Top PDF From the ground up: Impacts of a pro-poor community-driven development project in Nigeria

From the ground up: Impacts of a pro-poor community-driven development project in Nigeria

From the ground up: Impacts of a pro-poor community-driven development project in Nigeria

Compared with all nonbeneficiaries and with nonbeneficiaries within and outside Fadama II communities, project beneficiaries experienced greater increases in the value of privately owned productive assets as a result of participating in the project. Comparisons between the dry savannah and the moist savannah and between male beneficiaries and male nonbeneficiaries also showed significantly greater increases in the value of private productive assets for beneficiaries. However, the increase in the value of productive assets was generally less for privately owned productive assets than for those owned by economic interest groups. That is because Fadama II supports asset acquisition through economic interest groups rather than individual Fadama users (NFDO, 2005). Even though Fadama II did not support individuals in purchasing productive assets, FUG members were able to acquire such productive assets through their groups. The individual acquiring the private productive asset would pay the entire beneficiary contribution in the name of the FUG. Fadama II did not interfere with the private ownership of productive assets, which could explain the significant increase in the value of privately owned productive assets for beneficiaries. Another possible explanation is that FUG members were required to buy complementary inputs to support the jointly owned productive assets. For example, FUG members owning irrigation equipment may have needed to buy pesticide sprayers to grow irrigated vegetables. The
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The lingering problem of urban poverty

The lingering problem of urban poverty

The first priority of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is poverty reduction. All member states of the United Nations were saddled with the mandate of implementing sound policies that will halve absolute poverty by the year 2015. Several studies show that the application of the community- driven development (CDD) model will help developing countries in Africa and Asia to reduce the prevalence of poverty and improve the quality of life of their citizens. The last few decades have witnessed increasing debates from development experts, academics, donor agencies and policy makers calling for the adoption of the CDD as a sure model in planning for socio-economic and environmental development. The focus of the CCD project is to reduce community level poverty through the implementation of projects that meets their felt needs. This paper utilizes both descriptive and inferential methods to analyze the quality of life of households in participating and non- participating settlements in a World Bank CCD poverty reduction project in Kebbi State, Nigeria. The analysis makes use of survey data from 704 households in the study area to show the impact of the CDD approach on the quality of life of participants in settlements. The data analysis revealed that poor households in participating and non-participating communities have less education and assets compared to their well to do counterparts. The paper concludes that, promoting community assistance, traditional thrift system and job creation by government will have positive impact on quality of life and poverty reduction programmes.
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Community Driven Development (CDD) and Rural Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Bottom up Development Approach

Community Driven Development (CDD) and Rural Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Bottom up Development Approach

that Community participation helped curb absenteeism among school teachers in the area as community people whose children were in the schools helped monitor the activities of the teachers. Others are, Owen and Von Domelen (1998). Folke (2006) conducted a study on a community based project- Bangladesh’s CBA coastal afforestation project which aimed at educating people, providing physical infrastructure and established cooperatives for poor men and women, found out that despite all of the projects efforts, the region is still one of the poorest in Bangladesh (Folke in Folke and Nielsen. 2006). Researchers have done so much on Community Driven Development ( CDD) in isolated form however; this paper identifies key principles, successes and shortcomings of some selected projects (c a s e study) in order to find the ways the approach can be practiced.
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Epidemiology of stroke in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria

Epidemiology of stroke in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria

This study was conducted in Ukpo, a predominantly low-income rural community with a population of 17,840 and 3,820 house- holds (based on data from The National Population Commission of Nigeria on the 2006 national population census). Ukpo is the headquarters of Dunukofia Local Government Area in Anambra State, Southeastern region of Nigeria. It is a community with undulating terrain caused by erosion, which makes it not easily accessible by some vehicles. The community’s source of clean water is a privately owned bore-hole. Electricity is sporadic, resulting in a few inhabitants using electricity-generating sets, while most use kerosene lanterns. The residents of the commu- nity are essentially monogamists, with few practicing polygamy. The majority are Christians, indigenous, and of the Igbo tribe. The community is stable and does not tolerate intertribal or interreligious marriages. The predominant occupation is peas- ant farming, and their diet is tuber-based. They are served by one fully functional primary health care center located at the center of the community. There is some labor migration out of the community. They usually return during festive periods and maintain households in the community. They do, however, return home when they become retired or are unable to work due to ill health.
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Pro-growth, pro-poor : is there a tradeoff?

