Abstract UDC: 5222.54:551.44(450.78) Mario Parise & Antonio Trocino: Gypsumkarst in the Crotone province (Calabria, SouthernItaly) The Calabria region of southernItaly presents remarkable examples of gypsumkarst, involving evaporite rocks ranging in age from Trias to Miocene. Triassic evaporites are limited to a sequence of about one hundred meters of thickness in the Coastal Chain, on the western Calabrian coast. Messinian evaporites, on the other hand, extensively crop out to the east, in the Crotone Basin. The present contribution intends to describe the main features of gypsumkarst in the latter area, from the surface karst morphology to the development of caves. The Crotone Basin is among the most interesting areas as regards evaporite karst in Italy: a variety of surface karst landforms is there present, including dolines, blind valleys, closed depressions, and deep and narrow canyons intensely affected by slope movements. Many caves are located at the bottom of the dolines, as Grave Grubbo which, with a length over 2,500 meters, is one of the longest Italian caves in evaporites. The study area has experienced several transformations, mostly due to agricultural activity and to scarce attention paid by local administrators toward this unique naturalistic landscape. The high value of Calabrian gypsumkarst is thus not fully exploited, and several cases of degradation of the caves have been registered, even with consequences for the quality of water ﬂowing in the karst systems.
transfer infiltrating waters rapidly underground from the recharge areas (often sinking streams and secondary tributaries coming from local inputs through dolines) to the springs. Several of these cave systems can be entirely crossed following the underground stream from the sink to the springs (i.e., Rio Stella-Rio Basino in Romagna and Grave Grubbo-Vallone Cufalo in Calabria), while in other systems the connection, although obvious, is not transitable (i.e., Monte Conca and Santa Ninfa in Sicily, Acquafredda-Spipola near Bologna). Dye tests have often allowed to know the extension of these aquifers, while physico-chemical monitoring of some springs and underground rivers have permitted to understand the hydrodynamic behaviour of the systems (Bergianti et al., 2013; Tedeschi et al., 2015). A good example of a dominant conduit drainage system is Rio Groppo, close to Reggio Emilia. This spring is fed by a series of dolines hosted in a small Messinian gypsum outcrop, with some accessible narrow caves but most of the system being unexplorable. Especially during winter, when rainfall can be intense and sometimes snow melt also contributes to the recharge, the main infiltration events cause sensible changes in flowrate, and rapid responses in terms of hydrochemistry (Fig. 13). In this case (during winter), both temperature and electrical conductivity show almost instantaneous decreases. One of the best-studied gypsumkarst springs in Italy is certainly that of Poiano, in the Upper Secchia Valley (Reggio Emilia), being also the largest spring in this region (Chiesi et al., 2010). This brackish water spring drains an anhydrite- gypsum aquifer containing also halite lenses at depth, and its continuous monitoring has indicated this area to be slowly uplifting. Such slow tectonic movement, probably related to diapiric flow, causes the dissolution of halite bodies by the underground water flow as these penetrate into the aquifer.
After further floods, including that catastrophic of 9 November 1896, a new project was designed, this time at the expense of the Italian State. Again, however, a new de- lay had to be registered, this time caused by the catastrophic 1909 Messina earthquake: the tragic aftermath of that event, and the very severe damage registered in Messina and Reggio Calabria, moved toward the southernmost tip of Italy most of the funds from the Italian government. Thus, only in 1911 the work eventually began at Castellana, to be completed two years later (Viterbo, 1913). At a depth of about 10 m, the Gravinelle were connected through an artificial tunnel (called Canalone, which means Big Channel; Figs. 13 and 14) to other shafts to the north, located at a distance of, respec- tively, about 1 km and 2.5 km (Manghisi, 1987). In addition, a second tunnel to be used as spillway was also built, for a length of 336 m. Another deep shaft (called “Gravaglione”), the only one left undisturbed after the works realized by the monks of S. Francesco di Paola, is still present along the Canalone; since 1913, it is used to drain the sewerage coming from the town.
