2, 2 and 10 minutes respectively. Seeds were thoroughly washed with distilled water and tested for viability and vigour characteristics. Viability was tested by tetrazolium choride (TTC) test (Moore 1985). The best combination of concentration and duration of incubation in tetrazolium chloride was standardized for the above species. For quantification of viability, the seeds of Achillea, Gentiana and Podophyllum were soaked for 48 hrs and slit longitudinally. These were then incubated in 0.25% tetrazolium chloride for 24 hrs in case of Podophyllum and 48 hrs in Achillea and Gentiana. After incubation these seeds were homogenized in 100% methanol and the final volume adjusted to 10 ml. Optical density (OD) was recorded spectrophotometrically at 485 nm. Germination test was performed according to ISTA (1976). Standard practices were followed to calculate emergence index, germination speed and vigour index. The formula used were :
Knowing the physiology of seeds and the elements that influence their germination is fundamental aspects in seminiferous propagation; important techniques are used to obtain genetic variability and development of new cultivars of blueberry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the germina- tion behavior, as well as viability levels, through germination tests and tetrazolium, of Vaccinium ashei Reade seed cultivars Briteblue and Climax. Seeds treated or not with 5 M potassium hydrox- ide (KOH) were submitted to the germination test, on substrates, filter paper (SP) or solid culture medium with half of the salt concentration (MS/2), at temperatures of 10˚C ± 2˚C or 25˚C ± 2˚C. The maximum germination percentage of blueberry seeds was 40%. Both temperatures and sub- strates caused seed germination in the tested cultivars, and pretreatment with 5 M KOH for 5 mi- nutes inhibited germination. Yet, the tetrazolium test, based on coloration of tissue, allowed the establishment of different levels of viability.
Canna indica L. roots are used for medicinal purpose. A decoction of the root with fermented rice is used in the treatment of gonorrhea and amenorrhea. The seed of canna is extremely hard, and needs to be "scarified" before sowing. The aim of the present investigation is to determine the hardiness problem of the seed. The seed sample was collected from the IARI, New Delhi in 2008. The work consists of Physical purity, standard germination test, seed vigour test. Experimental results has shown that, seed sample recorded the purity of seed (97.55 %) and seed sample showed the maximum germination percentage 95% after three and four hrs, H 2 SO 4 scarification. The maximum root length (34.07 mm),
Seed banks have traditionally been used for germ- plasm conservation. However, seed banks often used storage conditions that may cause some seeds to lose viability, as was reported in a previous study of B. formosana in which the germination rate decreased after 6 months storage at 3°C (Chang et al., 2006). Thus, cryopreservation provides an effective long-term storage method for the conservation of plant genetic resources because it pauses essentially all biological processes (Gonzalez-Benito et al., 1998b; Benson, 1999). Previous studies of other species have also shown that cryopreservation periods did not affect germination rates (Gonzalez-Benito et al., 1998a, 1998b; Pence, 2003). Our results also indicated cryostorage times from 10 min to 1 year did not result in significant vari- ation in germination rates (Table 2), and our method of vitrification and cryopreservation was also effective for maintaining both seed viability and germination rates for all storage times longer than 10 min. How- ever, Walter et al. (2004) refuted the commonly held idea that all biological activity ceases at ultralow tem- peratures, and proposed that such activity is not only factor that contributes to seed deterioration. There- fore, measurements of seed viability after long term (several decades) cryostorage remains necessary to en- sure germplasm survival.
12 parameters were measured from the seeds germination to plants flowering: four viability parameters: Germination duration (GD), Germination rate (GR), and Germination speed (GS) and Seedling with integuments, (SI) four vigor parameters: Emergence duration (ED), Emergence rate (ER), Emergence speed (ES), plants mortality rate (PMR), Seedlings length (SL) and Seedlings weight fresh (SWF) and vegetative and flowering parameters: plants creeping duration (PCD), First flower male emergence duration (FFMED), first flower female emergence duration (FFFED). Those parameters were subjected to statistical analysis. Analysis started by comparison between both experiences periods. In case of significant difference between trial periods, the one which provides the best value of parameters tested is chosen for the rest of the analysis. The data from this period is used to test blocks effect. Two ways could result from this last analysis. First, when block effect is not checked, data from whole blocks are put together. Secondly, if the block effect is noticed, it is corrected before continuing analysis. After the two previous tests, a one way analysis of variance is realized to test seed orientation effect on parameters measured. For parameters boosted by this production factor, ANOVA1 is completed by the Least Significant Difference (LSD) multiple range-tests. This test allows identifying one or some parameters which differ significantly to others. All analysis has been done with solfware program STATISTICA version 7.1.
