Japan’s legacy affected other states in the AsiaPacific, often sponsoring independence at withdrawal. The Spanish were defeated in the Philippines in 1898 by a US force, which then annexed the country, prompting a bloody uprising against American rule, and only after the Japanese invasion did the Philippines gain its independence in 1946. Likewise, Indonesia’s leaders had first proclaimed their independence on 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese surrender. After conflict, several conferences and UN attempts to broker peace, in December 1949 most of the Netherlands East Indies formally became the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch, however, held on to West Papua, aiming to deliver independence to its Melanesian people. Once a a leader of the Third World movement, Indonesia became a colonial power as it expanded first into West Papua (see McKinlay-King in this issue), where Indonesia’s oppression and manipulation of the 1969 ‘Act of Free Choice’ sparked a resistance movement that continues to this day. Indonesia also expanded into Timor-Leste in 1975 following the Portuguese withdrawal. The ripples of decolonisation continued in Timor- Leste, through a 1999 vote on autonomy, the UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) of 1999–2002 and finally independence as the Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste (Tetum) or República Democrática de Timor-Leste (Portuguese)from May 2002, with several UN support missions concentrating on building a culture of human rights protection for the new nation’s police and military (Hawksley & Georgeou 2016: 194–199).
The online environment has presented vast and exciting opportunities for business in the Asia–Pacific. Digital innovation is driving growth across Asia, contributing to economic prosperity and providing new development opportunities. The internet has opened new markets for products and services, simplified corporate processes and helped to expand fledgling operations across the region and the globe. The internet has removed the tyranny of distance, fundamentally changing how we interact with the world and carry out business. The online world has also given society a new voice. Those in the region can now more readily connect with diaspora communities, friends and families across the world. It presents a medium for like-minded people to gather and share their knowledge, experience and opinions. But at the same time an expansion in the Asia–Pacific online footprint has come with an increased exposure to risk. The explosion in new internet users across the region has seen public education fall dramatically behind digital uptake. This has presented challenges for online safety and end-user security in the Asia–Pacific.
France’s international commitments in the Asia-Pacific
“The strengthening of the American military pre- sence in the region may contribute to control of tensions in Asia and facilitate rollout of stabilizing instruments aimed at ensuring peaceful mana- gement of disputes. But American engagement does not relieve France, as a permanent mem- ber of the United Nations Security Council and a signatory of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South-East Asia, of its responsibilities. France supports the role of the European Union in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and is keen to play a more active role with regional security organizations. It enjoys relations of confidence with all the countries in the region, notably with South Korea and Japan, and supports Japan’s bid to become a member of the UN Security Council. For our country, the stability of Asia and freedom of navigation are diplomatic and economic priorities. Alongside its allies, France would, in the event of an open crisis, make a political and military contribution at the appro- priate level.”
The European Union Chamber of Commerce in China (European Chamber) in cooperation with Roland Berger Strategy Consultants conducted its first Asia-Pacific Headquarters Study 2011 in order to shed light on where international companies have located their Asia-Pacific operations. As the importance of the Asia-Pacific region for international companies increases, the question will take on greater significance vis-à-vis multinational strategies. The present study focuses on identifying key criteria for the location of Asia-Pacific regional headquarters and subsequently evaluating the performance and attractiveness of various major Asia-Pacific cities based on the most important criteria. The European Chamber acted as project leader and Roland Berger as intelligence and knowledge partner. The participating members of the European Chamber are executives of multinational companies with strong track records in the Asia-Pacific market. Their experience has been collected through both a written quantitative survey as well as personal interviews and were subsequently analysed with a comprehensive approach consisting of quantitative and qualitative research as well as external intelligence.
A generous annual marketing budget is spent by both Wyndham Vacation Resorts AsiaPacific and WorldMark South Pacific Club by Wyndham on innovative marketing strategies aimed at growing the WorldMark South Pacific Club Owner base, increasing resort occupancy and ensuring that Owners are maximising the use of their vacation ownership in line with the company vision of making holiday dreams come true. The marketing process begins with market research and analysis followed by campaign development, campaign management and creative execution, including lead generation, with the end result being product sales and a referral program.