Pro-growth, pro-poor : is there a tradeoff?

Admittedly, using five-year periods also brings some complications. For example, the sample size is notoriously reduced from the original inequality database. The reduction in the number of observations is particularly important when one considers the estimator proposed above, since we are working with a large number of variables and a small cross- section dimension (41 countries in some cases). For example, if we were to consider the explanatory variables as predetermined, even limiting the maximum number of lagged levels to be used as instruments to two, we would still end up with 170 instruments in some of our specifications. Not only does the problem then become too large to estimate, but also the excessive number of overidentifying restrictions relative to the sample would dramatically affect the performance of the GMM estimator. Against this background, the results presented below for the models including all the policies treat as a predetermined variable only the lagged dependent variable. Since the model is still overidentified, we can test the validity of the hypothesis that the proposed instrument set is uncorrelated with the error term, using the Sargan test for overidentifying restrictions. It must be noted in this regard that the employed specification tests generally support the econometric models. That is, Sargan and second-order correlation tests cannot reject the hypothesis that the models are well specified and that our instrument set is valid. 13
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The appreciative inquiry process in pro-poor tourism planning and development : experiences from Nepal

The appreciative inquiry process in pro-poor tourism planning and development : experiences from Nepal

Another participant (Mingphuti) expressed that implementation and continuation of the programme is a challenge for AI. She believes that the AI exercise can design very good programmes, but sometimes those programmes cannot be implemented due to lack of financial resources. This is similar to the local perspective with regards to the TRPAP project. In that case, the planning exercise may raise the expectations of the local people, but loses the local’s faith in the process, and may lead to frustrations. Mingphuti further expressed that “any planning approach cannot do anything if there are not enough resources to continue the programme.” Ongel has a similar view, and thinks that while doing an APPA exercise, “it generates people’s expectation, and tourism cannot fulfil all those needs due to lack of resources.” He explained that “when we conduct planning exercises using AI, local people come up with various dreams and activities, but tourism programmes cannot address all those needs. In that case local people may feel that the project could not fulfil their needs.” This is reported by both residents and experts, and seemed to be a serious issue for AI in tourism planning. Planners or facilitators should be careful to avoid raising false expectations.
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Programming from the Ground Up

Programming from the Ground Up

Error codes should also be accompanied by descriptive error messages. However, only in rare circumstances should the error message try to predict why the error occurred. It should simply relate what happened. Back in 1995 I worked for an Internet Service Provider. One of the web browsers we supported tried to guess the cause for every network error, rather than just reporting the error. If the computer wasn’t connected to the Internet and the user tried to connect to a website, it would say that there was a problem with the Internet Service Provider, that the server was down, and that the user should contact their Internet Service Provider to correct the problem. Nearly a quarter of our calls were from people who had received this message, but merely needed to connect to the Internet before trying to use their browser. As you can see, trying to diagnose what the problem is can lead to a lot more problems than it fixes. It is better to just report error codes and messages, and have separate resources for the user to troubleshooting the
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THE ROLE OF NIGERIA EXPORT IMPORT (NEXIM) BANK IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA: A REVIEW

THE ROLE OF NIGERIA EXPORT IMPORT (NEXIM) BANK IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA: A REVIEW

i. Redefining and reviving of the entity (NEXIM BANK)-Since the year 2010, the management has undertaken a corporate transformation exercise centered on the key perspectives of Strategy, Risk Management and Corporate Governance, Financial Performance, Operations, Organization and People. The objective here is to channel its resources into the development of four sectors- Manufacturing, Agro- Processing, Solid Minerals and Services. This is to complement the role of Commercial Banks and other Development Financial Institutions by focusing, on the un-served and under-served markets especially ECOWAS, Central Africa and generally Asia and the rest of the world. However, many Nigerians are yet to be aware of this repositioning of NEXIM even after five years of such step. There is therefore the need for the bank to serve its potential audience before serving the international communities. The home benefiaries shall surely serve as the agents for marketing NEXIM bank, even to the outside world.
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Farming: From The Ground Up

