Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and their impact on the environment have been constant subjects of controversy over the last several decades. The validity of theories about GHG’s influence on the environment has been continuously debated. The current widely accepted assertion that GHGs negatively affect the environment has led to the enactment of several worldwide policies to reduce the impact of GHGs. These policies span multiple industries, including power, transportation, agriculture, and commercial and residential construction. However, climate analysts have questioned the effectiveness of these policies. While the exact effectiveness of GHG control policies vary from country to country, policies in the UnitedStates (U.S.) have not been stringent enough to achieve emissions reduction goals established by current and previous presidents, including the Obama and Clinton administrations. Debate continues about which industry (if any) is the primary contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., as well as which policies would maximize the achievement of these goals. Regardless of which industry is the leading contributor to GHG emissions, reduction measures throughout all industries must be improved in order for the U.S. to begin meeting policy goals for climate change. The commercial and residential building industry's indirect production of emissions through electrical energy and heating fuel usage is often overlooked during discussion of
The United Arab Emirates is clearly facing a multitude of challenges in curbing its greenhousegas emissions to meet its pre-allotted framework of Kyoto protocol and COP21 targets due to its hunger for modernization, industrialization, infrastructure growth, soaring population and oil & gas activity. In this work, we focus on the bonafide zero emission electric vehicles market penetration in the country’s transport industry for emission reduction. We study the global electric vehicle market trends, the complementary battery technologies and the trends by manufacturers, emission standards across borders and prioritized advancements which will ultimately dictate the terms of future conditions for the United Arab Emirate transport industry. Based on our findings and analysis at every stage of current viability and state-of-transport-affairs, we postulate policy recommendations to local governmental entities from a supply and demand perspective covering aspects of technology, infrastructure requirements, change in power dynamics, end user incentives program, market regulators behavior and communications amongst key stakeholders.
A complete description of GHG emission sources quanti ﬁed here is provided in the Supporting Information (section S1) , with an estimation of upper and lower data boundaries from the meta-review for each component of the food system, where data are available. The bottom-up food system GHG emissions accounting approach taken here is disaggregated by process and energy type (as well as refrigerant type) where possible, allowing for the consideration of impacts of decisions currently made within urban areas on total food system emissions and speci ﬁc supporting sectors (e.g., packaging, refrigerants, and waste management). Furthermore, quanti ﬁcation of the emissions reduction potential for mitigationmeasures are described in the Supporting Information (section S2) . The quanti ﬁcation approach taken here allows for the modiﬁcation of speci ﬁc elements within the food system (e.g., animal product substitution, and alternative waste management processes), to determine their scale of GHG mitigation. This allows an estimation of the potential policy impacts that can be realized by city governments and how collectively these might a ﬀect overall GHG emissions from food system operations.
Demand for energy in the UnitedStates grows daily as do concerns of energy prices, dependence on foreign oil, and greenhousegas emissions. The media generally links these concerns with gasoline prices and automobile emissions inciting hopes wrapped up in fleets of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles of the future. The reality is that, as the producer of one third of the greenhouse emissions in the U.S., the electricpowerindustry will likely be the initial target for addressing these concerns. As a result, domestic electricpower generation is at a crossroads. The last major shift in the mix of electrical power generation in the U.S. began 15 years ago as natural gas began its climb from 12% to 20% of U.S. electricpower generation. Between record high natural gas prices, the rejuvenation of the nuclear powerindustry and increasing emphasis on reduction of greenhouse gases, the stage is set for a new mix between traditional and renewable electricpower sources. The key is in understanding where the potential is for expansion and what road blocks are standing in the way.
based on Antec Solar’s CdTe PV-module production data in Germany. This difference primarily reflects the “cleaner” average electricity mix in Europe than in the UnitedStates, and, to a lesser degree, to our including minor contributions, like overhead electricity, office supplies, transport of personnel, and a detailed inventory of over 400 consumable items. The total primary energy required in the life cycle of the U.S. CdTe PV production was 1200 MJ/m 2 of module, for which electricity demand in module manufacturing is the most significant contribution (i.e., 55%) (Fthenakis and Kim, 2006). The BOS for residential rooftop installations was estimated from Alsema’s data (Alsema and de Wild, 2006) as 6.1 kg CO 2 -eq./m 2 for array support and cabling, and 125 kg CO 2 -
In addition to possible regulations, government-sponsored research and development (R&D) can be an effective driver of innovation, especially when it is targeted at basic research that is beneficial to many industries (e.g., low-carbon fuels and advanced lightweight materials) or is focused on risky projects (e.g., radical changes to airframe designs and novel hull coatings for ships) that individual companies may not be willing to fund. Public R&D has been a particularly important driver of aviation innovation in the past (GAO 2008), and while this has raised trade concerns and World Trade Organization challenges at the international level, an increase in U.S. R&D funding could accelerate the rate of innovation. Current R&D programs in the UnitedStates include the FAA’s Continuous Lower Energy Emissions and Noise (CLEEN) program and NASA’s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. Moreover, expanded federal R&D support for the aviation industry in the UnitedStates would have both domestic and global impacts, particularly due to U.S.- based Boeing’s position as one of the world’s two dominant commercial aircraft manufacturers, along with the European Airbus. Increasing federal government funding for marine vessel R&D, if carefully targeted, could also be effective. While only a small share of global ship building actually takes place in the UnitedStates (Figure 10), R&D efforts could focus on technological innovations aimed at making ship components that are manufactured here more fuel efficient. Moreover, international collaboration and technology transfer could be a possible option to facilitate R&D across countries.
