The importance of community participation and the private sector role should be systematically organized, because there are many people have interests in coastal areas to increase their income by building small shops to sell their trades. The role of local government involve to restore coastal area covers: the Forest Service, Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Environment Agency, the Department of Public Works, Planning, District Government, District Government, and the Government of the village. The number of agencies that have an interest in coastal areas causing cumbersome bureaucratic process. Therefore, it is necessary to draw up a strategy of institutional models in a systematic way and be able to carry out their duties professionally. Preparation of the institutional model is based on the goals and strategies that have been created in the model ISM. ISM models were developed further by using AHP. The following hierarchy of the institutional model of integrated coastal ecosystem restoration can be seen below:
Keywords: Gap Analysis; GreenCity; Green Open Space
Abstract: Malang is the second largest city in EastJava after Surabaya. In general, the problems in Malang are similar to those in other big cities in Indonesia. Although urbanization is especially important for economic growth, it results in the degradation of environmental quality and promotes flooding, congestion, urban infrastructure problems, and slums. The tendency of the built-up area of Malang to increase faster, along with the population growth and development expansion, indicates that the city will surpass the region’s holding capacity sooner than it should. Such conditions create an uncomfortable living environment. One way to make the city more comfortable, safe and in harmony with nature is to apply the greencity (GC) concept. The purpose of this study is to analyse and evaluate the implementation of the GC concept in Malang. This research employs the gap analysis method, which compares the ideal GC conditions with the actual conditions in Malang. The results indicate that of the eight GC indicators, Malang focuses on three: green planning and design, green open space, and green community. Building construction comprises the lowest score of 0%, while the highest score is green open space indicator with 50%.
Implementation will be effective if policy measures and goals are understood by individuals responsible for achieving policy objectives. Clarity in the size and objectives of the policy thus need to be properly communicated with the implementers. Consistency or uniformity of the basic measures and objectives need to be communicated so that the implementer knows exactly the size and the purpose of the policy. Communication in the organization is a process which is very complex and complicated. Besides that different sources of information will also give birth to different interpretations. For the implementation to be effective, who is responsible for carrying out a decision must know whether they can do it. Indeed the implementation of the policy must be accepted by all implementers and must understand clearly and accurately the aims and objectives of the policy. If the policy enforcers are confused about what they will do and if forced to do so they will not get optimal results. Insufficient communication to the implementers seriously affects policy implementation. In the discussion about the results in the communication factors that occurred in the implementation of the Malang Mayor Regulation No. 90 of 2004 concerning the Recommendation of City Park Utilization. The researcher will also describe it into 3 (three) indicators.
It may be thought that Cairo is an arid city without a history o f green spaces. This is not the case. Egypt’s ancient civilisations were among the most developed, with its roots in the earliest beginnings o f cultural history. It was the first to introduce many inventions to humanity such as Black Ink, First Ox-Drawn Plows, 365 Day Calendar and Leap Year, Paper, First Trisingular Shaped Pyramid, Organized labor, Hieroglyphics as an early system of writing and Sails. The ancient Egyptian civilization changed the face of history in many disciplines and every now and then a new discovery, such as the famous Giza Pyramids at Giza, which are the largest Egyptian pyramids. They are the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence. New discoveries are found every now and then in these unique great constructions. It is amazing to know that the great pyramid of Khufu, on the Giza Plateau; has been oriented almost perfectly north. The largest pyramid ever built, it incorporates about 2.3 million stone blocks, weighing an average of 2.5 to 15 tons each. It is estimated that the workers would have had to set a block every two and a half minutes. This reminds us of that culture’s uniqueness and superiority.
Maputo city, the capital of Mozambique, is situated in a plateau overlooking Maputo Bay, which is formed by the confluence of six rivers (Incomati, Infulene, Matola Umbeluzi, Tembe and the Maputo rivers), comprising a sequence of coastal ecosystems, including mangrove wetlands, which are among the most productive systems in the world. Maputo’s coast currently suffers from direct drivers of degradation due to population growth and increasing economic development, which include infrastructure development, land conversion, water withdrawal, pollution, overharvesting and overexploitation, and the introduction of invasive alien species (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005), as Maputo’s Metropolitan area fits in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) main metropolitan regions where urban growth is increasing dramatically (Jenkins 2012).
