(ii) Distribution Policies. Distribution policies include: (a) PovertyAlleviation Policies, Strategies and Programs - economic programs, agriculture and rural development, urban and industrial development, entrepreneur and small business development etc. (b) Affirmative-action Equity and Restructuring Polices and Programs - pro-poor and pro-indigenous strategies, education and human resource development, wealth restructuring, equity participation, special share schemes, etc. (c) Social Infrastructures - welfare, housing, health, education programs for the poor, pension, old age, etc. (d) Provision of basic Needs and Amenities- water, electricity, housing, food, clothing, infrastructures, services, etc. (e) Access to Resources - land, water, credit, legal aids, etc. Table 5 provides a summary of macro and povertyalleviation strategy and programs throughout the Five Year Development Plans. Conclusion and Lessons
Since tourism is a system of many inter-related sectors it contributes significantly to a broad based framework where it becomes a major generator of income and employment. Conceptually, and as a corollary to consideration of tourism as a complex system, it is necessary to integrate tourism development into community development holistically for povertyalleviation (Sofield et.al, 2004). Without holistic integration as a framework, there is a risk that tourism development may be viewed as an end in itself instead of as one vehichle to reduce poverty and assist in attitudinal change especially related with environment and conservation (Sofield & Bhandari, 1998; Sofield et.al, 2004). Treating tourism as a complex system could increases the backward and forward linkage opportunities for poorer sections of communities and for intervention in a wider range of enterprises. By working in the area of backward linkages in activities, it is possible to identify the points of ingress for development assistance aimed at alleviating poverty. In some countries it is feasible to work with the frontline tourism sector (those ventures which deal directly with visitors, such as a trekking lodge), but in others, more opportunities may exist in the support services sector (e.g. growing orchids at the village level for Thai Airways) (Sofield et.al, 2004; Xu et.al, 2008).
Feels like different political forces at the helm defend their own interests, interests of big business (but not of middle class or poor people), adopt legislation and implement policies in accordance with those interests and preferences (or not adopt and not implement, as in the current case). Considering political instability in the country they try to snatch tasty morsel because tomorrow can bring pre- term elections, change of power structures, center of influence, etc. Apparently, such people are present in all political forces, embracing orange and white-blue camps, which gives birth to legislative conflicts and stalemate in public policy making. At the same time, they forget about ideological impregnation of their political parties as well as about what their priority mission is. The collision of such interests engenders the conflict between the executive, legislative branches of power, the President and results in power wars. In this situation, the state machine does not work, corruption flourishes, poor become poorer, etc. This is a perpetual reality of Ukrainian politics, hindrance to reforms and transformations, deadlock in Ukrainian sustainable development and means of poverty thrift. This is absolutely bad governance and it has nothing to do with goodgovernance.
The verse explains that the wisdom behind making some rich and others relatively poor is to make a balance in the society. If everybody should be rich, then no one will par-take a difficult work. But in this case, the rich needs some services which he cannot afford doing himself, while the poor has to sell his labour in order to earn and solve his immediate needs. So Islam is not agitating for total eradication of poverty (which is impossible) but calls for povertyalleviation. In a similar view, it is opined that ... if everyone had the same income, no matter what, there would be little incentive to work hard, gain skills, or innovate (Torado & Smith2006). From this we can comfortably conclude that the problem of eradicating absolute poverty is one of bad news and good news at the same time. Is like a glass that may be seen as either half empty or half full. (Torado & Smith 2006). Therefore in the Islamic point of view some degree of poverty among people is inevitable, but when some segment of the Ummah (Muslim community) is living at a starvation level, it is important that absolute poverty must be attacked as a matter of priority. This therefore means that the cause of such poverty should be identified and possible remedies suggested in consistent with the spirit of the Shari’ah. (Islamic laws) This is why the paper suggests cooperation in setting up businesses to create job opportunities for our youth.
