Dow Introduces Novel Material in Middle East for Energy Efficient Construction Solutions ......................................94 BASF’s Concrete Admixture Production Plant Inaugurated in Nairobi, Kenya .............................................................94 BASF Launches MasterKure 111WB Curing Compound ...95 DAP Conferred 2014 Golden Hammer Award for Caulking and Sealants ....................................................................95 Fosroc Opens New Plant in India .....................................95 Wacker Debuts High-Performance Technologies for Demanding Construction Applications ............................95 AkzoNobel Introduces ELOTEX® CAST Range of Products 96 DAP® SmartBond® Launched in Gun-Grade System ........96 BASF Introduces Two New MasterTop Topcoats in Europe ... 96 Ashland Showcases Latest Offerings in Coatings and Construction at PaintIndia 2014 ......................................97 DAP Products Launches DAP® SIMPLE SEAL™ ..................97 Fosroc India Opens Concrete Lab in Chennai ...................97 Arkema’s New Chinese Coating Resins Facility Begins Operations ......................................................................97 Ashland Specialty Ingredients’ Shanghai Technical Center Upgraded ........................................................................98 Fosroc in a Joint Venture in Myanmar .............................98 AkzoNobel Extends Chinese Operations ..........................98 Ashland Extends Aquapas™ Redispersible Polymer Powders Product Range ..................................................98 DAP Products Introduces SmartBond® Construction Adhesives ..... 99 ArdexEndura Invests Rs. 40 Crore for Expanding Indian Operations ......................................................................99 4. GLOBALMARKET OVERVIEW........................... 100
The second portion of Russell’s market review process is to evaluate its investing environment. Economic criteria alone are insufficient for categorizing a country as a developed, emerging, or frontier market because they do not necessarily reflect the conditions of the trading environment. Market criteria provide an objective filter by use of the practical investment considerations set forth in the below table. All market factors are assigned values which are used to form a market criteria composite score. For a country to be considered a developed market, in addition to satisfying the economic criteria above, it also must sustain a top quartile composite score based on the market criteria listed below: In the event of a signal change, or a change to a specific element of the market criteria that may impact the signal, Russell will also conduct an additional market review taking into consideration the feedback from market participants regarding the investing environment of the country and the merits of a change in development status.
to the EU. Moreover, this industry sector has grown in recent years and is expected to grow further. In addition, there is a large number of exports of products containing chemical substances to the EU. (Ackerman, Stanton and Massey 2006: 4-6) Failing to comply with REACH would be an important loss to a growing industry sector of the US economy. Gains generated through these exports are expected to outweigh by far the costs for compliance with REACH. (Ackerman, Stanton and Massey 2006: 10) From this strong economic interdependence between the US and the EU with regard to chemicals and chemicals-related products, it could be concluded that REACH will have a significant direct influence on the US. Considering the trade figures above, a significant number of US chemicals and product manufacturers will have to comply with REACH in order to continue to be able to access the EU market. Many US- based chemicals and product manufacturers affected by the REACH Regulation are multinational companies. It could be expected that some of them may consider changes in their whole supply chain due to economies of scale considerations. American companies and trade associations follow EU legislation closely and, overall, they are well prepared to comply with REACH 25 . The increased risk
complexity of the mortgage finance products they awarded top ratings to) 1 has downgraded the credit rating of the United States for the first time in its history. This occurrence was surrounded by a bizarre political struggle involving the boycott of higher taxation (as opposed to drastic spending cuts) for the reduction of the national deficit on the side of some republican MPs close to the notorious Tea Party Movement. Global stock markets have become highly volatile and traditional so-called ‘safe havens’ for investment have rapidly diminished amidst these turbulences. Recently, Switzerland placed a cap on the exchange rate of its national currency into Euros as a result of the devastating consequences its status as one of the few remaining safe havens had on its domestic economy. In true neoliberalist fashion, severe austerity measures to cut national budget deficits have been implemented in most Western countries to combat the costs of the meltdown. In the UK this has been adhered to with particular ideological rigour by the Tory-led coalition government, even in the light of a looming renewed recession (not to mention Greece and other southern European countries here). The crisis has moved full circle from a banking crisis into a sovereign debt crisis and back to a banking crisis again. It is now played out with increasing visibility in the global political arena. Economic protectionism, currency wars, the collapse and potential subsequent bail-out of further banks, as well as a renewed global ‘credit crunch’ and ‘double-dip recession’ and even the termination or break-up of the European Union all are not at all unlikely future consequences of these developments. Additionally, national austerity measures carry the threat of growing unemployment, reduced public services and, as the riots in the UK in August 2011 have indicated only too clearly, potential social unrest for years to come.