The following Council Members were present: Tom McCullough, Jim Boan, Lisa Maes, Adam Coppolo, Gene Smith, and Gary Killpack. The following were present representing the City: City Administrator Barry Cook, Director of Public Works Mike Nelson, Director of Human Resources Debbie Klein Robertson, Director of Finance Jeff Nieters, Director of Community Development Laura Hansen, Chief of Police John Love, Fire Chief/Emergency Services Mike Kennedy, Parks and Recreation Director Walt Bratton, Parks, Facility, and Project Manager Allan Wilson, City Attorney Galen West, and Public Information Coordinator Stephen Pyles.
The socio-cultural dimension refers to the understanding that the development of the south coast region will continue to maintain and respect the authenticity of the social and cultural values of local communities, preserve the values of existing cultural and cultural heritage, and contribute to increasing tolerance and understanding between cultures. The attributes of this dimension, namely: (1) The level of public education; (2) unemployment rate; (3) Cultural preservation; (4) Educational content; (5) Community participation; (6) Application of science and technology; (7) Tourism education and training; (8) Environmental cleanliness; (9) social conflicts; and (10) Security level.Rap-EcoBeach analysis results show that Ngliyep Beach has a fairly sustainable status (53.91), Balaikambang Beach has a fairly sustainable status (64.76), and Ungapan Beach has a fairly sustainable status (61.45).Statistical parameters shown by a stress value (S) of 15.2% stated goodness of fit (S <25%) and a coefficient of determination (R2) = 94.8% giving a confirmation of good conditions (close to 1). This gives an understanding that all attributes are quite accurate and provide better and more accountable analysis results in assessing the status of the Social and Cultural Dimensions in the development of sustainable ecotourism in the southern coast region of Malang Regency.The results of the Monte Carlo statistical and simulation parameters provide an understanding that the quantitative and rapid Rap-EcoBeach analysis (rapid appraisal) is good enough to be used as an evaluation tool in determining the status of the Social and Cultural dimension in the development of sustainable ecotourism in the southern coast region of Malang Regency.
As outlined in Chapter 3, the case studies examined in this project – the Double Crossover Diamond in Lexington, the Elizabethtown to Radcliff Connector, and the 12 th Street reconstruction in
Covington – all performed well on the criteria used by INVEST to rate sustainability. Each project merited a Bronze rating. This reflects positively on the guidance and procedures used agency-wide at KYTC as well as the district-specific practices adopted for individual projects. There was no single area in which all of the projects excelled. As might be expected, context matters, and projects accumulated points under myriad criteria. The KTC research team observed that a Platinum rating was within reach for all the projects had modest additional investments been made upfront, which raises numerous questions. If KYTC wants to use the INVEST rating system with increased regularity to guide decision making, arguably it would need to develop an appropriate method of cost-benefit analysis that would let state officials and district staff determine what kind of investments are appropriate and will produce the greatest returns over the short- and long-term. Weighing costs and benefits versus the level of sustainability achieved is essential to consider – if significant cost increases yield a small bump in the sustainability rating, deepening the financial investment may not be warranted. An appropriate cost- benefit method would let KYTC personnel quantify the initial costs and the sustainability benefits a project would enjoy throughout its lifecycle. True, this does foreground the issue of finances, however in an era of tightening budgets it is imperative to look at projects from a monetary standpoint. Current practices suggest that KYTC has been proactive in pursuing ambitious sustainability standards at a reasonable cost. But what a cost-benefit analysis reveals is what sacrifices must be made to introduce more sustainable practices to a specific project. It is clearly not worth the tradeoff if being more sustainable would introduce financial obstacles insurmountable, preventing Kentucky from tackling other critical infrastructure projects. A proper balance is achievable, but understanding where this lies would require expanded research efforts and significant input from the Cabinet.