For many karst aquifers around the world, the assessment of the groundwater recharge has been carried out by estimat- ing the effective infiltration coefficient (EIC), which was de- fined as the ratio between the groundwater replenishment, corresponding to the net groundwater outflow, and the rain- fall in a specified timescale (usually monthly or yearly) and at the aquifer scale (Drogue, 1971; Bonacci, 2001). There- fore this ratio incorporates complex processes existing in the vadose zone such as water storage, evapotranspiration, runoff and percolation to the saturated zone; it was con- ceived as a practical tool to assess monthly or annual ground- water recharge of an aquifer by the rainfall measurements. In karst aquifers, the EIC is controlled by several factors, among which the composition of carbonate rocks, fractur- ing degree, development of epikarst and deeper karst pro- cesses, slope steepness, land use and covering soil type can be basically recognized. Several estimations and applica- tions of EIC for calcareous karst aquifers were carried out in Hungary (Kessler, 1965), Greece (Burdon, 1965; Soulios, 1984), France (Drogue, 1971) and Croatia (Vilimonovic, 1965; Bonacci, 2001), at the annual timescale, finding values ranging from 35 to 76 %, with a mean value around 51 %. Fi- nally, for other non-European countries, a value of 27 % was assessed for the dolomitic basin of Tennesee (Sodeman and Tysinger, 1965). In Italy, Boni et al. (1982) reported an an- nual EIC value of 70 % for some karst aquifers in the central Apennines.
instrumental seismology, for which the location, geometry and size of the causative source are still substantially uncon- strained. During the century elapsed since the earthquake, previous Authors identified three different epicenters that are more than 50 km apart and proposed magnitudes rang- ing from M ≤ 6.2 to M=7.9. Even larger uncertainties were found when the geometry of the earthquake source was es- timated. In this study, we constrain the magnitude, location and kinematics of the 1905 earthquake through the analy- sis of the remarkable environmental effects produced by the event (117 reviewed observations at 73 different localities throughout Calabria). The data used in our analysis include ground effects (landslides, rock falls and lateral spreads) and hydrological changes (streamflow variations, liquefac- tion, rise of water temperature and turbidity). To better de- fine the magnitude of the event we use a number of empirical relations between seismic source parameters and distribution of ground effects and hydrological changes. In order to pro- vide constraints to the location of the event and to the geom- etry of the source, we reproduce the coseismic static strain associated with different possible 1905 causative faults and compare its pattern to the documented streamflow changes. From the analysis of the seismically-induced environmental changes we find that: 1) the 1905 earthquake had a mini- mum magnitude M=6.7; 2) the event occurred in an offshore area west of the epicenters proposed by the historical seismic Catalogs; 3) it most likely occurred along a 100 ◦ N oriented normal fault with a left-lateral component, consistently with the seismotectonic setting of the area.
but also the amplitude of the chemical variation at the spring. Based on the analysis of concentration data and numerical model simulations G RASSO (1998) proposed a relationship between the geometric properties of con- duits and the variations of calcium concentrations mea- sured at carbonate karst springs. Thus, the concept of analysing hydrochemical parameters at karst springs has been shown to be useful in the characterisation of car- bonate aquifers. In addition, S AUTER (1992) and B ENDERITTER & al. (1993) obtained quantitative infor- mation about the properties of carbonate aquifers by analysing spring water temperatures. Moreover, simula- tions of heat transport processes in karst aquifers by numerical models showed that under unsteady flow con- ditions temperature signals at a spring can be used to identify conduits of different geometry even if the total conduit volume is identical (R ENNER 1996, H ÜCKINGHAUS & al. 1997, L IEDL & al. 1998, H ÜCKINGHAUS 1998). It is therefore concluded that varia- tions of both hydrochemical parameters and water tem- perature measured at a spring can be used to characterise a karst aquifer.
The difficulties of building hydraulic structures on soluble rocks are re-iterated by Brune (1965), James and Lupton (1978), James and Kirkpatrick (1980), James (1992) and Milanovic (2000). Milanovic (2000) provides a thorough review of the strategies that can be applied to reduce water losses from reservoirs, either by preventing infiltration or sealing underground karst conduits. Dissolution beneath damsites has been modeled allowing prediction of performance to be calculated (Romanov et al., 2003). Gypsum dissolution at the Hessigheim Dam on the River Neckar in Germany has caused settlement problems with sinkholes nearby (Wittke and Hermening, 1997). Site investigation showed cavities up to several meters high and grouting from 1986 to 1994 used 10,600 tonnes of cement. The expected life of the dam is only 30-40 years with continuing grouting required to keep it serviceable. Grouting costs can be very high and may approach 15 or 20% of the dam cost reaching US$ 100 million in some cases (Merritt, 1995). In karstified limestones grouting is difficult, yet in gypsum it is even more difficult due to the rapid dissolution rate of the gypsum. Grouting may also alter the underground flow routes translating and focusing the problems to nearby areas. In the Perm area of Russia, gypsumkarst beneath the Karm hydroelectric power station dam has been successfully grouted using an oxaloaluminosilicate gel that hardens the grout, but also coats the gypsum slowing its dissolution (Maximovich, 2006). The Mont Cenis Dam, in the French Alps, is not itself affected by the dissolution of gypsum. However, the reservoir is leaking and photogrammetric study of the reservoir slopes showed doline activity over gypsum and subsidence in the adjacent land (Deletie et al., 1990).
