comparable in magnitude to that taking place at the WTW. As coagulation is principally undertaken for organic matter removal, this process represents a significant GHG emission that can be attributed indirectly to DOC processing.
Regarding electricity consumption, for sites A, B and D there was an approximate linear trend with the volume of water processed at the works, but site C stands out as having a high electricity use for its size i.e. it uses 35% more electricity than site A, despite processing only 25% of the volume of water. This may be due to the WTW at site C being located at a higher altitude than the reservoir, therefore raw water has to be pumped to the works rather than gravity fed as it is for the other three WTWs. This may result in the greatest use of electricity at this works being from raw water pumping, rather than the treatment process itself. The clear seasonal trend in electricity consumption in the winter will partly be due to increased use of lighting and heating in the WTW buildings that are staffed, but a significant proportion may be attributed to a deterioration in raw water quality in autumn and winter. Concentrations of DOC and POC in freshwaters generally increase during late summer and peak in late autumn or early winter (Dawson et al. 2011). Raw water TOC concentrations, for site B only, are also present in Figure 3. The data show the typical seasonal cycle of this parameter in freshwaters and there appears to be a two-month lag between the maximum and minimum raw water TOC concentrations and corresponding maximum and minimum electricity usages. Poorer water quality will increase electricity demand during processing for chemical pumping (lime, coagulant, etc.), sludge removal and filter washing, with the latter two processes peaking in the days and weeks after the peak in raw water DOC concentration, possibly explaining the lag in electricity consumption. The 22% increase in emissions is comparable to the 14.5% increase in energy consumption observed by Santana et al. (2014) for a WTW in Florida due to elevated raw water TOC concentrations during the wet season.
Clemson University Energy Use Assessment Survey
WATERTREATMENT ENERGY ASSESSMENT SURVEY
The data gathered in this survey will provide a much needed overview of the power demands of a watertreatment plant. The compiled data will allow for electrical use comparisons between common treatment options as well as various plant sizes. The data will also be utilized to further study the sustainable operation of watertreatment plants. Published literature has illustrated that the most important input to a watertreatment plant when considering its environmental impact is energy use. Given this energy use and the source of electricity production, the greenhousegas (GHG) emissionsassociated with a plant can be calculated. Further analysis will be undertaken to understand how various watertreatment techniques and different energy grids affect the environmental impact of treating water. Future scenarios including a changing energy grid and possible carbon legislation will also be studied using the compiled energy data as a baseline. There is space provided in the energy use information section for you to provide any additional thoughts and uncharacteristic details about your process. Your participation in this survey is sincerely appreciated.
This study has examined the effects of salinity on changes in soil properties, plant performance and nitrogen efficiency in paddy soils. The evidence from this study indicates that the interaction between soil and salinity significantly altered rice growth performance. Crop yield was greater in the alluvial soil relative to the acid sulphate soil treatments. The impact of acidity was most evident in the acid soil treatment, where yields were reduced despite higher soil carbon and nitrogen content. Ammonium N remained in the acid sulphate soil and salinity treatments until 43 DAS, reflecting overall poor crop performance relative to the alluvial soil treatments. The combination of acidity and elevated salinity (8-ppt) treatment resulted in no yield. This highlights the need to develop strategies to improve crop yield under such scenarios. Overall the greatest fertiliser loss of 59% occurred when crop yield failed and for the remaining treatments losses ranged from 28-38% with N fertiliser recovery of 37-50%. Using the salt tolerant rice variety, salinity did not alter rice yield or N fertiliser losses on the alluvial soil. However, the high salinity (8-ppt) on ASS resulted in significant loss of crop yield and decreased in nitrogen recovery due to increased N losses, most likely as denitrification. Therefore, rice production and N fertiliser application in a conventional cultivation may not be sustainable on the ASS that are likely to be inundated by saline water due to conditions associated with climate change. New cropping systems and appropriate interventions should be noticed in the climate change context.
