“mockumentary”—JetBlue employees explain, for a variety of basic services, that when customers ask them to do something (e.g., seat them together with another passenger), they actually do it. So when a passenger asked for some headphones, “I hooked him up,” notes a flight attendant. This is a parody on the notion that many existing airlines often fail to meet the most basic of expected services. Yet JetBlue’s distinctive value is in taking a commoditized in-flight experience and significantly improving it. The firm seeks a very passenger-oriented in-flight experience from its attendants, and has both comfortable leather seats and entertainment systems for every passenger on every flight. This is a classic illustration of taking standard attributes in the overall value proposition and pushing them to new value-enhancing levels in ways that require significant investment. For such a strategy to work, the attributes or benefits must be (a) fundamentally important to customers, and (b) credibly differentiable among competitors. In certain circumstances, there may be opportunities for differentiation because an industry (both firms and customers) has become so accustomed to its points of parity that all take certain levels of value as given. So when Wal-Mart takes its standard in-store layout that has been virtually the same (and similar to other mass-merchant rivals) for decades and enhances colors, layout, and fashion orientation, the result is a remarkable contrast that sharpens the value customers obtain from its low-price Area A. In sum, raising the levels of Area B attributes to enhance Area A is often a process of exploring the customer’s experience around existing attributes and then uncovering how to build a new experience.
Abstract—The paper presents existing research results concerning the importance of the long horizon as a key element of competitivestrategy. Results of research carried out on a sample of 150 companies were presented, with special focus on those that create precise plans for an over 5-year-long time horizon. Strategic management areas such as strategy formalization, level of strategy expensiveness, competition strategy, organization of work on strategy, familiarity with the strategy and tasks were submitted to detailed analysis. The research helped identify a relation between a clear definition of future vision and the necessity to formalize the strategy; dynamic growth as a strategic priority and having significant competitive advantage; launching products into new market segments, expanding product portfolio and increasing competitive edge; organizing and planning work on strategy and making executive pay dependent upon realization of strategic goals; all employee’s familiarity with the strategy as well as the possibility to clearly allocate all tasks to particular departments in the process of creating and implementing the strategy.
Many countries around the world make the construction and development of Industrial Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (IMKM) as one of the crucial driving force for economic growth of their country. One of the characteristics of the dynamics and good economic performance with high growth rates in the countries of East and Southeast Asia such as South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan is a performance IMKM highly efficient, productive, and have a high level of competitiveness. Several countries of Africa region led to the development and growth of their IMKM to increase aggregate output and employment (Tambunan, 2009: 161). Small and Medium Industry commonly known as Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play significantly important role in promoting economic growth in many countries (Mahmood and Norshahafizah, 2013: 82), both in terms of labor absorption and the growth and economic development (Turner and Ledwith 2009; European Commission, 2008). HPI also be important because it can maximize the allocation and distribution of resources by mobilizing and capitalize upon human resources and local materials (Cunningham & Rowley, 2007).
The study would help management and workers of MTN Ghana and other similar organizations in the mobile telecommunication industry to review their current strategies to achieve competitive advantage. The findings and results also provide a more reliable scientific measure for describing and evaluating the level of efficiency of emerging strategies and its effects on corporate performance as well as customer satisfaction. It also serves as a source of information that brings to the fore the switching intentions of MTN Ghana‘s current and potential customers. Therefore providing the empirical support for management strategic decisions in several critical areas of their operations, and above all, provide a justifiably valid and reliable guide to designing workable service delivery improvement strategies for creating and delivering customer value, achieving customer satisfaction and loyalty, building long-term mutually beneficial relationship with profitable customers to achieve sustainable business growth in Ghana.
purchasing power which means that the company can sell more. The same reasoning applies for unemployment. A high rate of unemployment in India means that wages are low in India which makes an Indian firm more competitive. A low unemployment in the Benelux is a benefit for an Indian natural stone trader since it means that more people in the Benelux are able to afford a natural stone floor in their garden. Also the growth rate of the economy of the Benelux is important for an Indian trade company because it is far easier for a company to operate in a growing economy than in a shrinking economy. The socio-cultural dimension of a firm represents the norms, values and other demographic characteristics of the country in which a company operates (daft, 2003). This is important for this thesis because the culture in India has to allow suggestions to improve a company. Next to this, an Indian company has to deal with the culture in the Benelux because its customers are located in the Benelux. More about the general cultural of a country is stated in the end of this paragraph. Next to general cultural differences, we will look specific cultural aspects of India like the caste system and how this affects an Indian company.