Advising an international financial institution on client data management across 12 jurisdictions in AsiaPacific including Hong Kong, Singapore and China. The matter involved analysing and advising on bank secrecy and customer confidentiality, outsourcing (including approval and notification aspects), data privacy and resulting self-report issues with the local regulators, and it involved both our regulatory investigation and non-contentious compliance teams working closely together across the region.
This article starts by outlining five explanations of economic growth and four stages of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. The developed countries there include Japan, Australia and New Zealand. The' Asian tigers' of Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan form a top tier of post-Japan industrialisers. A second generation of 'tigers' includes Malaysia in the vanguard, with Thailand and the PRC following. A third tier of industrialisers may include countries as diverse as Vietnam, the Philippines and Indonesia and, perhaps, the countries of the Indian sub-continent. Such a classification provides a context for discussing various approaches to human resowces and industrial relations issues in this article and the ones that follow.
Third, the U.S. effort to influence the Asia-Pacific will potentially shape the entire international arena. The importance of knowing the answer to my research question is to understand why the United States decided to shift its policy toward the Pacific. Additionally, I think it is critical to examine and answer my research question because this shift in policy could have broad international effects. Furthermore, understanding the roots, intentions, and the transformation of the rebalancing policy can possibly help the United States form more regional alliances and build more regional partnerships. Arguably, the strength and commitment from the United States toward this rebalance policy will also help in strategically assuring the existing allies and partners against an assertive Chinese power. Additionally, this strategic assurance will potentially help the United States build new regional partnerships. In contrast to forming alliances and partners, this shift in policy can also possibly encourage a rising China to react negatively toward the United States.
Executive Summary ■
Pensions at a Glance / Asia/Pacific Edition ❙ 7 Replacement rates are not the only factor that governments are concerned with, as they also need to measure the value of the overall pension promise. This is measured by the indicator of pension wealth which takes life expectancy into account. For the OECD the average gross pension wealth for average earners is 9.6 implying that the pension promise of a man who retires at normal pension age is on average 9.6 times the pre-retirement earnings level. The highest OECD value is again in Italy at 10.0, whilst the lowest is in the United Kingdom and Mexico at 4.2 and 4.8 respectively. The majority of the Asian economies are above or very close to this average figure, with only Singapore (2.2), Indonesia (2.6), Hong Kong (6.0), India (6.2) and Malaysia (6.4) going against the norm. China and Vietnam have gross pension wealth figures in excess of 15.0, which is over 50% higher than the OECD average. The level for China is even higher for low earners at 21.2, nearly double the OECD average of 11.5%. The same is the case for the net pension wealth estimates as the figures for the majority of the non-OECD economies are identical to those for gross pension wealth. This is to be expected as only Hong Kong, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam have taxation systems that result in pensioners having to pay any contributions. However the tax bands are sufficiently high in all three economies that any impact is extremely minimal, with Vietnam showing the greatest decline in pension wealth estimates between gross and net. For the OECD countries it is only the United States that doesn’t have any change in the pension wealth figures. For all the other countries the decrease in pension wealth is as much as 2.4 times average earnings in Italy for average earners.
“This ambitious report constructs comparative pension indicators for Asia/Pacific economies derived from analytically rigorous concepts applied to carefully gathered empirical data. Perceptions in Asia have yet to catch up with the reality that it is rapidly ageing. The report does not suggest any one desirable path or end-result for pension reforms . It will be an indispensable source for policymakers and researchers in designing reforms that take account of the national context. It will also help develop a pension debate between Asia and the rest of the world.” − Mukul Asher, National University of Singapore
Leptospirosis remains a major endemic environmental disease in most countries in the AsiaPacific Region. Socio- economic conditions, population density, climatic and environmental conditions, and behavioral and occupa- tional habits of humans are determinants of the incidence and prevalence of the disease. The ability of all countries in the region to accurately report and monitor leptospiro- sis hinges strongly on their respective capacity to provide accurate and reliable diagnostic and reporting services. Leptospirosis is preventable. Host/reservoir control meas- ures, environmental control programs and animal vacci- nation, in conjunction with a strong surveillance system may significantly reduce, if not eliminate, the disease. Thus, an effective collaboration among countries in the region is the key to successfully combating this public health problem.
