"Severus was very interested in where I went every month." Lupin told Harry, Ron, and Hermione. "We were in the same year, you know, and we -- er -- didn't like each other very much. He especially disliked James. Jealous, I think, of James's talent on the Quidditch field... anyway Snape had seen me crossing the grounds with Madam Pomfrey one evening as she led me toward the Whomping Willow to transform. Sirius thought it would be -- er -- amusing, to tell Snape all he had to do was prod the knot on the tree trunk with a long stick, and he'd be able to get in after me. Well, of course, Snape tried it -- if he'd got as far as this house, he'd have met a fully grown werewolf -- but your father, who'd heard what Sirius had done, went after Snape and pulled him back, at great risk to his life... Snape glimpsed me, though, at the end of the tunnel. He was forbidden by Dumbledore to tell anybody, but from that time on he knew what I was...."
Hermione had become a bit more relaxed about breaking rules since Harry and Ron had saved her from the mountain troll, and she was much nicer for it. The day before Harry's first Quidditch match the three of them were out in the freezing courtyard during break, and she had conjured them up a bright blue fire that could be carried around in a jam jar. They were standing with their backs to it, getting warm, when Snape crossed the yard. Harry noticed at once that Snape was limping. Harry, Ron, and Hermione moved closer together to block the fire from view; they were sure it wouldn't be allowed. Unfortunately, something about their guilty faces caught Snape's eye. He limped over. He hadn't seen the fire, but he seemed to be looking for a reason to tell them off anyway.
“Males are represented more often, but they are also depicted as wiser, braver, more powerful, and more fun than females” (ibid.). Female powerlessness is most evident in the portrayal of Hermione, who often shows signs of fear. As an example Heilman cites the attack of the mountain troll when the boys have to save Hermione because she is merely crouching helplessly under the sink and screaming (Rowling 1999, 132). Heilman argues, somewhat inaccurately, that Hermione is supposed to be exceptionally intelligent, but not brave or daring. Further, her knowledge is only of use to the boys while she does not know how to use it or cannot use it. This can be explained through the understanding of HarryPotter as a mythic hero. Both Hermione and Ron are only helping Harry since he is the principal protagonist of the story (Nikolajeva 2003, 127). Although Heilman draws attention to such instances as the Polyjuice Potion which helps the boys to sneak into the Slytherin House, it does not work on Hermione so she has to stay behind; or when Hermione becomes ‘petriﬁed’ but still manages to aid Harry and Ron with the help of a note in her hand which reveals the secret of Salazar’s successor. It is important to stress that in the ﬁnal battle Harry always ﬁghts alone because Ron also fails half way. This happens at the end of each book: in The Philosopher’s Stone Ron sacriﬁces himself on the chessboard and Harry confronts Squirrel alone; in The Chamber of Secrets the ceiling of the tunnel collapses and Ron remains trapped; in The Prisoner of Azkaban Hermione helps Harry rescue Black and Buckbeak while Ron rests injured in the inﬁrmary; in The Goblet of Fire Harry confronts Lord Voldemort while Ron and Hermione watch the competition from the stands for the spectators; in The Order of Phoenix Harry has several helpers, among them Ron, Hermione, Ginny, Neville, and Luna; in the sixth book, The Half-Blood Prince, Ron and Hermione stay at Hogwarts while Harry joins Dumbledore in his search for a part of Lord Voldemort’s soul. Another proof of Hermione’s bravery and daring is the scene in The Chamber of Secrets when she tries to convince the boys they should make the Polyjuice Potion:
The portrait swung forward to reveal a hole in the wall through which they all climbed. A crackling fire warmed the circular common room, which was full of squashy armchairs and tables. Hermione cast the merrily dancing flames a dark look, and Harry distinctly heard her mutter "Slave labor" before bidding them good night and disappearing through the doorway to the girls' dormitory. Harry, Ron, and Neville climbed up the last, spiral staircase until they reached their own dormitory, which was situated at the top of the tower. Five four-poster beds with deep crimson hangings stood against the walls, each with its owner's trunk at the foot. Dean and Seamus were already getting into bed; Seamus had pinned his Ireland rosette to his headboard, and Dean had tacked up a poster of Viktor Krum over his bedside table. His old poster of the West Ham football team was pinned right next to it.
