Top PDF Good Governance and Poverty Reduction Relationship a case study of Nigeria

Good Governance and Poverty Reduction Relationship a case study of Nigeria

Good Governance and Poverty Reduction Relationship a case study of Nigeria

This apparent paradox of rising growth with poor governance performance and rising growth with rising poverty, contradict the theoretical as well as empirical evidences suggesting that t[r]

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Investigating The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship Development And Poverty Reduction In Rural Communities In Edo State, Nigeria

Investigating The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship Development And Poverty Reduction In Rural Communities In Edo State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the relationship between entrepreneurship development and poverty reduction in rural communities in Edo State Nigeria. Taro Yamani‟s statistical technique was used to calculate the sample size of the population. Stratified random sampling was used to distribute the survey questionnaires, out of the 215 questions distributed to the respondents, only 211 were completed and returned back for data analysis. SPSS version 20 software were employed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to analyze the data and compare different population of mean existing within the groups and between the groups at five point-likert scale of strongly agreed, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. The result of analysis revealed that F- calculated (1270.644) is greater than F- tabulated (2.53) thereby rejecting the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative hypothesis that, there is significant relationship between entrepreneurship development initiative and poverty reduction in the rural areas in Edo State, Nigeria. The result of study also showed that entrepreneurship initiative has translated positively towards poverty reduction in rural communities through jobs creation, development of rural areas, establishment of small and medium size enterprises, youth empowerment through soft loan provided by federal government of President Good Luck Jonathan‟s You-Win Program among others. The following recommendations were made; government of Nigeria should strengthen macroeconomic policies such as judiciary to prosecute corrupt government officials that loot government treasury. Secondly, government abandoned project should be recycled and resuscitated to avoid huge waste of resources and time wasted. Thirdly, there should be need for both government and private sector partnership through Private-Partnership Project (PPP) to complete most abandoned government projects such as skills and acquisition centres. This will help to achieve greater sustainability and economic growth in the country.
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PATH TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

PATH TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

The issue of how a particular country, city or agency is governed or should be governed, and the relationship between the state and civil society, or how to establish an ideal balance between them in order to achieve a stable political system has been of immense concern to scholars (see Azeez 2009: 213). Arisi and Ukadike (2011: 413) expressed optimism that human beings are born into the world with an opportunity make them live better in their various communities. Such anticipated better condition of living for citizens has been largely achieved in developed nations such as Britain, United States of America, Germany, Japan, and China through the mechanism of good governance. These countries have in place, well-run educational system, and good organization of industrial sectors, affordable shelter for citizens, sound national security and political stability. They also experience favourable interdependence between growth, poverty reduction and sustainable development; as well as respect for the rule of law, human rights, peace and security among others. In essence, good governance has remained a crucial element of the socio-political system of developed countries of world. However, on the contrary, a major challenge to quest for Nigeria‟s greatness is good governance. Nigeria‟s search for the most cultivated and best informed minds, and men and women and women of wisdom who will take the nation to the peak level of good governance has remained elusive. Plato, the great Greek philosopher, had argued in his time that as a just and healthy person is governed by knowledge and reason, a society must be under the control of society‟s most cultivated and best informed minds in order to achieve remarkable social, political and economic development. The fact that Nigeria remains a laggard in social, economic and political developments despite all social and economic policies implemented by successive administrations suggests that such administrations had not optimally delivered the dividends of good governance. Nigerians are worried as to why their leaders seem to find it difficult to address perennial governance problems
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The Moderating Roles of Government in Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

The Moderating Roles of Government in Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