Conversion processes for the three sorghum feedstocks are different and vary in their energy demand and potential for incorporation of CHP. We developed and described a three-step procedure to estimate the net energy demand of the processes in Additional file 1. The results of this process are in Table 9. The GS pathway using RNG as process fuel to feed a CHP facility produces sufficient power and steam to meet process energy demands. Given an ethanol plant with a capacity of 70 million gallons a year, the animal waste from about 308, 000 cows daily is required to pro- duce enough RNG to meet the energy demand of the plant. Therefore, the use of RNG is subject to the availability of manure from farms, and FNG is likely needed in addition to the RNG for the year-around operation of the ethanol plant. The WTW results of both FNG-based and RNG- based pathways provide the opportunity to calculate the weighted averaged life-cycle energy use and GHG emissions for a hybrid production of GS ethanol that consumes both FNG and RNG. Otherwise, the GS pathway has no residual biomass available at the conversion facility to use as a CHP feedstock and consumes a significant amount of fossil en- ergy. In contrast, when SS is the feedstock, combustion of the bagasse provides sufficient heat and power for the process; no external energy is required. With the applica- tion of a CHP system and sacrifice of part of the biomass feedstock for steam and electricity generation, the conversion Table 6 Fertilizer and pesticide inputs for GS (grams per
The core model is built on detailed data covering financial transactions within different sectors of the economy. If a householder purchases materials directly from producers, then this purchase will not fall within the influence of the construction sector. For certain materials this can lead to significant omissions. For example, whether purchased through the construction industry or bought directly, cement is solely used for construction purposes. Therefore a true estimate of the total embodied impacts of all construction activities must include these transactions. A correction was thus devised to account for the emissions from material producers that are directly supplying household final demand. The COICOP classification of household expenditure by purpose, developed by the United Nations Statistics Division, was used to estimate levels of household final demand that corresponded to direct expenditure on construction materials. This was done by computing the proportion of total household expenditure by product category under classification ‘ 04.3 Maintenance and repair of the dwelling ’. Proportions were established for each year across the
The Blast furnace has a gas cleaning process that is shown in Fig 2.Coke that is less than 20mm in size produced at the Coke Plant is sent to the Sinter plant. The sintering process is a pre-treatment step in the production of iron, where fine particles of iron ores and in some plants, also secondary iron oxide wastes (collected dusts, mill scale), are agglomerated by combustion. Accumulation of the fines is necessary to enable the passage of hot gases during the subsequent blast furnace operation. Sintering involves the heating of fine iron ore with flux and coke fines or coal to produce a semi- molten mass that solidifies into porous pieces of sinter with the size and strength characteristics necessary for feeding into the blast furnace. The solidified sinter is then broken into pieces in a crusher and is air-cooled. Product outside the required size range is screened out, oversize material is re- crushed, and undersize material is recycled back to the process.
From the limited available studies it is clear that ‘culture’ and established practice are significant institutional barriers. In construction, the adoption of systematic innovations is generally impeded by the decentralized nature of the industry, and varies both regionally and across firms of different sizes . Consequently, individual firms or sub- sectors often establish particular work flows and material palettes which are used across all projects. This can engrain a culture of building in certain materials and prevent construction professionals from seeking or experimenting with new materials or practices. Change in established cultures can only be achieved through effective knowledge sharing. Broader research in this area is essential as ultimately it is the beliefs, perceptions, knowledge and skills of AEC professionals that will influence uptake. Often these perceptions may differ from the reality, but the perceptions and attitudes rather than reality determine behaviours . Critical to bridging the gap between perceptions and
Recall from section 3.1 that nudges are appropriate when people have difficulty making the right choice, due to the complexity of the situation or a lack of information about it. Nudges should not constrain choice, so if people actually do prefer greenhousegas emitting activities despite their negative consequences, they are allowed to pursue them – much like a person who would like to lose weight, but likes cupcakes even more. Would we like to counter climate change, but do we like our polluting activities even more? It is perhaps useful to stay with the cafetaria example here. Thaler and Sunstein's claim that most people would like to choose a healthy diet could very well be true. In a 'nudgeless' cafetaria, we might recognise two types of customers who fail to pick the healthy food options: people who mindlessly take the first thing that appeals to them, and people who enter the cafetaria with a big plate of french fries in their minds. The former type would be helped with the 'healthy food first'-nudge, but the second type not so much. Indeed, Thaler and Sunstein note that it is the former group that they are trying to help: the busy, absent-minded people who simply do not have the time to stand back and think the options through with every choice they make.