With the reform of the construction industry in the country, the current dry engineering is becoming more and more difficult and the competition is be- coming more and more fierce. At the same time, the slowdown of China’s economic growth has also caused the construction industry’s demand to slow down sharply. Faced with the dual pressures of deteriorating demand and in- creasing competition, how to find a solution is a strategic issue facing con- struction companies. This paper takes DDL Construction Company as the research object and conducts research on its competitivestrategy, in order to provide support for the construction company to gain competitive advantage in such fierce competition. Through the relevant theories of strategic man- agement and competitivestrategy, this paper analyzes in detail the internal and external development environment and resource capabilities that DDL Construction Company face, and evaluates DDL Construction Company’s development opportunities, threats, and its strengths and weaknesses. Based on this, SWOT matrix analysis and other methods are used to select suitable competitive strategies for DDL construction companies, and corresponding implementation safeguard measures are formulated.
According to GoK (2006), micro and small enterprises are central to the link between the private sector and poverty reduction. They are more labour-intensive and promote equitable distribution of income since they are owned by poorer entrepreneurs, and a significant proportion being women. They are therefore important instruments for both income distribution and equitable gender participation. When effectively facilitated, SMEs could graduate into medium and large corporations with an influence that transcends national boundaries. Credit plays a vital role in supporting growth among businesses of all sizes and across all sectors from agriculture to services. The importance of financial services goes beyond credit (UNIDO, 2002). Secure savings rank among the most needed financial services by poorer households, allowing them to reduce their vulnerability to fluctuations in cash flow, cope with emergencies and accumulate funds for investments in the household or productive opportunities (Charitonenko & Campion, 2003:2). A broad range of financial services can make a difference for the poor, encompassing credit, savings, investment, money transfers and insurance (FSD Report, 2009a). Since MFOs support SMEs and poor households, there is a need for them to expand operations to serve a higher proportion of SMEs and economically active poor households. This will require formulation and implementation of competitivegrowth strategies.
The open source movement gained prominence in the 1990s as a small community of expert de- velopers who made the source code or “blueprints” to their programs freely available for anyone to use and build upon. The growth of open source software has been rapid: market researcher IDC (2007) estimates that the direct revenue in this market will grow to $5.8 billion in 2011; more recent estimates suggest revenue from open source software will grow at a 22% compound annual growth rate (IDC, 2009). In addition, open source software is increasingly being used as part of commercial software. Large technology firms such as IBM, Sun Microsystems, and Hewlett Packard have long recognized the importance of open source and have launched multi-billion-dollar open source initiatives. 5
China's real estate market has experienced rapid growth for more than ten years, which has played a significant role in improving people's living standards. However, with the impact of the global financial crisis in recent years, and the government's macroeconomic regulation and control policy of real estate, the real estate market become more and more competitive. For China SCE Property Holdings Limited, how to respond to environmental changes, to obtain sustainable competitive advantage, and a feasible competitivestrategy, is the key to winning future business. In this paper, combined with the actual situation in the real estate business, referring to the enterprise competition strategy research results and practical experience, using the PEST, five forces model and SWOT analysis method, carries on the analysis to the real estate business in South China Group's internal and external environment, and then select the competitivestrategy, and put forward the enterprise should enhance the three comprehensive ability, to support to achieve strategic objectives. In the overall structure, this article carries on the analysis from the following parts.
The article examines the main theoretical and methodical approaches to the organization’s competitivestrategy development. It is noted that comprehensive improvement of the competitiveness level, first of all, on the basis of the creation and development of sustainable competitive advantages is the most urgent for domestic organizations. The catalyzer of such a process is the formation of own competitivestrategy as a conscious selection of the ways to achieve advantages under the conditions of competitive environment. Such a problem is especially urgent for domestic organizations, which operate in retail, as insufficient level of competitiveness is a considerable obstacle in the improvement of the activity efficiency. On the basis of the critical analysis of different theoretical concepts we have classified organization’s competitive strategies and revealed that organization’s competitivestrategy development should be implemented on the basis of organization’s key strategy. We have also identified organization’s competitivestrategy development principles, which determine the intensity of competition and the formation of the competitive climate. We have defined the necessity of substantiating the concept and developing the technique of organization’s competitivestrategy formation in order to improve the efficiency of functioning of domestic organizations in the competitive environment, which, in its turn, would promote growth of the national economy potential in general. Keywords: CompetitiveStrategy, Competitive Advantage, Competitive Environment, Competitive Climate
competitive advantages. Innovation is ―simply the doing of new things or the doing of things that are already being done in new ways‖ (Schumpeter, 1947: 151). The concept of innovation and its impact on firm performance and economic growth has been studied in many different fields and, therefore, many definitions have been offered. However, one common characteristic underlying all definitions is the element of newness (i.e., creation and adoption of something new) (Gopalakrishnan & Damanpour, 1997). Accordingly, the innovation construct encompasses the generation, development, and implementation of new ideas and behaviors (e.g., Damanpour, 1991). Covin and Miles (1999) noted that innovations are critical for a firm‘s ability to gain competitive advantage because they enable firms (1) to regenerate (by frequently introducing new products and services and entering new markets), (2) to rejuvenate (by significantly changing their organizational processes, structure, and capabilities), (3) to renew their strategies and the way they compete in the marketplace, and (4) to shape their product market domain and attain first mover status (Covin & Miles, 1999). Firms can purposefully instigate innovation by developing an organizational culture and an entrepreneurial mindset that promotes experimentation and creativity and by intensively spending on research and development for maintaining technological leadership (MacGrath & MacMillan, 2000; Lumpkin & Dess, 1996).