Farming: From The Ground Up

Cropshare Lease is a situation where the landlord will share input costs (including but not limited to seed, fertilizer, and fuel) while the tenant provides all of the labor and remaining input costs. Once harvested, proceeds will be divided according to the agreement which normally ranges from “25/75” to “50/50.” In this scenario, the farmers both share the risk with one another while the landlord will typically satisfy the “actively engaged in farming” requirement of federal programs. The downside (or upside – depending on your view) for the tenant is that he/she loses autonomy because the landlord is involved in the decisions of the operation. Contrary to the cash rent lease, rental income will be subject to self employment taxes and may lower the landlord- farmer’s social security check if he/she is retired (Rincker).
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The Introduction and Regulation of Network Approach in the Integrated Early Childhood  Development in Nigeria

The Introduction and Regulation of Network Approach in the Integrated Early Childhood Development in Nigeria

Nigerian ECCE situation could help the many fledging childcare centers and/or family child care homes within the society to share costs, administrative and program services. This will strengthen child care businesses so that they are more efficient, more financially sustainable and improve quality service delivery. This form of collaboration, structured to address the needs and characteristics of the particular community where the centre is domicile and taking into account the issues facing child care businesses as well as the capacities of organizations that can provide services and administrative consolidation will be sustainable, proficient and beneficial to parents needy of the essential services provided (Opportunity-exchange, 2011). A network of ECE centers and / or family child care homes to share professionals involved in program services within themselves is additional benefit wherein shortage of professionals exist. A listing of the mode of operation encompassing visitations, referrals and interactions between the personnel become necessary in this model and the goal is to: provide satisfactory services within sustainable terms and grow equal with competitors.
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HTML5 Game Development from the Ground Up with Construct 2

HTML5 Game Development from the Ground Up with Construct 2

It is my hope that the first part of this book will help you in understand­ ing what really matters in games and contribute to making you a better game designer from the ground up, able to play any game critically and to express your ideas in a clear and concise format. The practical chapters that follow from Chapter 5 onward are structured through step-by-step tutorials. There, we will build an arcade-style game, a platformer integrat­ ing some physics elements, and then a more complex puzzle game, remak­ ing my own game Turky on the Run, published on Apple App Store and on BlackBerry World.
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Assessment of Job Satisfacton among Extension Workers in Ondo State Agricultural Development  Project, Nigeria

Assessment of Job Satisfacton among Extension Workers in Ondo State Agricultural Development Project, Nigeria

Abstract:- The study examined the level of job satisfaction among extension workers in Ondo State. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 43 extension workers from whom data were elicited, through the use of a well-structured questionnaire consisting of socio-economic characteristics, job characteristics and job satisfaction variables. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as Frequency counts, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The findings revealed that the mean age of the extension workers was 42.86±9.36 years and 79.1% of them were males, 90.7% were married and 53.5% had Diploma certificate. The mean income and household size were N73,157.49±40,844.16 and 5.30±1.91 persons, respectively. The findings showed that the extension workers were satisfied with 20 out of 32 job satisfaction variables presented to them. These were qualification for job with the mean (x ̅ ) of 4.35, job specialization (x ̅ =4.07), communicating recommended practices (x ̅ =3.93), direction by supervisors (x̅=3.91), identifying farmers’ problems (x̅=3.84), relationship among professionals and administrative staff (x ̅ =3.84) among others. However, they were dissatisfied with their motivation (x ̅ =2.65), availability of experimental land (x ̅ =2.95), quality of labour/technical help (x̅=2.86), sanctions (x ̅ =2.86), financial support for self and family (x ̅ =2.74), rewarding system (x̅=2.70), budgeting (x ̅ =2.65), and availability of labour/technical help (x ̅ =2.60), among others. Most (74.4%) were moderately satisfied with their job. Age (r=0.132, p=0.403) and household size (r=-0.091, p=0.561) of the extension workers were not significantly correlated with their job satisfaction. Their level of job satisfaction was moderate and was not influenced by age and their household. However, adequate motivation, provision of adequate experimental land, improved labour/technical help, fair sanctions and adequate financial support must be ensured to improve job satisfaction among extension workers in the study area.
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Scaling up community-driven development : theoretical underpinnings and program design implications