The need for eﬀective control of global warming has arisen from growing public concern about the negative eﬀects that this phenomenon has for society as a whole. A number of eﬀorts to promote the eﬀective and eﬃcient use and allocation of resources have also taken shape over the last years (e.g. Aristovnik, 2012; Grubb and Neuhoﬀ, 2006). Policy makers have therefore developed an interest in diﬀerent economic and fi- nancial instruments in order to tackle the issue of global warming. Environmental taxes have been frequently advocated as a cost-eﬀective instrument for reducing greenhousegas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this paper is to address this question, by defin- ing whether taxes for environmental purposes have had an important impact on GHG emissions. We investigate the interaction between collected and spent public appropri- ations on one side, and their impact on GHG emissions, expressed in CO2 equivalents, from industrial processes, on the other. According to the Intergovernmental panel on climate change, emissions from industrial processes represent one of the main sourc- es of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Taking into account all three categories, we evaluate the direct eﬀect of environmental taxes, and the indirect eﬀect of environmental taxes through environmental expenditures on GHG emissions in industrial processes. In this respect, the model discussed in this paper represents a simple methodological inno- vation. The article contributes to the debate whether environmental taxes and, conse- quently, environmental policy have been eﬀective. We used a panel of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. Countries included in the analysis are: France, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Romania, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Neth- erlands, Bulgaria, Austria, Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom, Denmark, Germany and Spain. The criterion for selection of countries was the availability of data for direct and indirect eﬀects of environmental taxes and GHG emissions in industrial processes. The major results of the analysis are that the direct eﬀect of environmental taxes on the optimization of environment-related processes for minimizing GHG-related pollution in industrial processes is confirmed. We also confirmed the indirect eﬀect of environ- mental taxes through environmental expenditures on the reduction of GHG emissions and found that the indirect eﬀect is more statistically significant and more robust than the direct eﬀect alone. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: section two presents a literature review, section three describes the model and variables used in this analysis, section four presents empirical findings, while section five concludes.
Changes in behaviour and attitudes towards eating are also essential (Garnett, 2008). Reduced con- sumption of the most harmful food products and of products with low nutritional value, avoidance of food waste and eating only as much as necessary are actions that can reduce CO2 emissions from food consumption and simultaneously combat other environmental or social problems, such as obe- sity and food provision inequity. In fact, more sustainable diets are often in line with healthy diet rec- ommendations by governmental authorities.
Our study indicates that GHG emissions can be reduced by restoration of saline water logged soil through tree plantations, agroforestry biodrainage approach, irrigation practices with minimum flooding the surface and proper leveling of the surface. Thus multiple approaches are needed to tackle the problem. To enhance SOC levels and SMB and to minimise the ill effects of salinity, incorporation of organic material is needed. Our results demonstrate that water logging reduces emission.
118. The typical / average capacities and average payloads agreed with DfT that are used in the calculation of van emission factors per tonne km are presented in Table 32. These are based on quantitative assessment of the van database used by AEA in variety of policy assessment for DfT. For the 2011 update, a correction has been made to the dataset used to calculate van emissions in 2010, where it was discovered some van models had been included in the incorrect weight classes. The correction reallocated some vans between the different weight categories for the payload capacity calculation. In addition the assumed split of petrol van stock between size classes has been adjusted using the split of registrations from this dataset. This has resulted in some changes to emission factors, particularly since the proportion of smaller petrol vans is much higher..
The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is the Agency’s center for investigation of technological and management approaches for preventing and reducing risks from pollution that threatens human health and the environment. The focus of the Laboratory’s research program is on methods and their cost-effectiveness for prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites, sediments and ground water; prevention and control of indoor air pollution; and restoration of ecosystems. NRMRL collaborates with both public and private sector partners to foster technologies that reduce the cost of compliance and to anticipate emerging problems. NRMRL’s research provides solutions to environmental problems by: developing and promoting technologies that protect and improve the environment; advancing scientific and engineering information to support regulatory and policy decisions; and providing the technical support and information transfer to ensure implementation of environmental regulations and strategies at the national, state, and community levels. The goal of this research effort is to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatment processes for removing arsenic from residuals produced by arsenic removaldrinkingwatertreatment technologies.
An environmental design project is being conducted within the framework of Innovatum Technology Park, the aim being to incorporate design in Klimp projects. Th e object is to achieve more aesthetic sur- roundings, which will provide an indirect stimulus and increase public interest. Th e target groups include students, Trollhättan inhabitants and visitors. A comprehensive joint project will be run by the university and the municipality under the auspices of Trollhättan Biogas Centre. Klimp funds are also being used to produce educational material for school years 1–6, 7–9 and upper secondary school. Th e material deals with climate and energy and is based on municipal eﬀ orts to reduce green- house gasemissions.
extensive pre-data collection ride-hailing driving and attending ride-hailing driver meetings. As a driver, he mimicked what he identified as typical driver behavior but did not randomly vary start locations and driving times. Instead, he chose typical driver start locations and worked during peak demand times of day. He also implemented protocols to minimize travel time and distance without passengers and excluded “commute travel” to locations where he turned on his ride-hailing applications. As a result, the study provides a conservative representation of driver productivity. This study was included in the analysis because it includes a relatively high number of surveys completed by high frequency users; however, there is no way to determine whether the passenger survey or trip activity sample are representative of ride-hailing
The objectives of this study were to investigate the degradation mechanisms of the sulfonamides p-TSA, o-TSA and BSA duringdrinkingwatertreatment. For this purpose, various incubation experiments and a filter experiment were conducted. In order to (i) identify the impact of the microbiology on elimination, incubation experiments with sterile drinkingwater and with a non-sterile mixture of backwash water from a rapid sand filter and drinkingwater were compared. It was suspected that the microbiology was adapted at the specific DWTP treating groundwater polluted with sulfonamides. Therefore, to study (ii) the role of the adapted microbiology, the substances were added to a suspension of drinkingwater with backwash water from rapid sand filters originating from two different DWTPs (unpolluted and polluted catchment areas with regard to the substances in question). Additionally, the influences of (iii) filtration velocities, raw water quality and backwash intervals on the degradation rates were evaluated using an experimental filter unit at the specific DWTP treating polluted groundwater in Berlin.