This paper describes the tactics Google has employed to attain a dominant position within the Internet search industry and offers strategic recommendations that should be implemented to sustain profitability. From a five forces perspective, the search industry is structurally unattractive. Yet, Google has managed to capture significant value through a strategy of product focus, innovative technology, differentiation, organizational design, and inventive pricing. Google competes against other search engines, portal companies, and forms of Internet advertising. Recently, two of their main competitors Overture and Yahoo have sought major acquisitions to merge search and portal functionality with which to compete with Google. Despite the competitive landscape, Google has achieved dramatic growth and become the market share leader. (See Exhibit A) The success was initially facilitated through developing technological superiority in its search offering, but now sustained growth has come from an uncompromising commitment to the end-user experience. At this point, there are two primary courses the company could follow: 1) to expand its business beyond Search or 2) to focus exclusively on search. Based on Google’s competencies and likely competitor responses, it is recommended that the company maintain their focus solely on search. In doing so, Google should pursue an IPO to attract sufficient capital that would be funneled into maintaining technical superiority, bolstering brand loyalty, and pursuing partnership agreements.
Haddad Apparel of New York claimed net sales of $250 million from marketing tops, bottoms, and outwear for such names as Barbie, Scooby Doo, Harley Davidson, NFL and others. Paradoxically, the apparel industry has seen slight declines in licensed sales from 2001 to 2004 (License, 2006). According to The Licensing Letter, “The merger of Federated and May Company in 2006 caused tremendous shrinkage of brands and is on track to develop more private label business, thus eliminating chances for licensed revenue” (Survey Results, 2007, p.3). Trends in celebrity branding have put traditional brands such as Polo, Tommy Hilfiger, and Nautica at a severe disadvantage as celebrity brands such as Rocawear, Phat Pharm and Sean Jean occupy half the retail estate in department stores (Towle, 2003). The growth opportunity presented by private label products and trends in celebrity branded apparel have resulted in increased flagship operations by national brands such as Ralph Lauren. While many apparel companies are actively participating in licensing, some industry leaders like Ralph Lauren, Tommy Hilfiger and Liz Claiborne have began reacquiring licenses, which were previously granted to manufacturers.
The exponential character of PCR amplification may compro- mise quantitative assays because it multiplies variations. The competitive PCR strategy used in the present study was aimed to overcome some of the limitations of the conventional RT- PCR. Co-amplification methods quantify the target DNA rela- tive to a second control sequence in the same PCR tube. The main advantages of this technique are that the results are not affected by tube-to-tube variations in amplification efficiency and it is not necessary to restrict PCR to the exponential phase. Reliable quantification is still possible if the PCR extends into the linear phase, or even in the saturation phase, provided it is ascertained that the amplification efficiency is the same for both templates throughout the PCR, including the final cycles (12, 16). Quantitative co-amplification rests on the assumption that the product ratio of target and competitor sequences reliably reflects the ratio of their initial copy numbers. Therefore, it is requisite that efficiency is identical for both sequences. If the target sequence (T) and the competitor sequence (C) would amplify with the smallest difference in this efficiencies, it can lead to very different quantities of the end products. This can result in an erroneous estimation of the amount of initial material [12, 16]. Figure 3 shows that the effi- ciencies in our system for target and competitor are equal in each cycle, even if the efficiencies decrease in the later cycles. The validity of the competition reactions to each quantity of target was established by the generated regression equations with their
Two main operators of this algorithm are Assimilation and Revolution. In this step, the algorithm assimilates a solution with low-quality or a country with low power to a country with high power or the algorithm assimilates colonies toward relevant imperialists. Each country is assumed to be a point in the search space. Assimilation within an empire is achieved by moving all colonies toward their imperialist by δ units (equation 3). The distance of such an assimilation move is a random variable with uniform distribution :
The author pays attention mainly to issues of the intelligence cycle within Competitive Intelligence. He describes the present state of aﬀ airs in standard Czech corporations. He concludes that the work of Competitive Intelligence groups is mostly directed by operative orders of top-management; on the other hand the cases when attention of Competitive Intelligence is focused on answering the Key Intelligence Topics are very rare. Competitive Intelligence outputs are mostly the outputs from statistical analyses complemented with certain kinds of summaries (syntheses) of the pieces of knowledge obtained (in the best case) from data of Signal Analysis (SIGINT). The result is that such outputs are applicable mostly in operative management and quite insuﬃ cient for any strategic consideration. On the other hand, the data top managers need for their strategic decision-making are the data relevant for situations which may occur in future. Unless the top management get this sort of data, the corporate Competitive Intelligence group is useless and may be easily liquidated.
