Groundwater is major source of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes in many countries India accounts for 2.2% of the global land and 4% of the world water resources and 16% of the world popu- lation (Ramesh and Elango, 2011). The groundwater quality is influenced by natural and anthropogenic effects including local climate, geology irrigation prac- tices and industrial pollution. Once undesirable constit- uents enter the ground, it is difficult to control their dissolution the chemical characteristics of groundwater play an important role in classifying and assessing waterquality. Due to over exploitation of groundwater Average water table decline in 16 districts of Haryana state is 9.76 m between 1974- 2011, whereas its over exploitation of groundwater in five districts has showed rise of 2.86 m (Anonymous, 2011). The present trend of declining groundwater depth (0.66% per year) could reduce India’s total food grain production by around 25% or more by 2050 (Gupta and Deshpande, 2004). This variable withdraw- al of groundwater along with scanty rainfall has led the change in waterquality; on the other hand water composition may concentrate salts in soil and water to such an extent that a crop yield is affected.
The town experiences long summers and short winters and receives an average yearly rainfall of 1,250 mm mainly from the north-east monsoon between October and December. Its close proximity to the sea means that Sirkazhi receives more rainfall than neighbouring towns. Sirkazhi is part of the Cauvery delta region and has irrigation channels, called the Kollidam channels, which carry water from the rivers and provide a rich deposit of fertile silt before reaching the sea. The soil is black and contains fertile alluvial sediment. The area's main crop is rice and other crops grown in the area are coconut, tamarind and neem. The landscape mostly consists of plain lands with fields and small portions of scrub jungle. Antelope, spotted deer, wild hog, jackal and fox are present in the jungles and outlying areas of the town. Crow and ordinary game birds are found in large numbers in the town.
longitudes. It covers 203 villages coming under survey of India toposheet Nos. 57D/2, 57D/3, 57D/4 48P/14, 48P/15 (Fig.1). This area falls into the western block of Proterozoic basins of Southern Karnataka. This area comes under the semi arid type of climate. Gneisses occupies the total area. This area has very limited recharge facilities. It is a drought prone area for several years. Rainfall is very meager. During the recent years, there is an unpredictable behavior of the onset of monsoon and hence search for subsurface resources of water has been given primary focus by both private and some of the government organizations. Proper groundwater management and utilization practices were not followed, due to several reasons. These demands for groundwater both for drinking and agricultural purposes is increasing. Irrigated agriculture is a major consumer of water using 75% of available surface and groundwater resources. In the present study, various chemical parameters of groundwater were analyzed to find out its suitability for irrigation purpose. The chemistry depends upon many factors like ionic concentrations quality of water, soil type, salt tolerance, climate and drainage, and the characteristic of the soils . A better understanding of the chemistry of groundwater is essential to evaluate the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. The hydrochemistry of groundwater of periyapatna Taluk is highlighted in this work.
Abstract: Natural recharge is a vital parameter to be known for groundwater budgeting, management and modelling. Percolation of a portion of the rainfall, through the vadose zone, is the principal source of natural recharge to the aquifer systems in India. The tritium injection method, based on piston flow model, is particularly suitable for quantifying the downward flux of moisture in the vadose zone and for measuring natural recharge in Indian climatic condition, where about 80% of the annual rainfall is received as pulses and occurs during the four monsoon months from June to September. Natural recharge measurements, using the tritium injection method, have been carried out in India during the last 25 years, in several basins and watersheds, located in varying climatic and hydrogeological situations. At present, groundwater contributes 34% of the total annual water supply and is an important fresh water resource. However, over-exploitation has decreased groundwater availability and has led to land subsidence. Assessing the potential zone of groundwater recharge is extremely important for the protection of waterquality and the management of groundwater systems.
The agriculture in Gurgaon district started transforming in sixties and seventies due to advent of electrification and green revolution. Due to high use of natural and artificial resources, the production and productivity of the district noticed a marked increase. Though, the development of tubewell irrigation has contributed significantly to the increase in food production and reduction in poverty, sustainable development and management of this resource has posed many challenges in recent years. Strategically located Gurgaon district and especially Gurgaon city and block, at a distance of thirty-two kilometers from Delhi, it is an important town of N.C.R. and forms a part of Delhi Metropolitan Area. It is challenged by a very fast growth rate with increasing construction activities for residential and commercial activities which has added fuel to fire. Major problems associated with the groundwater development and management are over exploitation of groundwater, water logging and salinity, groundwater pollution and ultimately precise evaluation of groundwater potential. Continual debate on falling water table and deteriorating soil health has prompted general public, farmers, scientists and policy makers to rethink. Presented research is major attempt in this direction to suggest sustainable solutions to offer mentioned problems.