Electricity supply in Illinois comes almost exclusively from large central station power plants that use coal or nuclear power. Natural gas, the primary source of space and water heating in Illinois, is also obtained via a delivery system from a central supply provided by a utility. In recent years, as more fuel options and improved technologies have come to market, generation of renewable household energy has become a viable option that can not only reduce GHGs, but could address supply problems (e.g., power quality and availability), and energy security (e.g., eliminate potential for centralized electricity failure). Proven DG technologies are available, but the adoption rate continues to be low; high initial investment cost is a major barrier.
Funding Upgrades and Replacements
Other innovative policy mechanisms are being developed to pay to upgrade and replace existing pipelines. Some states, such as Colorado, authorize tracker mechanisms allowing rates to change in response to the utility’s operating costs and conditions outside of a complex rate case proceeding, specifically in response to federal and state safety requirements. A similar process outside the rate case in states such as Kentucky permits temporary surcharges for partial program cost recovery. The Georgia Public Services Commission has permitted Atlanta Gas Light Company to institute a surcharge on customer bills throughout its service territory to help fund pipeline replacement, improvement, and pressure increases through the Georgia Strategic Infrastructure Development and Enhancement (STRIDE) Program. The Georgia Public Services Commission reviews the surcharge and related plans every three years, thereby eliminating the need for rate cases and associated regulatory lag. Also, from 2009 to 2012, a pilot program called the Customer Growth Program was paid for through the STRIDE surcharge. It helped fund new pipeline construction and extensions, including strategic development corridors to regions far removed from existing Atlanta Gas Light Company infrastructure. It also helped overcome the barrier of high upfront costs for new natural gas pipelines. 310 However, the STRIDE
Gauthier F., Neufeld J.D., Driscoll B.T., Archibald F.S. (2000) Coliform bacteria and nitrogen fixation in pulp and paper mill effluent treatment systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:5155-5160.
Gernaey K.V., van Loosdrecht M.C.M., Henze M., Lind M., Jorgensen S.B. (2004) Activated sludge wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation: state of the art. Environmental Modelling & Software 19:763-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2003.03.005.
emissions. Therefore it is suggested that arboriculture uses more fossil fuel based equipment and machinery than other businesses of similar size and structure and may make a significant contribution to GHG emissions.
International bodies have developed recognised standards to guide organisations through the quantification process, such as BS ISO 14064, GHG Protocol and PAS 2050. The application of these standards to various business types and niche industries has yet to reach maturity, raising questions of integrity (Pieragostini et al., 2012; Olson, 2010; Bowen and Wittneben, 2011). Assessments of GHG emissions from organisations have been carried out by auditing firms, primarily on large publically visible organisations (Bowen and Wittneben, 2011). The standards do not discuss methods of GHG reduction; they have therefore been developed by carbon auditing firms. The reductions recommendations provided to businesses are generic advice on office based energy savings, reduction in business travel (flights, trains) and diverting waste from landfill. There are no studies based on organisation specific GHG reductions, incorporating business specific activities and equipment. Moreover, little research exists on the GHG emissions of arboricultural practices or processes. The majority of related published research in arboriculture has focussed on emissions affecting human health (e.g. Volckens et al., 2007; Ålander et al., 2005).
To remove the built-in flaws, one option is to use eligibility to trade as an enforcement mechanism. This approach reflects the view that in some cases prevention of non- compliance is more effective than ex post reward or punishment. It assumes that trading is a privilege, not a right. Initially, trading is only allowed to those “eligible” parties whose domestic monitoring, tracking and enforcement systems have met certain “minimum quality” criteria. The criteria include, but are not limited to, compliance with inventory and reporting obligations of Articles 5 and 7 of the Kyoto Protocol, and establishment and maintenance of a satisfactory national registry that accurately records all holdings, transfers and acquisitions of AAUs by the Party and all the legal entities that it authorises to trade. The eligibility requirements would be particularly important if ex post penalties for non- compliance were weak or unavailable in practice. By precluding those Annex B countries that do not meet the criteria from engaging in emissions trading until such time as they bring their domestic monitoring and enforcement systems up to the threshold eligible for trading, the eligibility criteria would ensure that there is no significant risk to buyers, thus giving the credibility of the emissions trading system. The more stringent are the criteria, the greater is the assurance that traded tons of emissions represent real reductions, the less risk there is to buyers, and hence the more likely buyers become active on the market. From the environmental perspective, the more stringent criteria are preferred. On the other hand, less developed Annex B countries or new entrants to Annex B are less likely to have well- developed monitoring and enforcement systems in place, but are most likely to have surplus emissions permits to sell. The more stringent eligibility requirements would preclude these potential sellers of emissions permits and increase buyers’ costs of compliance, thus undermining the effectiveness of emissions trading in lowering the cost of abating GHG emissions. Clearly, there is a trade-off between the desirability of assigning the seller responsibility for the validity of acquired permits and the “appropriate” eligibility threshold. In addition to using eligibility to determine which Parties could be eligible for trading, the eligibility requirements could demand the suspension of valuable trading rights of those Parties that are not in compliance with their targets in the previous commitment period once subsequent commitment periods begin to take effect. If adopted, this would promote continuing compliance.