The FHA programme helped stabilise the mortgage market, but new single family housing construction was at a minimum between 1926 and 1946. Then, following World War II, when five million men came home, housing demand escalated. To help the returning servicemen adjust to civilian life, the government enacted the Servicemen’s Adjustment Act. The Veterans Administration (VA) programme was founded under this Act, and the VA guarantees mortgage loans made to US military personnel. It differs from the FHA programme in that it guarantees (rather than insures) the home mortgage loan and requires no down payment. Moreover, the VA is not dependent on the collection of insurance premiums to pay for losses due to default on loans, therefore, VA does not charge the veteran (borrower) for its services. The FHA and VA programmes were able to meet the huge demand for mortgages and funded the unprecedented postwar housing growth.
Background: Readability of package inserts (PIs) of drugs, chemicals, reagents, vaccines and similar products is yet to receive adequate attention as little or no concern is accorded to font sizes of leaflet designs especially in the developing nations. Print is the medium for visual reading. Print size has been of interest to typographers and to vision researchers Simplicity in information dissemination in global health delivery services should not be compromised as problems associated with poor designs of PIs resulting in high rate of misinformation of patients and users of agrochemical products need s urgent intervention. Methods: The study examined a total of 1,769 PIs of pharmaceutical and chemical products in Nigeria. These were collected during the months of October 2016 through January 2018 and font size determined by comparison with the Jaeger eye chart. Results: The distribution of various drugs according to class and chemicals/reagents and vaccine leaflets depicts the general population of the sample with 1443 and 326 respectively, while PIs were printed in font size between N.5. and N.24. PI’s N.5. – N.8. was significantly more (63.41%); (62.42%) than N.10. – N.12. (34.37%); (27.61%). F-ratio equals 8.81544; 2.04748(P-values 0.05), thus a statistically significant difference between the means of the 8 variables at 95.0% confidence level. Conclusions: The package inserts studied do not meet up with readability standard, thus, there exits an infringement on the right of consumers to receive information. A general font size of at least 10-12 to range is suggested for NAFDAC’ S adoption.
Basically, it is the global regimes for money, finance, and trade that constitute the framework of the international political economy. They build the institutional skeleton of the particular ‘type’ of international order developed after World War II that tried to reconcile an open world economy with an active role of the state in the domestic realm. Ruggie called it "embedded liberalism" (1982). As a social order, embedded liberalism purposefully has been created with the intention to constrain "orthodox liberalism": "In the organisation of a liberal order, pride of place is given to market rationality." Here, "...authority relations are constructed in such a way as to give maximum scope to market forces rather than to constrain them" (Ruggie 1998: 78, 63-64). As a domestic and international order, the model of the embedded economy is characterised by setting limits to the freedom of market forces through political intervention (such as restrictions of short-term capital flows in the Bretton Woods systems, social provisions to secure incomes etc.) This special balance between economics and politics has been institutionalised in the international system of economic multilateralism. It is predicated on domestic intervention: "Keynes at home and Smith abroad", as Gilpin puts it (1987: 363). The "generative grammar" of politics or (international) political authority inherent in this ‘compromise’ represents a "fusion of power with legitimate social purpose" (Ruggie 1998: 64). With the shared purpose prescribing the domestic social and economic role of the state as the Keynesian or social democratic welfare state of the post-war era (Ruggie 1998: 84; Lacher 1999b: 356).
fossil-based solvents in personal care.
• Functional benefits, such as biodegradability.
CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
Only 3% of global bio-based solvents production takes place in the EU and 43% of the bio-based solvents consumed in the EU are imported. These figures are not expected to improve soon, with the industry dealing with more pressing problems such as VOC emissions and health and safety issues rather than greenhouse gas emission reduction. This keeps bio-based solvents limited to applications such as paints, coatings, inks, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
■ Projects are increasing in complexity and so the issues that are material to the dispute can be equally as complex, and therefore need appropriate time to consider the issues. 2012 also saw the very interesting and insightful judgement in Walter Lilly v Giles Patrick Mackay, which came out of the Technology and Construction Court in London. The relevance and application of the principles within the international market are, perhaps, still in the “incubator”, but it is interesting to note that many of the features of this case also surface in our common causes discussed over the following pages. Closer to home, our disputes team had another record year in 2012, with a 12% year on year growth. A feature of this has been the continued international expansion of our disputes practice, and with this growth I am confident that the data captured from this survey is representative of more disputes, and in particular some of the very large international disputes which we have or continue to be involved in. Looking into 2013, there are healthy construction programmes in the Middle East, Asia and a recovering market in the USA. Combined with the continued use and growth in international arbitration and the extensive infrastructure and energy related programmes underway in established and developing countries, this indicates to me that 2013 will not reverse the previous growth of disputes worldwide and be another busy year for dispute professionals.
Uzbekistan’s border with Afghanistan is short (137 km) and well-policed. While armed attempts at night cross- ings still occur, traffickers generally prefer to avoid this border in favour of easier alternatives such as the Tajik border. It appears instead that most opiates that do enter Uzbekistan first transit Tajikistan and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan. What cannot be excluded, however, is that larger, long-distance shipments by well-protected net- works may find it convenient to use the better-developed infrastructure of Hayraton when aiming for the Russian market, or even to import precursor chemicals, as evi- denced by a 2008 seizure of 1.5 mt of acetic acid. 40 Afghanistan’s border with Turkmenistan is lengthy (744 km) and mostly desert. There is some lab activity in the border areas of adjoining Afghan provinces (such as Badghis), which is of concern since traffickers generally export opiates over the closest border. The Turkmen route is facilitated by the presence of approximately 1 million ethnic Turkmens in Hirat, Badghis and Faryab provinces. Turkmenistan also shares a 992 km border with the Islamic Republic of Iran where an equal number of Turkmens reside, mainly in the Mazanderan and Khorassan provinces, close to the border. Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea for a length of 1,768 km and its coastal port of Turkmenbashi was long viewed as an important heroin route across the Caspian to Azerbaijan and further to Europe. Although the Caspian is undoubt- edly used for opiate trafficking, recent UNODC field research suggests that trafficking through this particular seaport may have fallen into disuse. Seizure data also appears to indicate limited direct trafficking from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan. Other routes may how- ever be used. Recent data from the Central Asia Regional Information and Coordination Centre (CARICC) indi-
Brenntag stores the products it purchases in its distribution facilities, packs them into quantities the customers require and delivers them, typically in less-than-truckloads. Brenntag’s customers world- wide are active in diverse end-market industries such as adhesives, paints, oil & gas, food, water treat- ment, personal care and pharmaceuticals. In order to be able to react quickly to the market and cus- tomers’ and suppliers’ requirements, Brenntag manages its business through its geographically structured segments in EMEA (Europe, Middle East & Africa), North America, Latin America and Asia Pacific. Brenntag offers a broad range of over 10,000 products as well as extensive value-added ser- vices (such as just-in-time delivery, product mixing, blending, repackaging, inventory management, drum return handling as well as technical and laboratory services for specialty chemicals).
The Swedish Competition Authority 145 has noticed that competition in terms of production of construction products is limited and it would be desirable for this to increase. In terms of industry conditions, it is noted that there are significant entry and exit costs in relation to the production of construction products, that the dominance of the few applies, that pricing is not transparent and that transport costs are high. In terms of the products’ characteristics, some of the points mentioned are the importance of custom-made products with exact characteristics, as well as the fact that the products are, in many cases, incorporated into system solutions where several products need to be adapted to each other. An analysis 146 of competition indicators shows that there is limited competition on both the supply and demand side. On the supply side, the picture is mainly one of high concentration and poor competitive dynamics. There is also an indication of a fairly low productivity trend. On the demand side, the main signs of a lack of competition are a low level of customer mobility and little transparency, which can depend on a wide use of discounts and bonuses. The fact that construction products come, to a large extent, as a set of related system products restricts the opportunity to combine products from different suppliers. Therefore, it is vital to purchasers that the construction products fits into the construction process and is compatible with other construction products. This makes it difficult for new operators to enter the market, which also contributes to the poor competitive dynamics.
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Ask Keith Huckle about the latest environmental regulations and initiatives impacting the chemicals industry and you don't hear words like "restriction" and "hindrance" much. Rather, when you ask the global chief product steward and risk manager at Midland, Mich.-based Dow Corning about going Green, he uses terms like "business opportunity" and "eco branding." In fact, Huckle's title—or more specifically the order of his title—conveys Dow Corning's sustainability philosophy well: product steward and risk manager.