Scaling up community-driven development : theoretical underpinnings and program design implications

Incentive compatibility; Reduced moral management costs, reduced hazard. Greater empowerment and losses from moral hazard, accountability, mobilization of latent opportunity[r]

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USER S MANUAL. For AC-Powered Fence Controllers. Part I: Fence Controller Installation. Part II: Electric Fencing Basics

USER S MANUAL. For AC-Powered Fence Controllers. Part I: Fence Controller Installation. Part II: Electric Fencing Basics

In dry, sandy or frozen soil a typical grounding system is insufficient because electricity can not flow back to the fence controller. To compensate, create a ground wire return system with one fence wire carrying electricity back to the fence controller’s ground terminal. Run the ground return wire between hot/electrified wires and drive a 6-foot galvanized steel or copper rod every 1,300 feet. Regardless of the soil conditions, when the animal contacts the hot and ground wires simultaneously, they will feel a shock.

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Volume 20 Number 7 & 8

Volume 20 Number 7 & 8

This paper is written on behalf of the Indigenous Resiliency Project Australian Steering Committee: Angie Akee and Robert Scott (Townsville Aboriginal and Islanders Health Service), John Daniels and Dulcie Flowers (Aboriginal Medical Service, Redfern), Colin Garlett (Derbarl Yerrigan Health Service), John Kaldor and Lisa Maher (National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research) and independent investigators Sandra Eades, Chris Lawrence, Maurice Shipp and Edward Wilkes. As per our project protocols, this paper was circulated to members of the ASC for review and approval. Where internal protocols dictated, ASC members also circulated the paper to their health service Board of Directors, management and relevant staff. We acknowledge the contributions of David Brockman, the project’s national coordinator until April 2008; Wani Erick, the Townsville Aboriginal and Islanders Health Service site coordinator until December 2008; and John Williams, the current site coordinator at the Aboriginal Medical Service, Redfern. We thank the project staff, peer researchers, mentors and participants for their many contributions. The Indigenous Resiliency Project is funded by the International Collaboration in Indigenous Health Research Program, a trilateral partnership between the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Health Research Council of New Zealand. The National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research is core-funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, and Lisa Maher is supported by the award of an NHMRC Research Fellowship.
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The Role of the Civil Society in Promoting Credible Elections in Nigeria: Lessons from the 2015 General Elections

The Role of the Civil Society in Promoting Credible Elections in Nigeria: Lessons from the 2015 General Elections

emerging fourth republic would be characterized by free and fair elections. It was thought that electoral malpractices including rigging, stuffing of ballot boxes, political assassinations, political violence and all other acts capable of causing electoral crisis had been confined to the trash bin of history. History recalls that Nigeria had witnessed such unpatriotic democratic occurrences, for instance, the Western Regional election of 1965 was a watershed of Nigerian democracy. The election has been described as a “charade of apprehension structural and psychological violence, the combination of which heightened insecurity in the country” (Salawu, 2013: 292). However, that was to be a forlorn hope as the 1999 general elections were allegedly tainted by electoral malpractices (Adenuga, 2009). As Adenuga & Aborisade (2011) observed, succeeding elections, that is, the general elections of 2003, 2007 and 2011 were characterized by increasing levels of electoral malpractices. The politics of “do or die” became the order of the day and the security agencies, which are expected to maintain peace and order before, during and after election periods were also alleged to have been active participants in the acts of electoral malpractices. Against this backdrop, there was the fear that the 2015 general elections were going to lead to the breakdown of the Nigerian state as predicted in certain quarters (Awolaja, 2014). The build-up to the elections was also characterized by what can be referred to as politics of bitterness and calumny between the ruling People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the main opposition party, the All Progressive Congress (APC). Mudslinging and hate speeches were the preferred campaign options and Nigerians, with bated breath awaited the Armageddon which was surely to be the conclusion of such hate packaged campaigns. However, the Nigerian Civil Society proved to be the messiah that would avert the disaster.
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The Impact of Project Management Methodologies on Project Success: A Case Study of the Oil and Gas Industry in the Kingdom of Bahrain