Bioenergy sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] is a promising bioenergy crop due to its high biomass yield potential, drought tolerance, and genetic tractability (Mullet, et al., 2014, Rooney, et al., 2007, Wight, et al., 2012). Nutrient management is important to improve biomass yield and nitrogen (N) use efficiency for this emerging sorghum type. As a main yield-determining macronutrient, N application can increase bioenergy sorghum yields (Hao, et al., 2014, Olson, et al., 2013), and also plays a significant role in soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization due to greater input of plant residue and root exudates (Wilhelm, et al., 2004). Nitrogen fertilization has resulted in higher soil organic carbon (SOC) levels over time (Dou and Hons, 2006), but typically is also one of the largest factors causing greenhouse (GHG) emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N 2 O) (Snyder, et al., 2009). Nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture generally
There are a wide range of edge-of-field practices that have been studied to reduce N and P losses from agricultural fields, including drainage water management (DWM), saturated lateral buffers, woodchip bioreactors, and constructed wetlands. Skaggs et al. (2012) summarized DWM studies to date and found that nitrate losses from tile drained fields were reduced by 18 to 85%, with most of the studies showing >50% removal. However, a limitation of this work is that the fate of the held back water and nitrate has not been determined, which may reduce effectiveness at a watershed scale (Woli et al., 2010). Saturated lateral buffers can reduce nitrate losses by taking some of the tile flow that would normally directly enter a ditch or stream and routing it through a buffer strip, which allows the water to slowly seep to the ditch. This allows for denitrification and plant uptake of the nitrate along the flow path. At this time they are poorly studied, with only one published report. Jaynes and Isenhart (2014) found that 55% of the tile flow was able to be directed to pass through the forested buffer, with all of the nitrate removed from this flow (45% of the overall tile load was therefore removed by the buffer system). Woodchip bioreactors involve directing some of the tile flow through a trench filled with woodchips, a high C:N material. Bioreactors are not all constructed the same way, but all have shown that they can reduce agricultural nitrate loads. Percent reduction for these bioreactors can range from 12 to 99.5% depending on water source, retention time, woodchip temperature, wood chip age, and seasonality (Woli et al., 2010; Chun et al., 2010; Robertson, 2010). Drainage water management,
Pett-Ridge et al. (2006) showed that DNRA is less sensitive to dissolved oxygen (DO) than denitrification. Fazzolari et al. (1998) showed that the partitioning between DNRA and denitrification depends on the C : NO − 3 ratio and C rather than DO.. Significant DNRA may occur only at a C : NO − 3 ratio above 12 (Yin et al., 1998). Different numbers of electrons are required in the reduction of each NO − 3 molecule: five for denitrification and eight for DNRA. Therefore, more or- ganic matter can be oxidized for each molecule of NO − 3 by DNRA than by denitrification. In addition, NO − 3 reduction is generally performed by fermentative bacteria that are not dependent on the presence of NO − 3 for growth under anaer- obic conditions. Therefore, DNRA bacteria may be favoured in NO − 3 -limited conditions (Laanbroek, 1990). Recent stud- ies have suggested that DNRA may be an important process compared to denitrification in wetland sediments (Burgin and Hamilton, 2008). Van Oostrom and Russell (1994) found a 5 % contribution of DNRA to NO − 3 removal in CWs. Little is known about the eventual fate of the NO − 3 that is converted to NH + 4 via DNRA pathways. In recent years, N-cycling stud- ies have increasingly investigated DNRA in various ecosys- tems to explore its importance in N cycling (Rütting et al., 2011), but controls on DNRA are relatively unknown (Burgin et al., 2013), DNRA being probably the least studied process of N transformation in wetlands (Vymazal, 2007). However, DNRA can be a significant pathway of NO − 3 reduction that impacts on the CW ecosystem services and so should there- fore be evaluated.