The original IPv6 specification allows overlapping fragments. A later RFC  forbids overlapping fragments, but as this is a relatively recent change, not all implementations follow it. As for tiny fragment attacks, many IPv6 imple- mentations accept non-last fragments smaller than 1280 bytes . Additionally, the IPv6 specification dictates that extension headers occurring any number of times in the same packet must be parsed. This requirement can be used to fill a first fragment with extension headers, and put the TCP header in the second fragment. Many implementations already follow a proposed standard  the specifies that all headers, including the upper layer header, must be in the first fragment. This mitigates the tiny fragment attack, but is not the standard yet. Other solutions to the tiny fragment problem are being discussed in .
Ethical hacking refers to the act of tracing weaknesses and vulnerabilities of computer and information systems by duplicating the intent and actions of malicious hackers. Ethical hacking is also known as penetrationtesting, intrusion testing, or red teaming. Hacking is an activity in which, a person exploits the weakness in a system for self-profit or enjoyment. As public and private organizations migrate more of their critical functions or applications such as electronic commerce, marketing and database access to the Internet, then hackers have more opportunity and incentive to gain access to sensitive information through the Web application. Thus the need of protecting the systems from the hacking generated by the hackers is to promote the persons who will punch back the illegal attacks on our computer systems. Ethical hacking is an identical activity which aims to find and rectify the weakness and vulnerabilities in a system. Ethical hacking describes the process of hacking a network in an ethical way, therefore with good intentions. This paper describes what is ethical hacking, what are the types of ethical hacking, impact of Hacking on Businesses and Governments and penetrationtesting used for protection form hackers .
A penetration test was taken in the process of ethical hacking using raspberry pi. The degrees of penetrating are mostly 4 parts. When they are joined, they develop a powerful activity to test the security level of a system. The primary thought is to adopt a hacker’s strategy and think like one, with respect to hackers generally utilize similar strides to break systems. The merit of this penetration system is that, to keep the penetrationtesting focused and advancing, also utilizing the output results from every level to use in ensuing steps as it is important in an organized approach. Another merit is that, by using raspberry pi, there is combination of various techniques and technologies. The demerits include gaining unauthorized access to various devices also, it could lead to many web attacks and Wi-Fi attacks.
in chapter 1, it was pointed out that a major difference between black hat and white hat attackers is authorization. step 1 provides us with a prime example of this. Both types of hackers conduct exhaustive reconnaissance on their targets. Unfortunately, malicious hackers are bound by neither scope nor authorization. when ethical hackers conduct research, they are required to stay within the confines of the test. during the information gathering process, it is not unheard-of for a hacker to uncover a vulnerable system that is related to the tar- get but not owned by the target. even if the related target could provide access into the original organization, without prior authorization, a white hat hacker is not allowed to use or explore this option. for example, let us assume that you are doing a penetration test against a company and you determine that their web server (which contains customer records) is outsourced or managed by a third party. if you find a serious vulnerability on the customer’s website, but you have not been explicitly authorized to test and use the website, you must ignore it. the black hat attackers are bound by no such rules and will use any means possible to access the target systems. in most cases, because you were not authorized to test and examine these outside systems, you will not be able to provide a lot of detail; however, your final report must include as much information as possible about any systems that you believe put the organiza- tion at risk.
Some of the more famous Black Hat hackers from the past were able to turn their misfortune into a profitable career after serving time behind bars, or after completing probation. Today, that quick ride to fame and wealth is pretty much nonexistent. One site worth perusing is the “Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section” of the U.S. Department of Justice Web site (www.usdoj.gov/ criminal/cybercrime/cccases.html). There, you will find a list of current computer crime cases as well as those dating back to 1998. Included in the list is an estimate (in dollars) of damages and the punishment for the criminal act. There, you will find a range of punishments from 0 months to 108 months (U.S. versus Salcedo et al., for breaking into Lowe ’ s computer network with intent to steal credit card information) and fines ranging from $0 to $7.8 million (U.S. versus Osowski, accountants who illegally issued shares of Cisco stock to themselves). Yes, the possibility of making money illegally exists; however, the punishment associated with getting caught is meant to discourage such activities. And as time goes by, more laws are being added to make the punishment for computer crimes much more severe.