Page 13 of 79 South Africa is also signatory to a number of International Conventions on sustainability and climate change. To operationalise these commitments, the country has taken some steps at various levels of the Government. Some of these will be mentioned here to give context. In January 2010 The Presidency adopted twelve (12) outcomes which would have to be achieved by 2014. Outcome 10 related to “Environmental assets and natural resources that are well protected and continually enhanced.” Outcome 10 must be understood in the context of environmentally sustainable and encompassing the protection of the environment. Outcome 4 talks to “a high performing metropolitan government that pro-actively contributes to and builds a sustainable, socially inclusive, locally integrated and globally competitive Gauteng City Region”. This is in line with Minister Patel’s outlook outlined above. All levels of government have to plan their sustainability projects around this notion. Principle 4 of the Gauteng province’s Developmental Green Economy Strategy talks about “ensuring resource security and environmental sustainability”. 8 This too flows from central Government Policy and means that it must cascaded to – or at least implemented with – Local Authorities. The Green Strategic Programme for Gauteng is explicit on this point: “This Green Strategic Programme is meant to inform objectives and activities of departments and Municipalities in the province, so that all parts of Government working on green issues within Gauteng are focused on the same targets. Ultimately, each Provincial Department and Municipality, and ideally also National Government departments and agencies working in Gauteng, should align to and work co-operatively towards the vision and programme commitments in this Green Strategy Programme” (2011: 3).
www.iosrjen.org 4 | P a g e Population is a very important aspect in the planning and management of the city system, many environmental problems are related to the population problems. Population of MalangCity continues to increase from year to year. The increasing number of people, results in the increasing need of the residential lands, housing and public facilities land, it is impacted on the reduction of GOS areas in MalangCity [1, 2, 7, 42, 43]. Urban economic activities resulted in the need of land for trade services and industrial activities, and it induced any conversion of the existing GOS [1, 2, 44]. Vehicles are the important tools in supporting people mobilities. Therefore, increasing urban population have created demand of vehicles, especially motorcycles and private cars. It is also triggered by the behavior of urban family who have more than one or two motor vehicles. The increase number of vehicles, resulting in the increasing demand of fossil fuels. High demand for these fuels, causing the increase of gasoline and diesel consumption. Gasoline and diesel fuels consumption is the largest contributor to the increase of CO 2 emissions in MalangCity. The relationship between input and
January – Collections Start: Officially launch the Green Bin program with an experiential event including Members of Council, and targeting both media and the general public. The goal of the event would be to create excitement around the beginning of collections and encourage public participation. The City is currently investigating options for an indoor garden installation at a central location that would be unveiled at the official launch of organics collection. An indoor garden would provide a welcome escape from January weather, tie back to the Green Bin program’s eventual end product – compost, and provide a great visual for broadcast media.
Abstract: Green urbanism probably contains the most similar ideas with sustainable urbanism. They both emphasize on urban design with nature, as well as shaping better communities and lifestyles. However, the principles of green urbanism are based on the triple-zero frameworks: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, and zero emissions. Sustainable Urbanism, on the other hand, is more focused on designing communities that are walk able and transit-served so that people will prefer to meet their daily needs on foot. In this research has been studied urban green space development process in Boroujerd city. Also, the aim of research, is achieving sustainable city. This study is applied and the research method is" descriptive – analytical". Also data collected is documents and field. In order to analyzing of data, was used spearman correlation and Bahram Soltani method .The findings show, percapita of green space isn’t well and far from with global standards. So, should be attempted in this issue. At finally was proposed percapita based on Bahram Soltani method.