With 1/4 millennium of continual poverty reduction, the interest amount of excessive poverty in the globe is reduced than ever. International excessive poverty rate1 has dropped by about 75% of what it was in 1990 (37%) (Ferreira et al., 2015). Much of this improvement was motivated by the constant financial increase Eastern Japan, and to a smaller degree, in South Japan. Progress in Latina America and the Carribbean on the other hand has bogged down down while the discount rates in excessive poverty remain typically and continually low in Sub- Saharan African-american. It would be difficult to reach the objective of eliminating excessive poverty by 2030 through development alone as it would require speeding up development prices to unmatched levels for most of the nations while keeping inequality the same (Yoshida et al., 2014). The idea of ultra-poverty signifies houses residing far below the national poverty range, there is no consistent purpose of ultra-poverty in Bangladesh. There are sometimes differences made centered on immediate calories actions. According to family income expenses study of 2010, individuals taking less than 1805 and 1600 Kcal a day are described as hard-core inadequate and ultra-poor respectively. Sen and Ali (2015) focused on some terms of poverty such as extremely poor, poorest of the poor, hardcore poor, and ultra-poor for categorizing based on their extent of poverty. The real per household intake expenses from 2005 to 2010 improved at an average yearly amount of 16.9 percent, with better pay of increase in non-urban places compared to city. This implies that the financial conditions and earnings of non-urban people, especially the inadequate, have enhanced considerably as a result of the pro-poor and pro-rural guidelines of the government (Sen and Ali, 2015). Despite this improvement, 17.6% of the inhabitants of the country was residing below the national reduced poverty range truly with much greater focus of poverty in non-urban places (Table 2).
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105633 2 Open Access Library Journal shout slogans” . “Precision povertyalleviation” was proposed for the first time. The proposal of “precision povertyalleviation” is undoubtedly the crystal- lization of the collective wisdom of the CPC central committee with Xi Jinping as general secretary, the concrete embodiment of the achievements of reform and development shared by all the people, and the innovation of the theory of povertyalleviation of socialism with Chinese characteristics. This new way of povertyalleviation provides an effective strategy for building a moderately pros- perous society in the new era and realizing common prosperity for all. For ex- ample, Xie Ping’s philosophical reflection on “precision povertyalleviation” de- scribes the specific meaning, characteristics, methods and practical significance of “precision povertyalleviation”  from the perspective of philosophy. The author thinks that precision povertyalleviation should get the internal and ex- ternal cause, poor people and poor areas are the internal cause, support units, cadres and policy are the external cause, “Only catch both the internal and ex- ternal cause in the regional poverty, and both pay equal attention at the same time, take flexible and reasonable measures, suit the remedy to the case, can re- ally make in the phase of poverty population out of poverty”. At the same time from the particularity of contradiction and all from the practical point of view to explore the precision povertyalleviation philosophical methods. Some scholars think about precision povertyalleviation from the perspective of theory and re- ality. For example, Wang Sitie believes that precision povertyalleviation is “a way to treat poverty by accurately identifying, helping and managing the objects of povertyalleviation with scientific and effective procedures for different po- verty-stricken areas and conditions of poor farmers” . In the rural
The multicultural character of a society per se does not automatically lead to some form of intercultural animosity or violent conflict. There are many countries in the world that are multicultural or multi-ethnic, but they do not have ethnicity-based political mobilization or ethnonationalist movements like the case of the Moros in the Philippines, the Tamils in Sri Lanka, the Chechens in Russia, the Basques and Catalans in Spain, the Acehnese in Indonesia, and the Catholics in Northern Ireland. There are also countries that have experienced violent forms of ethnic mobilization in the past, but succeeded in resolving them after making some appropriate adjustments in their policies and governance and other aspects of society.
Public administration has been a lot of thought and attention to reform public welfare, with a variety of concepts and implementation. One form of attention shown to the public administration is goodgovernance, which in turn is expected to create a society welfare, (Thoha, 2008): " Public administration is very attentive to the establishment of goodgovernance and mandate. Goodgovernance was manifested by the presence of democratic order in governance and well organized, clean, transparent and authoritative. Democratic governance emphasizes on the locus and focus of power is not just in government itself, but rather should be switched and centralized in the hands of the people. Implementation of goodgovernance is the extent to which a constellation of three components, namely the people, government and businessmen run a cohesive, harmonious, congruent and proportional. Changing the balance between these three components of the system that can be resulted in various kinds of irregularities including corruption, collusion and nepotism, following the enforcement of the law is not consistently ". The Thoha opinion suggests that along with the change of the paradigm of public administration initially focused on the power of the state and then on development is now turning to the people, should be coupled with the balance of the three components, namely the people, government and businessmen.
These protected areas are surrounded by millions of people, who to a great extent depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. The index of the importance of natu- ral resources as a source of households’ cash is high, ranging from 0.33 for beehives to 0.72, 0.61, and 0.53 for thatching grass, charcoal and building poles, respectively. The nonuse status of the protected areas has prohibited these communities from accessing these resources and the benefits from conservation have not adequately compensated them, which has severely affected their livelihoods. On average, people would need more than a dollar per day to escape from poverty but a great proportion of the people in these areas live below the poverty line. A study by Schmitt (2010) showed that the annual per capita income in the Serengeti ecosystem is TZS (Tanzanian Shillings) 154,101 (US$97.5), which is much lower than the national average esti- mated to be TZS 748,000 (US$473.32). According to World Bank (2008 cited in Schmitt, 2010), 51.3% of the people in the Serengeti ecosystem live under the basic needs poverty line compared with the national average of 36%. These communities also have a low level of school enrolment of only 41.3% (Schmitt, 2010).