Cervical scrape specimens were obtained from 9590 women (age range 20–75 years) presenting to six hospitals located in four provinces of Calabria region, southernItaly: Catanzaro (University "Magna Graecia" Hospital, "Pugliese-Ciaccio" Hospital, and "Giovanni Paolo II" Hospital), Reggio Calabria ("Polo Sanitario Nord Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale 5") Cosenza (“Annunziata” Hospital) and Vibo Valentia (“G. Jazzolino” Hospital), during the period 2010–2015. All specimens were tested for HPV DNA at the hospitals’ respective Clinical Microbiology Operative Units.
Caggianelli et al., 2007 and references therein). The first group of rocks show a broad compositional range (~ 48-70 wt. % SiO2), with tonalites and granodiorites being the dominant rock types. The strongly peraluminous plutonic rocks lack basic to intermediate lithologies (~ 67- 76 wt. % SiO2) and contain the typical paragenesis of two micas ± Al-silicates. The metaluminous- to-weakly-peraluminous granitoids have been interpreted as I-type rocks resulting from the interaction of mantle-derived magmas with lower- crustal melts (Rottura et al., 1990), whereas the strongly peraluminous granitoids have been interpreted either as typical S-type granites, with sedimentary source rocks (D’Amico et al., 1982; Rottura et al., 1990), or as magmas with mixed mantle-crust origin (Rottura et al., 1991; 1993). According to the previous authors, all the plutonic rocks were emplaced in an extensional regime, during late- to post-collisional phases in the frame of the Hercynian Orogeny. Early geochronological data for the timing of Hercynian magmatism in southern CPO, gave ages spanning the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary (from ~ 298 ± 5 to ~ 270 ± 5 Ma; Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages, zircon U-Pb ages; Borsi and Dubois, 1968; Borsi et al., 1976; Schenk, 1980; Del Moro et al., 1982). More recently, strongly peraluminous granites (Cittanova granite) intruding the Serre batholith in its south-western sector, have been dated by ID-TIMS monazite at 303 ± 0.6 Ma (Graessner et al., 2000) falling in the range of ~ 304-300 Ma obtained for the strongly peraluminous magmatism in the whole CPO (ID- TIMS monazite and xenotime ages and SHRIMP zircon ages; Graessner et al., 2000; Fiannacca et al., 2008).
3.2. Effect of production area on quality of Carolea olive oils Respect to other cultivars, Carolea is widely diffused in Calabria. To study the effect of the different growing sites on chemical parameters of Carolea olive oils, the results of qualitative indexes were reported separately for the different areas of Calabria. High significance was observed in the several reported chemical param- eters, showing large differences among samples ( Table 3 ). The free acidity seemed to be influenced by the environmental and the olive grow management or processing. The lowest free acidity value was observed in oils produced in TSA while most of the oils produced in the opposite area (ISC) were classified in the virgin olive oil cate- gory. The effect of the environment on total acidity content was confirmed by a cluster analysis (results not illustrated). Both Caro- lea and Grossa di Gerace oils produced in ISC are grouped and dif- ferentiated from the other olive oil samples. Also different agronomic and processing practices influenced the quality of Caro- lea oils produced in the same area, as denoted by high standard deviations of all free acidity mean values. Concerning the wax con- tent, a significant variability was observed among Carolea oils sam- pled in the areas of Calabria and the different resistance of Carolea
Concerning the families it is possible to observe that Labi- atae (5 species), Poaceae (5 species) and Rosaceae (4 spe- cies) are the most frequently employed, whilst it is surprising that several families such as,Umbelliferae, Cruci- ferae and even Compositae traditionally well represented in Italian folk phytotherapy given their wealth of medicinal plants, are here scarcely considered or absent at all, such as Liliaceae. Nevertheless it must not forget that still today there is frequent resort to a number of homemade syrups, prepared as decoctions, obtained by mixing many differ- ent species:Malva sylvestris, Tussilago farfara, Sisymbrium officinale, Tilia sp. pl.. Althaea officinalis, Mentha pulegium, Ficus carica, Hordeum vulgare, Cynodon dactylon, Thymus pulegioides, etc. These syrups, prepared according to differ- ent recipes and customs which vary from village to village, include the use of some cultivated species i.e.: Prunus