24 plant species located within the seasonal tropical forests of Cairns, Australia. The Boferroni correction for multiple tests was used to identify Significant relationships were identified using the Bonferroni correction for multiple tests (i.e. sig. P > 0.0026) and are highlighted in bold. ...................................................................................................... 113 Table 10 Traits of sixteen rain forest plant species that produce desiccation sensitive seeds. All are from a lowland tropical rain forest community in north Queensland. Traits are: Wr50 (seed relative water content at which 50% of a cohort of seeds become unviable); TG (time to germination in fully hydrated seeds); MD (seed dry mass); t0.368 (time constant for exponential decline of Wr under the desiccation treatment); SCR (ratio of seed coat and/or endocarp to embryo); and WM (the specific relative water content as defined in eqn 1). Mean values, n = 20 (see text for further details). (Species authorities are in accordance with Bostock and Holland 2010). .................................. 132 Table 11 Bivariate relationships between seed traits of sixteen tropical tree species that produce desiccation sensitive seeds within a tropical forest community, Cairns,
Several traits associated with ants are held responsible for their insignificant or even detrimental role in plant reproduction. The main arguments against ants as vectors as facilitators of pollination in general are their foraging patterns and the presence of metapleural gland secretion on their integument. This secretion protects the ants from infection by microorganisms but may inadvertently have negative effects on the viability of pollen, except in some plants where ants are the primary pollinators (Beattie et al., 1984; Beattie et al., 1986; De Vega et al., 2009). Dutton & Frederickson (2012) compared several ant and plant species from temperate and tropical habitats and found reduced pollen germination in all cases with more pronounced effects in tropical ants, where microbes are expected to impose stronger selection for antibiotic defences.
They found a slight decrease in the percentage of 1 8:3 fatty acids of mitochondria from axes in one cultivar of soybean accompanying a decline in seed vigour during natural ageing, despite no germination loss being noted, whereas a second cultivar did not show this effect. Gidrol et al. (1 989) attempted to evaluate the level of conjugated dienes in microsomes of sunflower seeds to estimate lipid peroxidation in microsomal membrane fractions, but no conjugated dienes were detected from fractions of either control or accelerated aged seeds, despite the fact that lipid peroxidation was found in seed tissues. Such evidence indicates that lipid peroxidation may occur in either membrane or reserve lipid, but we are no clearer about whether lipid peroxidation is a prior cause or a subsequent effect of seed deterioration. The data of both Gidrol et at. ( 1989) and Ferguson et al. (I 990b ) suggest that peroxidation is an early event, because it was detected when sunflower lost little viability and before soybean seeds lost any germinability. Many other workers report, however, effects only after significant germination losses or even complete loss of viability (e.g. S tewart and Bewley, 1 980). The results presented here correspond with Senaratna et al. ( 1988) in that they found no changes in fatty acid saturation in m icrosomal membrane fraction from soybean axes due to ageing, although they stored their seeds for 5 years and seeds had lost their viability considerably.
The germination behaviour of seeds in Garcinia species is very unique (Chandler, 1958; Vogel, 1980). Chandler (1958) reported that the seed viability of G. mangostana can be retained for 3-5 weeks within the fruits. The viability of seed can be increased for 3-5 weeks by storing seeds in moist charcoal, peat moss or coconut fibres (Gonzalez and Anoos, 1951; Winters and Rodriquez-Colon, 1953; Chandler, 1958). Mathew and George (1995) reported the highest germination rate in G. gummi-gutta seeds with Gibberellic acid treatment. George et al. (2002) conducted studies on seed propagation and softwood grafting in G. indica. Liu et al. (2005) proved that thick seed coat acted as a mechanical barrier to water permeability and radical protrusion in Garcinia cowa seeds. Osman and Rahman (2006) have suggested that pre germination treatment is helpful in increasing of seed germination rate in G. mangostana and seeds prefer to germinate under high humidity and shaded condition. The present study shows that seeds of Garcinia pedunculata lost its viability within 2 months after extracting from the fruit which Table 2 Seed germination (%), period required to commence (days), mean germination time (days) and seedling vigor index of