The Impact of Project Management Methodologies on Project Success: A Case Study of the Oil and Gas Industry in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Based on the findings of this research, a set of recommendations are provided. The bureaucracy of the methodologies could be reduced and the time could be optimized by combining different phases of a project as and when required. In this case, customization of methodologies could be considered. Furthermore, project managers are encouraged to possess professional project management certifications and to apply comprehensive set of project management methodology including its tools, techniques, capabilities, processes and knowledge areas for a greater project success. Moreover, the companies could establish a project management office (PMO) to standardize the project related processes and facilitate the sharing of resources and knowledge across the organization.
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The Effectiveness of the Role of Universities in Building the Entrepreneurial Community in Indonesia

The Effectiveness of the Role of Universities in Building the Entrepreneurial Community in Indonesia

Fourth, skill build relationship in certain situations, include: (a) in the world of education, skill looking for choices life skills to be learned by finding opportunities and relevant information, (b) in the world of work, skill looking to find a profession options open, get a job, keep a job, switched professions, and overcome unemployment by developing specific skills for a changing profession as a career, life skills, nurturing the sustainability of the profession in order to remain a career life which gives guarantees the well-being of psychologically and materially, (c) in the House, the skills of choosing a particular lifestyle and kept them in order to consistently remain lasting until the old days as a pattern of family life, life skills together in a actualizing tenets on how to rebuke, greet, decisions, compromise, solve problems, negotiate in settings of nutrition, family and others, and etc., and (d) build skills in the community, the social contract in order to be accepted as a member of society (adaptation of the culture, traditions, customs), skills (constructive mindset change orientation to the future, rational, fair, honest, example, open, familiar, simple, polite, free yourself of envy, envy, social care) and utilizing the skills and cultivating potential resources in society as an opportunity for the young generation of entrepreneurship prepared through education and training.
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Impacts of Globalization on Political, Economic and Cultural Development in Nigeria

Impacts of Globalization on Political, Economic and Cultural Development in Nigeria

Can we do without globalization? Are all countries getting their fair share (equal benefits and costs or responsibility) of globalization? If no, then why some countries are benefiting more than others? Is Nigeria ready for globalization? If yes, then what is the country doing to benefit from these opportunities to enhance its socioeconomic situation? Does Nigeria have resources and ability to compete favorably on the global stage (to meet the test of time)? If yes, why the country is still underdeveloped? Many scholars, NGOs, Nigerian government and other stakeholders have attempted to look at the opportunities and challenges posed on Nigeria in the era globalization. However, they were unable to critically look at globalization in regard to the impacts on the socioeconomic transformations in the country in the 21st century, hence the significant of this study. It has become imperative for us to critically determine the impacts.
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Participation in pro poor agro based enterprises in Malawi: do households’ poverty levels change automatically?

Participation in pro poor agro based enterprises in Malawi: do households’ poverty levels change automatically?

This paper explores factors that influence households’ engagement in pro poor agro enterprises and examines the impacts of such small and medium scale enterprise on households’ poverty reduction. The paper approaches the objective by estimating a multivariate and data censoring analyses on 1000 household dataset from Malawi. The paper found that fish and mushroom farming, cassava flour processing, pig and chicken rearing, rural bakeries, and other have positive effect on household poverty levels. Pro poor agro based enterprises reduced household poverty by 8-24% among poor household in Malawi. However, the data depicts that pro poor small and medium scale businesses owners are challenged by lack of credit, low bargaining power, high input costs, low product prices and lack of reliable markets. The paper recommends mainstreaming factors and market based barriers that affect participation in agro based enterprises in Malawi. The paper also suggests that pro poor programs ought to be gender responsive at all levels of their operations.
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