Abstract: This paper argues that initiatives in e-governance can accelerate economic development and increase empowerment of individual citizens. Initiatives in e-governance can do so by helping to bring about goodgovernance. More inclusive governance stimulated by e-governance can help overcome massive global problems of povertyalleviation. The paper discusses the impact of specific initiatives in e-governance and how they might help address povertyalleviation in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in India. Uttar Pradesh has approximately 8 percent of the world's poor population. Eighty percent of poor households in UP live in rural areas. The paper draws lessons from the customized usage of e-governance, in particular, e-choupals (in Hindi choupal means village square or rural meeting place). It argues that such initiatives can: a) Fill gaps in access to communications infrastructure; b) Enable poor people to help themselves; and c) Help re-motivate officials responsible for implementing measures to alleviate poverty. The paper presents a thematic sequence of steps and stages for incorporating e-governance as a mode of operation. The sequence is open to customization as and when required. Expected issues and constraints facing initiatives in e-governance are also outlined.
Malaysia is one of the fastest growing economy among the ASEAN countries where the manufacturing sector being the main driver for economic growth. For the last two decades the tourism sector has been showing significant contribution to the Malaysian gross domestic product. As shown in Table 1, the share of the tourism industry to total national output hovering about 5 percent for the period 2005 – 2012. Another important contribution of the tourism sector is in terms of job opportunities it created for the Malaysian population. In 2012, the share of employment in the tourism industry to total employment in Malaysia is about 16.4 percent showing an almost 10 percent increase from its share in 2005. Table 1 also suggests that the demand for tourism in Malaysia is increasing over time. Tourist arrivals increased from 16,431 thousands in 2005 to 25,032 thousands in 2012 and tourist expenditures has doubled from RM32 billion in 2005 to RM61 billion in 2012. Furthermore, the length of stay by the visitors has also increased from 6.1 nights in 2005 to 7 nights in 2012.
Self- help groups (SHGs) play a major role in povertyalleviation in rural India. A growing number of poor people (mostly women) in various parts of India are members of SHGs and actively engage in savings and credit, as well as in other activities (income generation, natural resources management, literacy, child care and nutrition, etc.). The S/C focus in the SHG is the most prominent element and offers a chance to create some control over capital, albeit in very small amounts. The SHG system has proven to be very relevant and effective in offering women the possibility to break gradually away from exploitation and isolation.
Urban agriculture (UA) remains the best policy strategy to raise the standard of living of urban poor through additional income earning [5, 6]. Studies [7, 8, 9] have differently shown that it could significantly contributes to farmers’ means of livelihood thereby reducing severity of poverty in the urban areas. UA could generate income for the urban poor especially unemployed youth . Firstly, it increases the quantity of food available to poor urban dwellers. Secondly, diversifying the diet of the poor through consumption of locally produced fresh and nutritious food. Also, this allows substantial savings through proximity production with limited packaging, transport and storage requirements. Lastly, it offers opportunities for productive employment in a sector with low barriers to entry . It should be therefore, undertaken by urban poor to supplement their income in order to alleviate threatening poverty [11, 12]. UA was officially launched in Nigeria under the Federal Government’s Operation Feed the Nation programme of 1976–80 to encourage urban residents to cultivate arable crops around their homes or on vacant land as supplementary source of income . It has many different expressions, varying from backyard gardening to poultry farming to fish farming to vegetables farming. UA accounts for 80 percent of the vegetable supply in urban centers especially Ibadan metropolis. The specialization in vegetables gives urban farmers signiﬁcant income for food and non-food expenses such as paying for school fees, household assets and health care service especially during the dry (lean) season when supplies decline and prices increase . Irrigated urban vegetable production has been found to be ﬁnancially and socially proﬁtable .