1) Bid or not to bid Decision: As previously mentioned objectives were to examine the factors related to the contractor that affects his/her decision to bid or not & factors related to the client that affects the contractor’s decision to bid or not.17 respondents randomly selected from 5 construction firms of highway sector, employed in the department like contract, business development & pertained experience from 5 to 15 years. Total 17 & 24 factors were chosen for the first & second case consecutively. The respondents were asked to give their perceptions using a five-point likert scale (from 1 for ‘very less important’, 2 for less important, 3 for moderate important, 4 for high important and 5 for very high important). The Relative Importance Index (RII) was calculated in Microsoft Excel using the following equation (Naoum, 1998; Assaf et al., 1999, 2001; Abdul-Hadi, 1999; Wanous et al., 2003):
However, the situation changed drastically because of the managerial crises and international alliances that sucked in automobile assemblers. From 1999, automobile assemblers began to make a short list of parts and material suppliers. The announcement of the ‘Revival Plan 2000-2002’ by Nissan Motor in October 1999 was the turning point. The ‘Revival Plan’ included the goal of procurement cost reduction by 20 per cent. To realize this target, Nissan planned to reduce suppliers from 1,145 to 600. In fiscal year 1998, all the ‘Big Five’ integrated firms had supplied steel sheets to Nissan (Figure 3). Carlos Ghosn, chief operating officer of Nissan at that time, thought that too many sheets suppliers had driven up procurement costs (Ghosn 2001: 186). Nissan forced steel producers to propose the trade terms that led to the achievement of Nissan’s goal. Price cutting, value analysis (VA), and value engineering (VE) were encouraged. As a result, Nippon Steel grabbed the biggest slice of the market at 60 per cent, Kawasaki Steel got 30 per cent, and NKK dropped to 10 per cent. Kobe Steel became a small supplier of special steel, and Sumitomo Metals disappeared from the suppliers list (Figure 3). Not only VA and VE
External environment in this study is defined as all the factors and forces that are beyond the organization that will affect all activities, actions and decisions of the management and ultimately will impact the performance of a special pilgrimage travel companies. Constructs used dimensions relating to the formulation of the problem in this study include (1) Economics; (2) Technology; (3) Social-cultural; (4) Law; (5) Consumer; (6) competitors; (7) International. The definition of the internal environment refers to the elements in a special hajj travel companies, a force that creates a pattern of beliefs, values that guide life in carrying out tasks and jobs at the company. The construct is considered to explain and predict the internal environment which consists of: (1) organizational culture and (2) the resources contained in the company. Competitivestrategy in this study, an attempt to seek a favorable competitive position of the company in an industry organization of special pilgrimage to use and maintain the strength of the company taking into account the external and internal environment. These constructs can explain and predict assessed competitive strategies.
The underlying assumption of the person to person and computer to person approach to telephone banking seemed to be that the human being remained the best machine to handle scripted queries. Using persons as final interface also allowed keeping the system's growth opportunities (i.e. architecture) open while the number of options for interaction was computer managed. Under this strategy advisers take customers through a guided conversation (put on the screen by the bank's system) and, in doing so, advisers retrieve all the information the bank actually needs to complete the customers' request through on-screen forms. Advisers don't need to know why certain data is vital, only that they need to follow screen driven protocol (Lesley Taylor, in BBC, 30-IX-95). The system’s growth opportunities remain open because system administrators can modify the interaction at will and without the need of major expenditures to retain or retrain the workforce.