Hartwell position cannot be totally ignored or eliminated. Indeed, many of the debates of scholars relating to income distribution and inequality are tailored towards addressing income gaps between the upper class and the lower class. These gaps naturally in their theoretical and empirical grounds breed debate associated with poverty dilemma that characterized the human society. Therefore, recent debate on poverty incidence, economic growth versus income inequality is to reawaken the obvious. As Atkinson (1997) puts it, for much of the last century, the subject of income distribution has been absent in the agenda of economic theory and policy. Recent history however, has witnessed changes in perception about the ultimate nature of the economic activity (Gallo, 2002). Gallo pointed out that, in the period of 1970s through to the early 1980s, the deep growing concern in the developed world was about the quality of life, which was demonstrated as direct protests against the consequences of economic growth that led to wide incidence of l pollution and sharp depletion of natural resources. To the state of the developing world however, the major growing concern was basically on the relationship between economic growth and income distribution. This is adduced to the fact, since many of the developed countries had experienced economic growth rates above their historical standards have realized that such growth seemed to have affected the income distribution negatively leading to increased inequality and a failure to eliminate or even reduce the level of poverty, (Todaro, 1994 and Gallo, 2002). This being the case, many economic theories have been used to analyze this scenario. Profound among such theories, is the Kuznet’s Hypothesis popularly known as the Inverted U Curve Hypothesis and the general theories of income distribution which this current study is founded upon are briefly evaluated and discussed.
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Governance and Poverty Reduction in Thailand

Governance and Poverty Reduction in Thailand

It is widely believed that constitutional reform can be a vital tool to promote the good governance 4 . It has become a popular method for countries to account for the past institutional failures, to reconstruct the political structures after authoritarian rule, and to ensure better governance for the future. In the last decade alone, Dressel [8] indicates that roughly 70 emerging democracies have completely rewritten or substantially altered their constitutions and Thailand is one of them. He refers to Thailand’s 1997 constitutional reform as a particularly interesting case study in trying to address the governance deficiencies through the institutional means while employing a highly innovative process for drafting itself. The new constitu- tion contains several unique features of governance which apart from the predecessors, including: 1) strengthening the rule of law and human rights; 2) enhancing account- ability mechanisms and enforcing much stronger con- flict of interest standards; 3) improving transparency, participation and decentralization; and 4) changing the electoral and legislative processes.
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Adoption Of Modern Farming Technology And Poverty Reduction In Nigeria: A Case Of Cooperative Societies In Kano State, Nigeria

Adoption Of Modern Farming Technology And Poverty Reduction In Nigeria: A Case Of Cooperative Societies In Kano State, Nigeria

Kassie, et al (2010) studied the impact of adopting improved groundnut varieties on crop income and rural poverty in rural Uganda, using cross-sectional farm household data collected in 2006 in seven districts. In their study, they used linear regression model and established that adoption of improved groundnut technologies had a significant positive impact on crop income and negative impact on poverty reduction. In another study conducted by Asfaw (2010) found similar finding. He evaluated the potential impact of adoption of modern agricultural technologies on rural household welfare measured by crop income and consumption expenditure in rural Ethiopia and Tanzania, using cross- sectional farm household data collected in 2007 from randomly selected sample of 1,313 households (700 in Ethiopia and 613 in Tanzania). He used regression model and established that adoption of improved agricultural technologies had a significant impact on crop income but the impact on consumption expenditure was mixed. This confirmed that there is potential direct role between technology adoption and improved rural household welfare which leads to higher incomes from improved technology which also translated into lower income poverty. Therefore, these studies indicate that there is negative relationship between technology adoption and poverty reduction which means that the more the poor farmers use or adopt modern technologies the fewer tendencies they have to fall into poverty.
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Microfinancing for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development; a Case for Nigeria

Microfinancing for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development; a Case for Nigeria

The main focus of this research is to juxtapose the features of microfinancing and the institutional forbearance of economic development in Nigeria. Based on empirical study, it has been observed that poverty is multifaceted and its persistence is due to lack of productive resources. The Nigerian case reveals that the major constraint to improving the standard of living of the poor is capital (finance). This has restricted their extensive participation in economic activities which could improve their lives. For this study, our theoretical a priori expectation is that provision of microfinance services such as savings and microloans have direct impact on GDP. A causal relationship will be established and evaluated with the ‘t - test’ statistic, while the relevance of the independent variables in explaining the subject will be justified based on the F-statistic test and R 2 coefficient of multi-determination. Also, using a lin-log regression model, economic growth shall be regressed on poverty level in Nigeria. This will create an assertion whether Nigeria needs a systematic reinforcement of the microfinance mechanism to propagate a soothing trend for poverty reduction and economic growth.
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Church Ethical Values in Good Governance and Entrepreneurship in Nigeria