The Rohtak district is occupied by Indo- Gangetic alluvial plain of Quaternary age, and falls in Yamuna sub –basin of Ganga basin. Groundwater is potable at places along canals and surface water bodies like ponds and depressions, where salinity has decreased and is collected for drinking purposes. Groundwater of Rohtak district at shallow depth of 20 m is fresh and fit for irrigation. The deep groundwater is saline and salinity increases with depth and that water is not fit for irrigation (CGWB, 2007). Keeping in view of associated problems with groundwater in Meham block of Rohtak district, present study was carried out to find out its suitability for domestic and agriculture purpose.
Groundwater samples of bore well (BW), Open well (OP), Hand pump (HP), Lakes, ponds Callected from different locations of burhar block of shahdol district, Madhaya Pradesh. The present study was undertaken to characterize the physicochemical parameter such as Temp, pH, Total Alkalinity (TA), Electrical conductance (EC), calcium hardness ( CH), Magnesium hardness (MH), Total hardness (TH), Total dissolved solid (TDS), DO, Fluoride.Each parameter was compared with its standard permissible limit as prescribed by WHO. The study reveals that the groundwater of area needs some degree of treatment before consumption it also needs to be protected from the perils of contamination.
Groundwater chemistry has been utilized as a tool to outlook waterquality for various purposes (Edmunds et al 2010), Due to inadequate supply of surface waters, most of the people are depending mainly on groundwater resources in India for drinking and domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses. (Sudhakar et al., 2014 a), the availability of groundwater depends upon the rate at which it is recycled by hydrological cycle than on the amount that is available for use at any moment in time. (Leelavathi et al., 2016), Over exploitation of groundwater through the bore well and their improper handling resulted decline the water levels, Hydro chemical study is a useful tool to identify the suitability of the groundwater in that the physical parameters taken into consideration like color, odor, turbidity and temperature, pH, and so on.(Sudhakar et al., 2014 b),It serves the understanding of waterquality issues by integrating complex data and generating a score that describes waterquality status (Rizwan and Gurdeep 2010).
Fresh groundwater is used for domestic and industrial water supply and irrigation all over the world. In the last few decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the demand for fresh water due to rapid growth of population and the accelerated pace of industrialization. Groundwater crisis has been caused by human interventions in natural processes. Pollution of surface and groundwater is a global concern of the day (Verma et al. 2015). Besides, discharge of untreated wastewater through bores and leachate from unscientific disposal of solid wastes also contaminates groundwater thereby reducing the fresh water resources (Choduhury and Rakshit, 2012). Pumping of groundwater have been many
 Bindu Bhatt, Janak P.Joshi,(2012), Sustainable management of agricultural lands using GIS- A spatio temporal analysis of irrigationwaterquality in Vadodara taluka. International journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, Vol.2 PP 911-920.  Braga C.Z. and Setzer A.W.,(1993),
High fluoride concentration causes dental fluorosis and more skeletal fluorosis 24 whereas the low concentration or absence of fluoride in drinking water results in dental caries in children particularly when the fluoride concentration is less than 0.5 mg/lit 25. The fluoride content in the groundwater is a function of many factors such as availability and solubility of fluoride minerals, velocity of flowing water, temperature, pH, concentration of calcium and bicarbonate ions in water, etc. 26.
In many places, groundwater discharges naturally to the surface, bubbling into natural springs or contributing to rivers and wetlands. Groundwater often plays a crucial role in sustaining rivers and streams, particularly during droughts when it becomes a valuable buffer. Many ecosystems, including some of our most iconic, depend on groundwater. Groundwater is a finite resource, and aquifers can become depleted when extraction rates exceed replenishment, or ‘recharge’, rates. Like surface water, groundwater can become polluted or contaminated. Despite its importance, groundwater is poorly understood and often undervalued. This may in part derive from the nature of groundwater: a complex, hidden resource that is difficult to conceptualise. It is for this reason that the NCGRT is working hard to learn more about groundwater. The contamination of groundwater has received great significance during recent years due to the toxicity and accumulation behaviour.
Everyone has to access to safe water & Sanitation. clean drinking water has been given priority in the Constitution of India, with Article 47 conferring the duty of providing clean drinking water and improving public health standards to the State. The average availability of water is reducing steadily with the growing population and it is estimated that by 2020 India will become a water stressed nation. Groundwater is the major source of water in our country with 85% of the population dependent on it [1, 2]. The knowledge of the occurrence, replenishment and recovery of potable groundwater assumes special significance in quality-deteriorated regions, because of scarce presence of surface water. In addition to this, unfavorable climatic condition i.e. low rainfall with frequent occurrence of dry spells, high evaporation and etc. on one hand and an unsuitable geological set up on the other, a definite limit on the effectiveness of surface and subsurface reservoirs During recent years, increasing
So, city required green spaces at least for providing fresh air to its residents. So a green buffer is extremely important around the city. Also, the water level of this region is depleting at the alarming rate. The cluster of cities situated inner side of KMP (toward Gurgaon) which generate employment for five lakh population. But there is no provision of housing which lead to congestion of already congested road. The proposed city may adversely impact and degrade the existing situation (like in Noida Yamuna river front).