3) Evaluation of MalangCity Park Management Framework Ten questions asked to participants through in-depth interviews showed slightly different outcomes among them on how city park user data were extracted and utilized, resources used, essential management programs, approaches, and intended targets. The results lead to an input framework: (a) limited use of field data of user needs, (b) resources with limited funds ; outputs framework(Table 4): (a) park-oriented programs, with (b) a relevant approach to indicators according to user needs (Table 5); and outcomes: (a) goal-oriented work objectives (Table 6). The utilization of user needs data is generally considered to be sufficient by utilizing the results of the reports prepared by the managers and the completeness of the technical guidance collected through the collection of various parties' opinions in the planned discussion (FGD). Managers in such a perspective understand that accommodating the needs of users means presenting innovative innovations on the procurement of park facilities and decorations as part of inviting visitors. The development program is arranged with
reduced energy use for Cooling
Both tree shading and the insulating properties of green roofs reduce cooling costs during warmer months. At full implementation, green roofs and trees in the Plan are estimated to reduce cooling energy needs by 16,500 MWh per year. This is equivalent to the power consumption of 1,400 homes, based on average annual electricity consumption data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (USEIA) website’s “Frequently Asked Questions” (USEIA 2010a). The reduction in cooling energy needs has an associated cost savings of $1.5 to $2.1 million annually based on a cost range of $0.09 to $0.13 per kWh, according to the “State Energy Profile for Wisconsin” (USEIA 2010b). Not all trees provide shading benefits—the amount of shading depends upon the tree type and location. In addition, the insulating properties of green roofs vary depending on the depth of the groundcover and type of vegetation. The estimates assume that 30 percent of the stormwater trees in the Plan provide shading. The calculation also assumes that 25 percent of green roofs are intensive green roofs (insulating soil depth of greater than 6 inches) providing 17,000 kWh of energy savings per acre, as described in “Determining the Potential of GreenInfrastructure to Reduce Overflows in Milwaukee” (MMSD 2011). The remaining 75 percent are simpler, tray-type green roofs (insulating soil depth of 3 to 6 inches) with an assumed energy savings equal to one quarter of the intensive green roof, or 4,250 kWh per acre.
Percentage of budget allocated for heritage and ecological conservation initiatives 8.1
Urban poverty levels 8.1
The study has successfully benefitted from the effectiveness of the Delphi technique in allowing a set of people, as a group, to address a difficult, complicated problem (Linstone and Turoff 1975) or lack of information about a phenomenon (Adler and Ziglio 1996) and arrived at an agreement by means of a collective human intelligence process (Linstone and Turoff 1975).The Delphi technique provided a valuable framework for tapping expert knowledge on the suitable criteria for Malaysian garden city. The technique yielded both insight and structure in the formulation of criteria that define garden city and as a mean to assess development of any garden city in the making or the performance of the existing one. This proved to be useful in area where incomplete or limited knowledge on the criteria and indicators were previously not available.
Infrastructure function in government is used to facilitate or accelerate the government activity in order to achieve better performance. Infrastructure is like a vehicle or a tool used to reach the destination, easily and efficiently (Adisasmita, 2011). Aleksiane and Bagdonavicius (2008) on Bahl (2009) argue that the central valuation authority of Lithuania is able to develop better analytic system such as fully computerized property registration system links data bases and gather more professional expertise at a single place. The swift of BPHTB databases and computing system (SISMIOP) from Pratama Taxation Office of Kediri City to DPPKA shows that between institutions that related to BPHTB collection, there is great cooperation. DPPKA of Kediri city has begun a sufficient support facilities, including computers used to manage the data and expand their office to make taxpayers comfortable to report their tax liability.
All activities are designed to generate and to facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs or wants occurs, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment. Therefore, this study intends to identify the influence of media, on purchase green product in Pune city. The Puneit are not only conscious about their environment but also health conscious as well. This paradigm shift in attitude has made Pune consumers attractive to green marketers. Through the results of this study, media had a significant positive influence on Pune city customer to purchase green products. The theory of planned behavior supported the findings of this study for media and purchase intent, which is related to the motivation part of the theory which includes information about a behavior, resulting in motivation to perform a certain behavior.
2) Construction and demolition waste (CDW) can be recycled to be used as concrete aggregate with proper- ties suitable for infrastructure applications (e.g. pavement and sidewalk border). Few of the concrete mixes made of recycled CDW exceeded the lower strengths required for reinforced concrete (20 Mpa) where most of them exceeded the plain concrete strengths (17 Mpa).