Church Ethical Values in Good Governance and Entrepreneurship in Nigeria

The importance of entrepreneurship cannot be over- emphasized, as it is part of mechanism to propel the wheel of national development which leads to growth in the economy through the adoption of modern technologies coupled with good business envirolment which result to economics of scale and help to reduce the rate of youth unemployment. Since Nigeria independence in 1960, the leadership of Nigeria have shown great concern for the youth unemployment by introducing series of schemes and projects such as Better Life Programme (BLP), Operation feed the Nation (OFN) National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), Youth Enterprise with innovation in Nigeria (YOUWIN) etc. by instituting agency such as small and medium enterprises development agency to stimulate, monitor and coordinate the development of the every sector. To serve as mechanism for rural industrialization, poverty reduction, job creation and enhanced livelihoods link. But in spite of these initiatives, the spate of entrepreneurship in Nigeria is still below expectation considering the percentage of the unemployed youths 5 . It is against this backdrop that the study seeks to examine the relationship between governance and entrepreneurship in Nigeria.
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Poverty Alleviation of Rural People through Good Governance in Bangladesh

Poverty Alleviation of Rural People through Good Governance in Bangladesh

alleviation mainly focuses on economic development, income distribution, and distribution changes. Governance has an ability to influence and contribute to economic development and income distribution. The prominent market- enhancing government model seeks to improve the performance of marketplaces through „good governance‟ changes, apparently to enhance development. „Pro-poor‟ good government changes maintain to improve scale and performance of service delivery to inadequate people. The best government approach to improving development is disputed. Neither theory nor evidence strongly supports the plausibility of significantly decreasing poverty through the good government agenda. Alternative government approaches for addressing poverty are contrasted favorably with the currently prominent paradigm in Bangladesh. Good government is supposed to ensure civil, political, financial, social, and cultural privileges. The state must provide a framework of law and regulation within which individuals can exercise their rights and where these conditions are not in place, it is inadequate people who pay the price. Bangladesh is a nation where poverty is pervasive and good government is rare. Due to consider the importance of the issue, this study attempts to explore the effectiveness of good governance for alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, drawing on relevant theories and empirical evidence from the country‟s various programs and documents. It also determines the link between good governance and poverty alleviation.
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MICROFINANCE AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA: A Critical Assessment

MICROFINANCE AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA: A Critical Assessment

Microfinance is often advocated as a solution to multiple social problems in Nigeria. Poor persons with access to credit can make investments in enterprises that could bring them out of poverty. By the understanding of the level of poverty in Nigeria, Government attempted with several 3 micro-credit programs to alleviate poverty programs/projects such as Agricultural Development Programs (ADPs), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Better Life for Rural Dwellers (Later named Family Support Programs), the Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), which were pursued during 1986 to 1999. Other institutions that have also attempted purveying micro-credit were the rural banking scheme (1977-1990); People’s Bank (1987-1990); Community Bank (1990-2007). It would be good to note that, according to the Microfinance Policy Framework that was launched in 2005, the erstwhile community banks that met the requirement of increasing their capital base to N20 million by the end of the year 2007, were converted into microfinance banks.
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THE SYMMETRICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT

THE SYMMETRICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT

There is a good reason why development assistance still focuses largely on nation and national state structures. True, some states have collapsed, and we are seeing in succession alternative to the classic Westphalia state structure in the wake of state collapse, in such places as Somalia. Where this happens, donors must respond with new paradigms. But for most part, national state persist as the framework for governance and as indispensable facilitators of economic growth and poverty reduction. If we are going to witness large-scale reductions in poverty, for instance, it will only be because states themselves become more capable, effective, open, accountable, responsible, honest, decent, and just (Diamond 2004).
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Political Parties Defection and Good Governance in Nigeria: A Critique