Involve NGOs, civil society and the private sector; Implement and be accountable for the recommended 6% of education budgets for adult education; Recognize the curriculum that is inherent in community development work (e.g., credit, health, traditional birth attendance); Influence current conditions and policy frameworks for fast-track initiatives, Millennium Development Goals, etc., so that the profile of adult education is raised; Pursue basic adult education beyond primary- level education; Address the contradictions in globalisation-related policies; and empower the poor and disadvantaged to have a voice in decision-making that affects their lives. Recognize the variety of poverty definitions; Adopt community-based development and gender-sensitive approaches; Collect more baseline dissegregated data;
In Nigeria, poverty has continued to ravage the greater populace despite its plentiful agricultural resources and oil wealth. Some of the crimes being committed in Nigeria, such as human trafficking, kidnapping, armed robbery and various insurgencies, may be linked to poverty (Ayegba 2015). These crimes have been hampering peace and sustainable development of the country. Nigeria is the 10th largest producer of crude oil in the world and the sixth largest exporter among Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)s (Odeh 2011), in addition to other untapped solid mineral resources. Nigeria has retrogressed to become one of the 25 poorest countries in the world (Ekpe, 2011). Seventy per cent of Nigerians live on less than US $1.25 a day (Aidelunuoghene 2014:117). Poverty is especially severe in rural areas, where up to 80% of the population live below the poverty line (International Fund for Agricultural Development 2012:2). Today many Nigerians are migrating to western countries because of poverty and unemployment. Nigeria is among the 189 countries that endorsed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, which has ‘eradication of extreme poverty and hunger’ by 2015 as its number one goal. To fight poverty, the Nigerian government has over the years instituted programmes and policies for poverty eradication and/or reduction. However, poverty has persisted and has continued to create socio-economic challenges in the country. It has become evident that the government alone cannot eradicate this malaise, hence the question whether the church has to play any role. Why have government’s poverty reduction programmes failed? How can the church bring about better living standards for the vast majority of Nigerians? Focusing on the Catholic Church, this article tries to answer these questions.
2) The essence of socialism. Marx believed that before the realization of communism, human society had to go through a transition from capitalism to communism, which Lenin later called the “socialist stage”. In a socialist society it is “a social form based on the fundamental principle of the comprehensive and free development of every individual” . “The free development of everyone is the condition for the free development of all.”  Engels believed that socialism “not only could guarantee all members of society an abundant and increasingly abundant material life, but also could guarantee their full development and ap- plication of physical and intellectual freedom” , “which were a leap from the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of freedom” . Therefore, in the view of Marxism, socialism should be: “while ensuring the extremely high development of social labor productivity, but also to ensure the most comprehensive human development of such an economic form.”  In his exploration of the con- struction of socialism with Chinese characteristics, Deng Xiaoping pointed out that the essence of socialism is to liberate the productive forces, develop the productive forces, eliminate exploitation, eliminate polarization and eventually achieve common prosperity. “Eliminating poverty, improving people’s livelih- ood and achieving common prosperity are the essential requirements of social- ism,”  Xi said more explicitly. “Poverty is not socialism. If the pover- ty-stricken areas remain poor for a long time, their appearance will not be changed and their people’s lives will not be significantly improved, then the su- periority of China’s socialist system will not be reflected, and that will not be so- cialism .
In 1997 Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the UN “Microcredit is a critical anti-poverty tool a wise investment in human capital. When the poorest, especially women, receive credit, they become economic actors with power. Power to improve not only in their own lives but in
Decomposition of income in the region shows that forestry had the least contribution to average income per person. However, this scenario was due to non-monetization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), most of which were consumed locally. The effect of forest income on poverty indices is critical in understanding the contribution of forests in alleviating poverty in the area. The findings showed a marked difference in poverty indices between those respondents with forestry income and those without. 62.2% of those households dependent on forestry income fall below the poverty line compared to 86.2% in those households not relying on it as reflected by the head count indices. Similarly, the poverty gap indices for the two categories of households were 0.571 and 0.701 respectively. There was also marked differences in FGT indices, which were 0.292 and 0.453 for respondents with forestry income and those without it. This fact demonstrated that forests accorded poor people an extra opportunity to generate income. The analysis tended to suggest that income from forestry has a positive effect on selected poverty indices, and therefore was a useful resource in alleviating poverty. When household incomes were disaggregated, it was observed that most of the respondents with high income from regular sources (dairy, agriculture) were the same ones earning some income from forestry. This scenario implied that in order to generate income from forestry, it required one to have adequate capital to be able to invest in this sub-sector. This may be explained by the fact that timber, which was the product traded in the area, needed sufficient starting capital which was supplied from other regular sources. There, therefore, existed some relationship between the various sources of income and forestry. Forest income was only useful in supplementing household income. This may be justified further by the fact that among the surveyed respondents, none was solely relying on forestry income for livelihood. It is however important to note that the above indices might have
This type of research is an investigative one that tries to discover the worth and relationship between sustainable procurement and povertyalleviation in 3 African countries by assessing. At the first stage, a unit root evaluation is steered to determine the stationarity of the data by means of using Im, Pesaran and Shin process in the estimation. Secondly, the Pedroni method of cointegration is assessed to ascertain the long run nexus. Finally, the Panel Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares were used to evaluate the impact of the independent variables on the dependent variables.