Third, while the U.S. military has instituted major posture changes and is developing new military capabilities to strengthen the rebalance, the anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) challenge is increas- ing and concerns are growing about the ability of potential adversaries to hold at risk forward deployed and forward operating forces throughout the region. Chinese military strategy places a premium on investments in A2/AD capabilities. Its A2/AD umbrella includes long-range cruise and ballistic missiles, advanced integrated air and missile defense systems, and submarines. The goal of these systems is to restrict or outright deny an attacker freedom of entry or maneuver. Chinese investments in cyber; electronic warfare; a blue water navy; missiles; and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities serve as powerful reminders of China’s plans to push the United States out of the region in a conflict. These capabilities give China the ability to hold at risk U.S. installations and naval assets in the Western Pacific, U.S. allies and partners, and the freedom to use international air and waterways on which the U.S. economy depends. Absent major operational or technology breakthroughs by the United States and its allies and partners, substantial risk remains that China’s strategy could undermine the U.S. military’s ability to defend U.S. interests in the Asia-Pacific.
Furthermore, few countries in Asia/Pacific have social pensions to provide safety-net retirement incomes for people who were not members of formal schemes. Such schemes cover only around 5% of retirees in Hong Kong and less than 1% in Singapore. Other countries do not have such programmes (or they have very low coverage). Only in India are social pensions significant: around 10-15% of older people are beneficiaries. As networks of family support weaken and coverage of formal pension systems remains low, stronger systems of social pensions will be an important way of avoiding high and growing levels of old-age poverty.
recent decades, young people in Asia and the Pacific continue to face challenges in finding decent work. Many are in vulnerable employment as an own-account worker or contributing family worker. Across the seven-country sample, the vulnerable employment rate among youth ranged from one-third in Samoa to nearly four-fifths in India. These young people typically lack the job security, better earnings and access to social protection usually enjoyed by their counterparts in wage employment.
Dominic is the Head of Operations Risk and Control of ABN AMRO Bank NV, Hong Kong Branch who is responsible for the operational risk activities covering the services units of Wholesale Client Services Unit in Hong Kong, China and Taiwan as well as securities operations in 11 countries across AsiaPacific. He has more than 14 years of extensive experience in banking industry working in European and US banks, international accounting and consulting firm specialising in operational risk management programme formulation and execution
APEC has no external enemy like the Soviet Union, except perhaps for terrorism and the specter of trade and investment protectionism, so the case for transpacific cohesion is less compelling than it was for transatlantic cohesion six decades ago. But virtually all Asians want to keep the United States in. There is no other institutional economic link between PacificAsia and the United States and a number of Asian countries clearly want to retain US engagement, including to provide a counterweight to the growing preponderance of China. The hedging strategies of many Asian governments, designed to provide insurance against any adverse effects from China’s rising power, would be significantly promoted by a combination of Asia-only economic linkages and an ongoing AsiaPacific economic compact with the United States. US allies in the region, including Japan and Korea, would benefit greatly from a strategy that avoided their ever having to “choose between China and the United States.” 13 11. Any FTAAP would of course have to be implemented on a preferential basis among its members, resolving another long-standing tension within APEC, as indeed the Trans-Pacific Partnership and all the East Asian regional agreements already are.
– We have thorough knowledge of the relevant laws and market practices in Singapore and across the AsiaPacific region. We routinely manage complex transactions from Singapore in a way which our clients describe as second to none. We also have excellent working relationships with local firms around the region. This means that whatever jurisdiction your transaction relates to, you can rely on us to deliver for you.
A: Instructors/staff need to register on the NetRiders site and enroll in the AsiaPacific and
Japan 2015 CCNA NetRiders competition (during registration from 15 June – 21 August). Once instructors have successfully registered on the CCNA NetRiders competition page, it will take 72 hours for the NetRiders Team to change their role from Competitor to Instructor- Observer which will allow the instructor’s name to appear in a drop-down list of instructors for student competitors to complete this task after Round 1 results are announced.