The European Union has set a target for 10% renewable energy in transport by 2020, which will be met using both biofuels and electric vehicles. In the case of biofuels, for the purposes of meeting the target, the biofuel must achieve greenhousegas savings of 35% relative to the fossil fuel replaced. For biofuels, greenhousegas savings can be calculated using life cycle analysis, or the European Union default values. In contrast, all electricity used in transport is considered to be the same, regardless of the source or the type of electric vehicle. However, the choice of the electric vehicle and electricity source will have a major impact on the greenhousegas savings. This paper examines different electric-vehicle scenarios in terms of greenhousegas savings, using a well-to-wheel life cycle analysis.
improved efficiency in energy use in their facilities and improved fugitive emission control. Table ES-1 does not include reductions that were accomplished by other industries, like electric utilities, that were only made possible by investments by the oil and gasindustry in shale gas, allowing those electric utilities to switch from coal to natural gas. They also do not include the significant reductions from improved production technologies resulting in lower emission intensity of methane, which otherwise may have increased in aggregate with vastly expanded hydraulic fracturing related production.
This will save cost, lessen bureaucratic bottlenecks and avoid the unwarranted duplication of responsibilities. The proposed regulatory body will encompass the entire petroleum industry, absorb the activities of the current regulatory agencies and oversee some new regulatory activities that may be necessary. This agency should be responsible for the economic and technical regulation of the oil and gas sector in a manner that should not restrict foreign investment in the sector but should take into account Nigeria’s BITs and its contractual obligations with IOCs. The responsibilities envisioned to form part of the new regulatory agency’s authority should include upstream, midstream and downstream oil and gas regulation, as well as environmental compliance as it relates to the oil and gas sector. This responsibility to monitor compliance with environmental standards implicates the domestication of international environmental standards on GHG emissions to which Nigeria is a party. As earlier indicated, the Paris Agreement, for instance, requires each party to regularly provide a national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions of GHG by sources and removals by sink as well as information necessary to assess progress made in enforcing and achieving its NDC. 495 The new agency could assist in providing information concerning the extent of Nigeria’s GHG emissions from gas flaring as well as information regarding the achievement of Nigeria’s NDC as it relates to gas flaring reduction. The possible limitation to the proposed consolidation of regulatory agencies lies in effectively transforming the present agencies into a strong new regulatory body. However, this will entail developing strong corporate values within the new agency that will ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of the new regulatory body. 496 However, as earlier indicated in chapter one, the issue of corporate values does not fall within the scope of this thesis.
There have been some efforts to account for brewery GHG emissions in the literature. Of particular focus here were studies that involved brewery inputs and outputs. Amienyo & Azapagic produced a United Kingdom brewery company case study that calculated GHGs using process mapping, inventory data from the case company, global warming potentials of GHG emissions, and data approximations where direct measurements were not available along the value chain . The key findings from this case study were that packaging comprised the majority of GHGs for beer production, with 50% of GHGs for beer in glass bottles, and 35% for steel cans . Complementing the aforementioned study is Cimini & Moresi’s work on carbon footprint calculations of a lager packaged in kegs, aluminum cans, and glass bottles . Cimini & Moresi listed emission factors from their own calculations and from other sources for inputs and outputs such as glass, can, and keg packaging, recycling, hops, barley, and malted barley . In Koroneos et al.’s life cycle assessment of beer at a case company based in Greece, steps along the value chain that are associated with major emissions were documented . Specifically, it was found that the bottle production, brewing, and packaging phases of the value chain were the most emission-intensive . Rajaniemi et al. focused their analysis on the GHGs from barley, oats, rye, and wheat . This study found that barley emits 570g CO2e per kg of barley produced . Olajire assessed the life cycle of beer to identify major energy inputs . Olajire determined that the mashing and wort boiling stages are the most energy- intensive stages in the brewing process . Finally, Muster-Slawitsch et al. created a process mapping structure for breweries to identify key GHG emission sources . Several authors have noted that calculations vary depending on the geographical location, techniques employed, and technology used.