Political Parties Defection and Good Governance in Nigeria: A Critique

Political Defection and Rule of law/equity: The principle of rule of law centers on the process of enforcing legal framework impartially ensuring human rights and guaranteeing freedom of individuals in accordance with the law. Politicians tendered political persecution as reason for defection, as it is contended with former governor of Akwa Ibom State defected from PDP to APC to escape prosecution by Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), it does mean that defection performs dual function of protecting political allies from the law. In this case, defection undermined rule of law which is an indicator of good governance. Thus, political defection negates good governance.
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Good Governance and Prison Congestion in Nigeria: The Case of Maximum Security Prison, Ilesa

Good Governance and Prison Congestion in Nigeria: The Case of Maximum Security Prison, Ilesa

For over a decade now, Nigeria has broken a record in its political history. The nationhas already witnessed unbroken democratic governance for sixteen years. Apart from this, the nation has equally recordedfour successful and smooth transitions from one civilian administration to the other, including transition fromthe ruling party to an opposition party in succession. Since 1999, when Nigeria once again embraced democratic governance, attention has consequently shifted to her regarding good governance, especially in the area of economic development; social service delivery; eradication of poverty; and employment generation. This could not be said to be a great expectation or a tall dream considering the fact that democracyis about creating an enabling environment for the rule of law which will consequently enhance sustenance of democracy, good governance and development. The levels of development so far, have fallen short of peoples’ expectations;as dividends and value of democracy are not adequately felt by Nigerians. Most of the indices for measuring good governancecould not be seen in Nigeria’s system of governance.
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ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA: THE SYNERGY

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA: THE SYNERGY

Theory and empirical literature has suggested that education positively contributed to higher productivity levels both in non – agricultural and agricultural sectors. A recent study by Pinkney (1997) reports significant result to reduction in poverty through higher educational attainment. Ogundele and Olayemi (2004) call for Nigeria education curricula to concentrate on developing Entrepreneurial capabilities in Nigerian educational institutions. The objective is to ensure that Nigerians are not left behind in the global competition that is knowledge managed. Such Entrepreneurship Training will equip the people with skills for constant improvement and innovation in their undertaken. The entrepreneurship development program in Nigeria is designed to help an individual in strengthening his/her entrepreneurial motivation and in acquiring skills and capabilities necessary for playing his/her entrepreneurial role effectively. Further studies indicate that educated workers show a higher marginal productivity hence earning higher wages (Knight and Subit, 1990). Apparently, skills obtained at school accounts for most earning differentials, hence indicating that households might be better off in the long run when they send their wards to school. Studies by several scholars have shown that human capital development leads to robust economic development (Lucas 1985; Romeo, 1969, 1990; Stokey, 1988, 1991). Better endowed households particularly more educated households are less likely to be poor but more likely to benefit from favourable changes in the macro – environment. Education plays a vital role in poverty reduction. According to Alwang (2002), shaper increase in poverty following the economic decline can be prevented by previous investments in schooling. His studies on “poverty in Zimbabwe 1990 – 96” found out that better endowed households, particularly more educated and those with more fertile land are less likely to be poor, but more likely to benefit from favourable changes in macro – economic environment.
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PUBLIC SPENDING ON HEALTH, REDUCTION OF POVERTY AND MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS ACHIEVEMENT IN NIGERIA: A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MICRO SIMULATION (CGE-MS) APPROACH

PUBLIC SPENDING ON HEALTH, REDUCTION OF POVERTY AND MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS ACHIEVEMENT IN NIGERIA: A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MICRO SIMULATION (CGE-MS) APPROACH

The 1990 World Development report’s two-part strategy has become an almost undisputed paradigm in development discussions. In this report it is been argued that to achieved apolitically and rapid sustainable progress on poverty, two strategies that have equal important elements must be involved. The first element is to make use of labour which is the poor most abundant asset. The second element is to give the poor the basic social services these includes; good nutrition, good primary education primary, basic health care and family planning (see World Bank, 1990). The East Asian experience has probably contributed most to the consensus that health care and education are essential the growth of the economic and for the reduction of poverty and both variables are essential to prepare the populations, especially poor countries for international economic integration.
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Decentralization and good governance: The case of Indonesia

Decentralization and good governance: The case of Indonesia

Decentralization is not always a silver bullet in the arsenal of good governance. The World Bank is very aware that there may be negative impacts with the application of decentralization in certain circumstances. 4 The World Bank comments that governments will likely fail to benefit from decentralization if there are inadequate financial resources at the local level to perform public services, if there is ineffective or inefficient local government administration, or if a lack of coordination exists between the local public and private sectors.