The market study “Bio-based Polymers in the World – Production, Capacities and Applica- tions: Status Quo and Trends towards 2020”, which is the basis for this Chapter, was exe- cuted by nova-Institute and is the most comprehensive study in this field ever made. It was carried out in collaboration with renowned international experts from the field of bio-based polymers. It is the first time that a study has looked at every kind of bio-based polymer produced by 247 companies at 363 locations around the world and it examines in detail 114 companies in 135 locations. Considerably higher production capacity was found than in previous studies. The overall sum of 3.5 million tonnes that were found for 2011 repre- sent a share of 1.5% of an overall construction polymer production of 235 million tonnes. Current producers of bio-based polymers estimate that production capacity will reach near- ly 12 million tonnes by 2020. With an expected total polymer production of about 400 mil- lion tonnes in 2020, the bio-based share should increase from 1.5% in 2011 to 3% in 2020, meaning that bio-based production capacity will grow faster than overall production. The most dynamic development is foreseen for drop-in biopolymers, which are chemically identical to their petrochemical counterparts but at least partially derived from biomass. This group is spearheaded by partly bio-based PET (Bio-PET) whose production capacity will reach about 5 million tonnes by the year 2020, using bioethanol from sugar cane. The second in this group are bio-based polyolefins like PE and PP, also based on bioethanol. But “new in the market” bio-based polymers PLA and PHA are also expected to at least quadruple the capacity between 2011 and 2020. Most investment in new bio-based poly- mer capacities will take place in Asia and South America because of better access to feed- stock and a favourable political framework. Europe’s share will decrease from 20% to 14% and North America’s share from 15% to 13%, whereas Asia’s will increase from 52% to 55% and South America’s from 13% to 18%. So world market shares are not expected to shift dramatically, which means that every region of the world will experience develop- ment in the field of bio-based polymer production.
It was shown by the authors in a previous work that it is possible to produce matrix type encapsulations based on supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) containing chemical admixtures with delayed release behavior . The obtained results confirm the theory that the production process, the resulting particle size distribution as well as the release behavior of the encapsulated admixtures is mainly influenced by a combination of the ma- terials viscosity and the mixing energy which is introduced in the mixtures during the agglomeration process. As shown in Figure 2(a), a high binder viscosity, due to a combination of low water and high superplasticizer con- tent in the mixture, combined with a low energy input during the agglomeration yields in fly ash coated super- plasticizer particles. The dissolution of these encapsulations is retarded by the time span needed for washing off the fly ash coating from the particles surface. With increasing energy input or decreasing binder viscosity during the agglomeration process, a larger proportion of the binder liquid is pressed towards the particle surface result- ing in a faster admixture release in aqueous solution as given in Figure 2(b). Nonetheless, the high shear ag- glomeration technique provides an easy and reproduceable possibility to encapsulate constructionchemicals in
made under the equivalent of clause 26 of the JCT Standard Form 1980. The court had to consider the way in which a contractor could establish a global claim, where it is impossible to demonstrate individual causal links between events for which the employer is responsible and particular items of loss and expense. Typically, when a global claim is pursued, the contractor must demonstrate that the whole of his loss and expense results from matters that are the responsibility of the employer. However, the court identifi ed that that requirement might be mitigated 32.
Holding tanks can be cleaned periodically or prior to entry without the use of dangerous toxic chemicals.
Grey and black water holding tanks, sewage tanks, sewage treatment plant should be flooded and pumped empty to clear excess soil before cleaning. Holding tanks must be fitted with an air manifold connected to a low pressure air line of sufficient volume to gently turn the mass of water within the tank. In sewage treatment tanks the normal air supply will suffice. The tank should be filled to 75% capacity with fresh or sea water and the air supply turned on. Approximately 0.5 kg of Gamazyme 700FN in 5 to 10 litres of fresh hand hot (35°C) water should be mixed and left for 10-15 minutes before dosing into the tank. Dosing can be either direct or via the nearest toilet. The tank should then be filled and left with the air on for at least 48 hours. The dose rate should be approximately 0.5 kg per 500 litres tank capacity with a minimum dose of 5 kg. Although Gamazyme 700FN is formulated for use in cold (15°C minimum) sea water, performance will improve with lukewarm (35°C) fresh water or sea water.