per- sica, Ficus carica, Malus domestica etc. The syrups are used indifferently for therapeutic purposes in several ailments: coughs, colds, stomach aches or as mild sedatives, but without any explanations of the role played by the single plant, very probably added to correct or sweeten the taste. On the contrary veterinary medicine still seems to be alive and well, and practiced in daily life (veterinary uses are highlighted in italics, in the boxes within additional file: 1). This is easy to understand since shepherds and farmers living with their herds, flocks, cattle or poultry, far from the villages or built-up areas, are forced to use remedies immediately available in the fields and their kitchen gar- dens. Moreover it is important to remember that many of these phytotherapic uses, experimented over a long period of time, have parallels in numerous parts of Italy where they are not only present but are prepared in the same manner. For example, Helleborus foetidus L., in spite of its toxicity, is used in cases of bronchitis and pneumonia in cattle also in Emilia Romagna , Trentino , and Lat- ium regions . A decoction of Lupinus albus is used as a wash to treat dermatitis in cattle in Marche, Toscana 16], and Abruzzo . Sores and ulcers caused by pack saddle can be healed by the ash of the stems of Triticum aestivum mixed with olive oil and the same use is also recorded in other Italian regions (Gastaldo ), where the stimulating and cicatrizing properties of phytostim- uline are well known.
The regional hydrogeological setting (Fig. 1) is essen- tially characterised by carbonate karst aquifers, with a high degree of permeability due to fracturing and karst. These aquifers, formed by limestone, dolomitic limestone and a dolomitic series of carbonate platform facies (Trias – Pale- ogene), are confined by aquitards or aquicludes composed of flysch and basinal series (Celico, 1978, 1983; Celico et al., 2000; Allocca et al., 2007, 2009). Morphologically, the first aquifers correspond to the higher mountains (carbonate mas- sifs), while the second ones correspond to the low-altitude hills. Both types of hydrostratigraphic units originate from tectonic units thrust in the Apennines chain. They are typ- ically characterised by a basal groundwater flow, outflow- ing in huge basal springs, with an average discharge fre- quently greater than 1.0 m 3 s −1 . The patterns of groundwa- ter flow are greatly conditioned both by the altimetry of the boundary with the juxtaposing lower-permeability flysch de- posits, as well as by the position and permeability of cat- aclastic bands associated with main faults and thrusts. The latter, behaving as aquitards, determine the fractioning of the groundwater flow into several groundwater basins. Where the carbonate aquifers are juxtaposed with medium permeable Plio-Quaternary epiclastic and alluvial deposits, a ground- water exchange can exist. A subordinate perched groundwa- ter flow also occurs in the surficial part of karst aquifers, where the different deepening of the epikarst (Celico et al., 2010), as well as stratigraphic and tectonic factors, can generate seasonal and ephemeral springs. The groundwater yield of the Campania’s karst aquifers varies from 0.015 to 0.038 m 3 s −1 km −2 (Allocca et al., 2007, 2009). Given the high quality of their groundwater and their availabil- ity for exploitation, basal springs are, for the most part, tapped; thus, carbonate aquifers represent strategic resources for the socio-economic development of the Campania region and southernItaly.
The torrential rainfall has triggered sinkholes in the Gargano Promontory (Fig. 6d, g). Accurate information on the time or period of occurrence of the sinkholes is not avail- able, and even the simple detection of the sinkholes was hampered by their small size and the remote location of the events. However, sinkholes represent a subtle and serious hazard in the promontory and in other karst areas (Parise and Gunn, 2007; Gutierrez et al., 2014; Parise et al., 2015), and establishing methods and procedures for their possible fore- casting is of primary interest in karst environments. Based on the analysis of the 1–6 September 2014 Gargano rainfall pe- riod, we confirm that in the promontory, and in similar karst areas, torrential rainfall can trigger sinkholes, and we hypoth- esise that approaches based on the near-real-time monitoring of rainfall (e.g. the E-NEP algorithm) can be used to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced sinkholes. We ac- knowledge that an analysis of a larger number of events is required to test this hypothesis.