The most popular method of hacking technique is Man in the Middle (MITM). The tool used can be downloaded from THC website. MITM take advantage of spoofed neighbor advertisement and use it to perform sniffing FTP traffic. It is required at least 3 computers in the same IPv6 network to do MITM and sniffing. 1st test is to send the ICMPv6 echo request from client FTP server then take a look at the neighbor cache entry if it testing no anomaly the next test is started by enabling IPv6 forwarding and utilizing parasite on the attacker computer. The goal is to perform man in the middle using spoofed neighbor advertisement, this test is continued by transferring ICMPv6 echo call to FTP server from client by looking at the neighbor cache entry. If there is anomaly on the client neighbor cache attached attacker mac-address. Figure 03, 04 illustrates the Man in the middle. Hence the traffic from client to FTP server through the attacker .
name suggests, aims at discovering the possible threats and subset of input space with which a malicious user can exploit logical errors in a system to gain profit or drive the system into an insecure state. While, Penetrationtesting, aims at assessing the difficulty level for someone (basically an attacker/hacker) to penetrate an Organization's Cyber security controls against unauthorized access to its information and information systems. VAPT is done by simulating an unauthorized user (attacker) attacking the system using either Automated Tools or Manual Excellence or a combination of both. Hence the process of VAPT is sometimes also referred as Ethical Hacking. VAPT helps in identifying Cyber Threats and vulnerabilities under controlled circumstances, so that they can be eliminated before actual hackers/attackers aim to exploit them .
As cyber attacksincrease, so does the demand for information security professionals who possess true network penetrationtestingand ethical hacking skills. There are several ethical hacking courses that claim to teach these skills, but few actually do. SANS SEC560: Network PenetrationTestingand Ethical Hacking truly prepares you to conduct successful penetrationtesting and ethical hacking projects. The course starts with proper planning, scoping and recon, and then dives deep into scanning, target exploitation, password attacks, and wireless and web apps with detailed hands-on exercises and practical tips for doing the job safely and effectively. You will finish up with an intensive, hands-on Capture the Flag exercise in which you'll conduct a penetration test against a sample target organization, demonstrating the knowledge you mastered in this course. Ethical hacking does perfectly fit into the security life cycle (see Fig 1). Ethical hacking is a way of doing a security assessment – a current situation (from atechnical point of view) can be checked. Like all other assessments (or audits),an ethical hack is a random sample and passing an ethical hack doesn’t mean there are no security issues. An ethical hack’s results is a detailed report of the findings as well as a testimony that a hacker with a certain amount of time and skills is or isn’t able to successfully attack a system or get access to certain information. With the growth of internet, computer security is of utmost concern for the organizations and government. These organizations are using Internet in their wide variety of applications such as electronic commerce, marketing and database access. But at the same time, data and network
Information is Wealth. Each and every bit of information has a cost in this digital world. All that information is stored in the form of Data in Internet. There are two types of data, Public and Private. The public data are resources that are available publicly in the Internet. Ex: data that results from a Google search query. The private data are the resources that are bagged behind a wall of authentication. Ex: Your email data. Emails are protected by wall of authentication which requires your user name and password to authenticate successfully. But what if someone can read your emails without authentication? Or what if someone can read your emails by acquiring your credentials from you without your knowledge? There comes the need for Web Application Security. Everything is web based now. Most of the Softwares has their own web app version too. But all the Web Applications are prone to Hacking. This is why, Web Application Penetration emerge as need of the hour. Website need a defence in depth approach to mitigate against the security flaws 1 . It is essential to Penetration test every web application before it goes online and gets hacked by a Black Hat cyber warrior out there. Hackers constantly hunt for web app vulnerabilities 5 . The best way to mitigate against the hacker attacks is to learn their methodologies 2 . Here, we discuss about the most mandatory penetration tests that has to be done before the application goes Online and Techniques explaining how to perform those tests.
✓ Scan internal hosts when and where they are within the scope of your testing. (Hint: They really ought to be.) These hosts might not be visible to outsiders (at least you hope they’re not), but you absolutely need to test them to see what rogue employees and other insiders can access. A worst-case situation is that the hacker has set up shop on the inside. Just to be safe, examine your internal systems for weaknesses.
Let me tell you a quick story about my personal run-in with Peter Wiener. I completed a large amount of manual spidering on especially sensitive pages of an online banking application that I was testing as to not trigger any unexpected functionality. O nce that tedious task was done, I thought it would be appropriate to use automated scanning to make quick work of what I thought was only static HTML pages. Later that week as I was ﬁnishing the project and starting the report, I got a call from the bank's chief security oﬃcer (CS O ) wondering who Peter Wiener was and why he had submi ed over 400 questions to the bank via the Contact U s page. The CS O was a bit taken aback by the name Peter Wiener and he wanted to know what he should tell the bank's board of directors if they asked about it. Gulp! I t was at that exact moment that I went into the se ings of Burp S pider and changed Peter Wiener from Weinerville, WI to Peter Winner from Winnerville, WI . That one le er change has made all of my explanations much easier! O ne last note on Peter: these default values will return when you download a new version of Burp, so make sure you change them every time!
The startup uses the ASVS to generate epics and use cases for functional security issues, such as how best to implement login functionality. The startup uses ASVS in a different way than most - it looks through ASVS, picking the requirements that suit the current sprint, and adds them directly to the sprint backlog if it’s a functional requirement, or as a constraint to existing use cases if non-functional. For example, adding TOTP two factor authentication was selected, along with password policies and a web service regulator that doubles as a brute force detection and prevention mechanism. In future sprints, additional requirements will be selected based upon a “just in time”, “you ain’t gonna need it” basis.