1) Context establishment: As a first step, it is necessary to conduct an analysis of the network infrastructure of the examined system. The analysis outcome is depicted in Fig. 2. It illustrates the topological map of the examined electricity provider with the different technical subsystems and the connections among them. The electricity provider operates basically two different interconnected network layers. Layer (LA) includes the most networking components that are reflecting the business and the high-level control requirements. It is composed of the traditional office workstations and servers as well as the control servers that are responsible for the high-level supervision and data acquisition of the devices located in the substation network. Based on their functions and connec- tivity characteristics, the devices in LA are grouped into three subsystems S1, S2, and S3 as depicted in Fig. 2. Layer (LB) provides an abstract representation of an IEC-61850- based electric substation. This layer includes three subsystems S4, S5, and S6. Subsystem S4 includes the local substation workstations and HMI devices. Subsystem S5 com- prises the substation management server for managing the substation assets integrity and reliability. Subsystem S6 represents the substation controller connected to the most crit- ical process network and primary field devices. These devices include, just to name a few, transformers, circuit breakers, and capacitor banks. Controlling and protecting these critical devices involve the use of a set of programmable devices called Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). Additionally, the examined system utilizes two border devices R1 and R2 (with router and firewall functionality), to control the segregation between the whole system and the Internet as well as between the two identified layers. With regard to the accessibility type, S 3 and S 6 are Local components as they are not accessible from
Last but not least, public perception of CCS by the general and local public is a white spot in the actors constellations as portrayed so far, yet it is a prerequisite for any successful deploy- ment of CCS. Unfortunately, little valuable information about public acceptance of – or oppo- sition to – CCS is available to date, and no analysis has been published on Germany yet. Only a handful of international studies on public perception and acceptability have been conducted (see (Curry 2004; IEA 2005; Peteves et al. 2005) for a comprehensive discussion). Most stud- ies show very low levels of recognition of the technology and related issues. This deficiency has increasingly been recognized by policy, industry and other drivers of CCS. An assessment of social and acceptability issues in Germany, including an analysis of public risk perception as well as the perception of CCS more generally is now underway, with the ultimate aim to design an information campaign (WI 2006). Similarly, pilot plant operators like Vattenfall investigate local and regional attitudes towards their pilot plant (Daniels and Heiskanen 2006). On the EU level, technology platforms and industry / research consortia increasingly include public awareness raising into research plans and dissemination strategies. The EU
GreenhouseGas Removal Techniques (GGR) appear to offer hopes of balancing limited global carbon budgets by removing substantial amounts of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere later this century. This hope rests on an assumption that GGR will largely supplement emissions reduction. The paper reviews the expectations of GGR implied by integrated assessment modelling, categorises ways in which delivery or promises of GGR might instead deter or delay emissions reduction, and offers a preliminary estimate of the possible extent of three such forms of ‘mitigation deterrence’. Type 1 is described as ‘substitution and failure’: an estimated 50-229 Gt-C (or 70% of expected GGR) may substitute for emissions otherwise reduced, yet may not be delivered (as a result of political, economic or technical shortcomings, or subsequent leakage or diversion of captured carbon into short-term utilization). Type 2, described as ‘rebounds’, encompasses rebounds, multipliers and side-effects, such as those arising from land-use change, or use of captured CO2 in enhanced oil recovery. A partial estimate suggests that this could add 25- 134Gt-C to unabated emissions. Type 3, described as ‘imagined offsets’, is estimated to affect 17-27% of the emissions reductions required, reducing abatement by a further 182-297 Gt-C. The combined effect of these unanticipated net additions of CO2 to the atmosphere is equivalent to an additional temperature rise of up to 1.4°C. The paper concludes that such a risk merits further deeper analysis and serious
The global potential of nitrogen availability through recycling and nitrogen ﬁxation is far bigger than the current production of synthetic nitrogen, as shown Table 1. On-farm use of farmyard manure (a practice increasingly abandoned in conventional production) needs to be reconsidered in the light of climate change. While conventional stockless arable farms become dependent on the input of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, manure and slurry from livestock farms become an environmental problem. In these livestock operations, nutrients are available in excess and over-fertilization may occur. Nutrient leaching leads to water pollution and high emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) are likely. The concept of either mixed farms or close cooperation between crop and livestock operations – a common practice of most forms of sustainable farming, especially organic ones – can contribute considerably to mitigation and adaptation. In addition, different forms of compost, especially composted manure, are particularly useful in stimulating soil microbial processes and in building up stable forms of the soil organic matter (Fließbach and Mäder, 2000).