Waterquality index is a single number by which the overall quality of water can be expressed. The waterquality is classified as excellent, good, poor, very poor and unsuitable for drinking. In this work, an attempt has been made to develop the waterquality index (WQI) for the groundwater of Osian tehsil of Jodhpur district (Raj.), to assess the suitability of water for drinking purposes.
The minimum chloride was estimated in Sitapura -RIICO Industrial Area and maximum int the samples of Kumbhawas . The levels of chlorides have been found within the permissible limits in the samples but in five sites the results were above the desired limit. The pH level in all water samples was found slightly alkaline in nature but all the samples were safe for drinking purposes according to BIS . The level of sulphate shows minimum level in the water sample of Kumbhawas and Kant Kalwar -RIICO Industrial Area and maximum values were found in the samples of Achrol , but the values for all samples have been found within the permissible limits. The Level of fluoride show its values within the permissible limits. The alkalinity levels are more than the permissible limits in the samples of Malviya Nagar RIICO Industrial Area ,Gandhi Nagar ,Sitapura - RIICO Industrial Area, Jawahar Nagar and Kant Kalwar -RIICO Industrial Area . Cadmium have been found in the samples Kumbhawas,Nawalpura,Kant Kalwar -RIICO Industrial Area ,Kukas- RIICO Industrial Area ,Gandhi Nagar and Sitapura - RIICO Industrial Area .Lead has been found in samples of Kant Kalwar - RIICO Industrial Area ,Kukas- RIICO Industrial Area ,Malviya Nagar RIICO Industrial Area and Sitapura - RIICO Industrial Area .of Jaipur. The minimum electrical conductivity were found in the groundwater of the site of Nawalpura and the maximum electrical conductivity found in the samples collected from of Sitapura - RIICO Industrial Area. No traces of phosphate were fiund in any sample .
chemical parameters, waterqualityassessment using WQI method, irrigationwaterqualityassessment and heavy metal analysis was reported in the present paper by the authors. The work is carried out for the water samples collected from Denkada anicut of izianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were collected and analyzed for eleven August 2010, December 2010, April 2011, August 2011, December 2011, April 2012, August 2012, December 2012, April 2013, August 2013 and December 2013. All the chemical parameters analyzed were compared with IS: 10500 standards and found to be well within the values prescribed. It was found that the quality of the water samples was rated as excellent uality index (WQI) calculations. The parameters such as SAR, RSC, %Na and Mg hazard were also found to well within the prescribed standard values. Inferring that the water is suitable and rated as Good for irrigation and agricultural purpose. From the ICP analysis report it was found that except Si all other metals analyzed were below detection limits.
A total 20 samples has been collected randomly from Sulthan Bathery block (Figure 1), between 10 am and 4 pm (Table 1). Samples were taken from the bore wells of different sampling sites at a depth of 160-380 ft height from the ground level. The different sampling location has been assigned as sample points. Water is pumped out for a fair amount of time prior to the collection. One Liter of sample was collected in clean sterile polyethylene bottle and stored properly at (4°C) for further analysis. The collection, preservation and analysis of various parameters of water samples from different sampling locations were carried out, by following the standard procedures given in the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater .
One of the significant pollution issue caused by the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is leachate, which is created as a consequence of precipitation, surface spillover and infiltration or intrusion of groundwater percolating through a landfill. For the most part leachate contain large amounts of organic matter (biodegradable but also refractory to biodegradation), which are awesome risk to the environment soil, groundwater even surface water [Oygard J.K and Gyengadal E (2009)].
The groundwater is believed to be comparatively much clean and free from pollution than surface water. But prolonged discharge of industrial effluents, domestic sewage and solid waste dump causes the groundwater to become polluted and created health problems. In recent years, because of continuous growth in population, rapid industrialization and the accompanying technologies involving waste disposals, the rate of discharge of the pollutants into the environment is far higher than the rates of the purification. The dependence on groundwater has increased tremendously in recent years in many parts of India. Hence, physico-chemical analysis of water is important to assess the quality of groundwater in any basin and/or urban area that influences the suitability of water for domestic, irrigation, and industrial needs. Because of the importance of groundwater in drinking and in other uses, its environmental aspects such as contamination transport have been significantly studied. Many researchers have focused on hydro chemical characteristics and contamination of groundwater in different basins as well as in urban areas that resulted due to anthropogenic intervention mainly by agricultural activities and industrial and domestic wastewater. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in waterquality and the ecological status of water.