The study proves that internet users in Anand are not thoroughly aware of cybercrimes and cyber security that prevailing. A growing net addiction is visible in towns like Anand. The convergence of smart phones and internet are on stride and quite popular. This means, there is more scope for cybercrimes. Though many internet users claim still majority consider the fi politically motivated attacks on big organizations. They fail to understand that it can affect any internet user. Other than hacking, a quiet majority of users are not aware of crimes like cyber stalking, mobile hacking, TOR and Deep web crimes, copyright violation, cyber bullying, phishing, child soliciting and abuse, sharing disturbing content of pornography, identify theft etc. A significant amount of internet users are not even eport for any grievances
The second architecture which is based on having smart gateway, providing interface between devices which do not have embedded IP but are capable of interacting in own custom protocols, example of such type of devices are zigbee . Here each smart gateway features a web server equipped with ability to interact with non IP based end devices . The web server in smart gateway is one which provides access to the devices. As an example, con- sider a request to a sensor node coming from the web through the RESTful API. The gateway maps this request to a request in the proprietary API of the node and trans- mits it using the communication protocol which the sen- sor node understands. The best advantage of using smart gateways is that it can support multiple types of devices using proprietary protocols for communication as shown in Figure 2.
field in the packet, then information stored it this field is fetched otherwise simply accept packet .Parashar & Radhakrishnan, 2014proposed Improved Deterministic Packet marking IP traceback technique for IPv6. This technique is an improved version of deterministic marking, in which hop by hop option field in IPv6 packet header is used to mark the identification of the packet. The marking technique creates a digest of IP address of ingress router and stores it into the hop by hop option field of packet. The intermediate router will process the hop by hop option field, recalculate the digest and compared it with IP digest stored in the packet. If not matched, the packet will be considered spoofed and the intermediate router will discard the packet. But this technique does not specify which intermediate node will recalculate the digest . Paruchuri et al., 2008proposed a TTL based probabilistic packet marking IP traceback technique. This technique is an improved version of probabilistic packet marking technique. In the normal PPM mechanism, the packets are marked with constant probability and the attackers take the advantage of this to create a spoof mark into the packet. So in the improved PPM technique, the routers mark the packets with different probability depend upon the distance travel by a packet. The router computes the marking probability for a packet from time to live value ‘t’ of the packet, where t p is maximum path length. Therefore router
Even though there are many penetrationtesting tools on the internet to be used on mobile phone, all the existing tools require root system access and many users do not have their phones rooted as it voids the warranty of the phone and also it is very difficult for the user to install and use those tools. In this paper, we develop a testing kit called Cross platform Penetrationtesting Suite which compiles selected penetrationtesting tools necessary to test networks and web application. The main Objective of this tool is to provide very easy access to the tools and increase portability while conducting penetrationtesting. The contributions for this work can be described as follows. First, we create a solution for one stop service for performing the penetrationtesting, which will cover basic tools to start-off the penetrationtesting. Our tool can scan the host for open ports, conduct xss injection, detect ssl vulnerabilities, generate a payload and lookup the who is directory for information, carry smtp exploitation, conduct a nessus scan. Second, it will eliminate the task of carrying a big device, thus giving an array of tools in a Ethical Hacker’s pocket
We have successfully built LoRa pentest tool ,LoPT. This tool is proven to be effective in our experimental lab setup.The field trail for industrys or Smart cities are never been tried with this tool due to time limitations and resource through physical access.The tool can also be used for sniff- ing ,jamming the LoRa signals transmitted over different frequency channels.The tool also defines an NIDS module which has basic detection techniques to detect rogue devices. LoPT will be an effective pentest tool for LoRa based communication networks .Smart Cities where they used LoRa , we can use this tool to analyze the vulnerability status. Based on the user perspective , this tool can be used to exploit others network or checking strength of their known network. We have more areas to explore in this field of LoRa , which can be done in the future scope.
Now that you have a basic understanding of WarDriving and the general principles involved with performing a wireless penetration test, it’s time to delve further into these topics.This book is designed to help penetration testers quickly learn the dif- ferent ways that a wireless penetration test can be accomplished. One of the most difficult pieces of both WarDriving and wireless penetrationtesting is determining what antenna to use. Chapter 2 helps to demystify this by providing an under- standing of antenna theory and how that relates to selecting the right antenna for the job. Handheld devices are crucial to identifying the location of rogue access points or, more importantly to the penetration tester, misconfigured wireless clients in the workplace. Chapter 3 is devoted to using handheld wireless devices like the HP iPaq and the Sharp Zaurus.