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Agricultural Extension Services And Poverty Reduction In Nigeria: A Case Of Farmers Cooperative Societies In Kano State Nigeria

Agricultural Extension Services And Poverty Reduction In Nigeria: A Case Of Farmers Cooperative Societies In Kano State Nigeria

Falsafi, Jangchi and Parsmehr, 2014; Hasan, Imai, and Sato, 2013; and Nigussie, Adisu, Desalegn and Gebreegziabher, 2016. Dercon, et al (2008) evidenced that public investment that led to increase access to agricultural extension services promoted faster consumption growth and lower rates of poverty among poor farming households. They also established that there was significant relation between extension service visit and poverty reduction among the farming households. Egziabher, et al (2013) established that extension service programme had contributed significantly to rising income, investment as well as welfare which led to the poverty reduction among poor farm households. Falsafi, et al. (2014) found that there was a significant relationship between impacts of extension programmes, the proper use of the funds provided by the government and poverty reduction among poor farm households. Hasan, et al. (2013) established that participation in extension service programmes played a significant role in reducing poverty level and vulnerability among poor household farmers.
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GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: THE GAP BETWEEN RHETORIC  AND REALITY

GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: THE GAP BETWEEN RHETORIC AND REALITY

However, the most dangerous and negative challenge that have frustrated governance in Nigeria is the widespread problem of endemic corruption. Corruption has become a contagious and alignment socio- economic and political problem enervating the development aspirations of the state. It permeates every strata of the society, reduces the values system and has been institutionalized. Even, the present government led by president Buhari, that was majorly voted into power in 2015 on anti-corruption slogan is not left out of this endemic virus as evident in some of her top officials been fingered in the act while the president look the other way round as agitations for their investigations and prosecutions felt into the deaf air of the presidency. See the below table as justification of the above assertion.
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Good governance in microcredit strategy for poverty reduction: focus on western Mindanao, Philippines

Good governance in microcredit strategy for poverty reduction: focus on western Mindanao, Philippines

In the Philippines, for example, microcredit programs automatically disqualify three groups of interested borrowers. The first disqualified group is composed of enterprising borrowers who actually need a working capital higher than the microcredit ceiling of PhP25,000.00 based on the lending guidelines of PCFC and PhP15,000.00 for the clients of QUEDANCOR. The second disqualified group is composed of interested borrowers who are engaged in non-trading business such as crop production, livestock raising and other production-oriented projects with long- gestation periods of more than one month. For projects with long-gestating periods, the loan could only be paid during the harvest season or three or more months after the release of the loan. The third disqualified poverty group is composed of those who are not credit-worthy at all. That is, they are too poor they could not generate small amounts of savings of at least PhP500.00 per year, the heavily indebted and those who have previous records and negative neighborhood reputation of not paying their debts.
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Econoimic Viability And Good Governance: A Panacea To Crime In Nigeria

Econoimic Viability And Good Governance: A Panacea To Crime In Nigeria

Every man in a particular society deserves survival. Survival in this sense is not just to be alive alone, but to be accorded some basic needs of life such as food, shelter, clothing, etc. Where this is lacking, then there is a threat to man’s life and survival and the end result is crime. Crime is part of the social configuration of the society and cannot be totally eradicated. The objective of this paper is to justify ompetitive, the rate of crime will be high. This is because the need to survive is non negotiable to every man. It is further argued that the above fact resulted in the failure of the theories and forms of punishment which are developed with the sole aim of reducing crime in the society. The methodology adopted is both doctrinal and empirical with primary source from relevant case laws and statutes. The secondary source includes internet sources, bible, articles in udes that the various forms of punishments enshrined in our criminal justice system are grossly inadequate in tackling crime and thus suggested that if government can create a good economic environment and good governance where men can survive with less mpetition and class struggle, the rate of crime will be reduced far beyond the adoption of penology.
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