In the present study, active adult ticks were found on cats during all seasons in all sites of collection. However, almost all ticks were found on cats from Lipari (Eolian Archipelago). Interestingly, I. ventalloi, I. ricinus, R. sanguineus s.l. and R. pusillus ticks were collected from cats. There are no published data on ticks removed from cats in Sicily and Calabria but Rhipicephalus spp. ticks were the only tick species removed from dogs and repre- sented the most prevalent ticks in Sicily . Ecological factors, season of tick sampling, climatic variations and host preferences may be responsible for the differences observed. In Northwestern Italy, R. sanguineus s.l. was found in 86.5 % of infested dogs and 26.3 % of infested cats while I. ricinus infested 18.5 % of dogs and 68.4 % of cats . Ixodes ricinus ticks were the most common ticks found on cats in Europe as north as the Artic Cir- cle and this is one of the southernmost finding of these ticks in Europe [17–20]. Migrating birds are considered dispersal agents of larval stages of I. ricinus and they could contribute to the presence of this tick species in the studied areas which are stop-over and nesting sites of migratory birds moving from Africa to Central- Northern Europe .
Microsoft Word PhD hydrogeology southern catchment of Wye, Derbyshire University of Huddersfield Repository Banks, Vanessa Jane Karst hydrogeology of the southern catchment of the River Wye, Derbyshir[.]
waters directly into the spring area. The northwestern sector (Isonzo system) is instead characterized by lower gradients in a Karst fractured system spreaded along the edge of the plain. In addition to the two allogenic inputs, it is necessary to add also the contribution due to the effective precipitation on both sectors. The two sectors are anyway draining waters from the hydrostructure and this is apparent along all the coastal springs. From Aurisina to Timavo, springs are strongly connected to the Timavo system, while for the western ones, such as Moschenizze, Lisert and Sablici, there is an involvement of a northwestern hydrodynamic system. The linking point between the two systems are the Sardos and Timavo springs. During low water regime, both springs are draining waters, mainly coming from the Isonzo system. Instead, in high water regime, water drained is coming from the Timavo system: Timavo spring is only draining Timavo waters, while Sardos spring is draining mixed waters (from Timavo and Isonzo systems). During normal flow, Timavo spring is draining mainly Timavo waters and Sardos spring is draining only Isonzo waters. In conclusion, the methodology used permits the broad characterization of the groundwater flow dynamics in the Karst hydrostructure, highlighting the differences between fracture and conduit systems.
species, found on base-rich and calciferous siliceous rocks; a variable and ecologically wide-ranging lichen, often found in synanthropic habitats, especially on sandstone walls, and sometimes starting the life-cycle on other crustose lichens. New to Calabria. Lichenocomium lecanorae (Jaap) D. Hawksw. - Calabria, Prov. Reggio: Aspromonte, Pietra Impiccata, 1750 m, on Pleopsidium chlorophanum (apoth.), Nimis et al. 12/07/88, det. D. Triebel. A widespread lichenicolous fungus. New to Italy.
Fig. 1. (a) Location of the study area and main lithological com- plexes of Calabria (after Sorriso-Valvo, 1993, mod.). Key: (1) car- bonate units; (2) very low to low-grade metamorphic units, at places with ophiolites; (3) sedimentary, flysch-type sequence; (4) inter- mediate to high-grade metamorphic and intrusive rocks; (5) tur- biditic, mainly coarse-grained deposits; (6) flysch-type nappes, mainly marley-clayey; (7) flysch-type nappes, with chaotic struc- ture; (8) sedimentary autochthonous units; CS) Cosenza; CZ) Catanzaro; KR) Crotone; RC) Reggio di Calabria; VV) Vibo Valentia. In black, the main tectonic structures belonging to the Calabrian-Sicilian Rift Zone (after Monaco and Tortorici, 2000, mod.) are also shown. (b) Geological map of the study area, after CASMEZ (1967), modified. Key: (af) alluvial sediments (Holocene); (df) landslide debris (Holocene); (q cl ) loose conglom- erate of ancient fluvial terraces (Pleistocene); (P a 1−2 ) grey-blue silty clay (Middle-Late Pliocene); (sbm) gneiss and biotitic schist with garnet, locally including abundant granite and pegmatite veins, forming migmatite zones (Palaeozoic); (sf) grey phyllitic schist, with rare intercalations of limestone and arenite, and quartz veins (Palaeozoic). The area shaded in black delimits the sector threat- ened by the San Rocco landslide. In the figure, the road to the cemetery, the church of S. Rocco, and the provincial road to Marri (SP.31) are also shown.