This fantasy series consists of seven books published between 1997 and 2007. It begins with Harry as an infant, who is left in the care of his ‘Muggle’, or non-magical, relatives, Aunt Petunia and Uncle Vernon. In HarryPotter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997), Harry joins Hogwarts boarding School of Witchcraft and Wizardry as a first-year student at the age of eleven; here he meets his friends Ron and Hermione. The second book, HarryPotter and the Chamber of Secrets (1998), follows Harry’s struggle to save Ginny, who is kidnapped and taken into the Chamber of Secrets by Lord Voldemort. The third novel, HarryPotter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (1999), follows Harry’s third year in the school, where he meets some faithful old friends of his parents, including Sirius Black, and some traitors who betrayed his family, such as Peter Pettigrew, who was Lord Voldemort’s servant. In his fourth year at Hogwarts, in HarryPotter and the Goblet of Fire (2000), Harry takes part in a dangerous competition called the Triwizard Tournament; by the end of this book Lord Voldemort has regained his full strength. In his fifth year at Hogwarts, in HarryPotter and the Order of the Phoenix (2003), Harry and his friends encounter and nearly defeat Lord Voldemort’s Death Eaters. In the sixth book, HarryPotter and the Half-Blood Prince (2005), Harry discovers that Voldemort became immortal through his creation of six ‘horcruxes’ where parts of his soul are kept within objects. Two of these horcruxes have been destroyed: one by Harry in the events of the Chamber of Secrets and the other by Dumbledore, Hogwarts’ headmaster, before the events of Half-Blood Prince. The final book, HarryPotter and the Deathly Hallows (2007), follows Harry’s development and maturation to the age of 17. With the help of his friends and supporters, Harry finally defeats Lord Voldemort and his followers and saves the wizard world.
The rest of Harry's Christmas presents were far more satisfactory. Hagrid had sent him a large tin of treacle fudge, which Harry decided to soften by the fire before eating; Ron had given him a book called Flying with the Cannons, a book of interesting facts about his favorite Quidditch team, and Hermione had bought him a luxury eagle-feather quill. Harry opened the last present to find a new, hand-knitted sweater from Mrs. Weasley and a large plum cake. He read her card with a fresh surge of guilt, thinking about Mr. Weasley's car (which hadn't been seen since its crash with the Whomping Willow), and the bout of rule-breaking he and Ron were planning next.
The voyage to the world of the dead is the most frightening expedition that the children make in the story, and one that is rarely undertaken in children‟s literature. Pullman‟s narrative indicates to the reader that it is possible that Will and Lyra will not return, even though this would be breaking with the fantasy tradition of the heroes and heroines either returning to their environments or going somewhere infinitely better. The price that the children must pay is to leave their individual souls behind. Will is unaware of his dæmon, but Lyra has to undergo a separation so wrenching that some critics have questioned whether this is appropriate for a children‟s book. However, as I maintain throughout this thesis, it is the fact that Pullman and Rowling respect the emotional, physical and intellectual potential of young people which contributes greatly to the appeal of these texts. As writers, Rowling and Pullman expect their readers to make a leap in understanding and acquire emotional strength, just as the novels‟ protagonists do. “Children who make the intellectual journey in reading Pullman gain substantial education through … rich though noncondescending storyline[s]” (Smith 145) and I would include HarryPotter in this category also. Thus our collective memory of the monomyth and its derivatives continues.
As mentioned in (5.5.4), the HarryPotter series is filled with enchanted objects, bewitched items and magical devices which are invented by Rowling. Examples of these objects include the most remarkable magic items of them all ‘The Philosopher’s Stone’ and ‘The Resurrection Stone’. Both magical devices are translated literally as ‘فوسليفلا رجح’ and ‘ رجح ثعبلا’ as seen in snapshots below. The same subtitling strategy is applied on the names of other magical devices. For example, Invisibility Cloak ‘ءافخلإا ةءابع’, The Famous Wizard cards ‘ةرحسلا رهشأ تاقاطب’, The Sorting Hat ‘فينصتلا ةعبق’, The Deathly Hallows ‘توملا تاسدقم’, The Elder Wand ‘خيشلا اصع’, Marauder’s Map ‘باهنلا ةطيرخ’ and صوصللا ةطيرخ’ in other occasions, The Goblet of Fire ‘رانلا بوك’ and ‘رانلا سأك’ in other occasions as well.
Each movie covers a year of Harry’s life at Hogwarts School. Harry and his close friends, Hermione and Ron, have to experience many challenges, especially at the end of each movie. The first three movies are mainly dedicated to presenting different characters and their experiences, highlighting the childhood years at Hogwarts School, and revealing secrets of the wizarding community, magical objects and spells. The whole movie series also emphasises the significant role of Harry and his close friends in stopping the Voldemort’s return to the physical world through his followers. Regarding the scripts of the HarryPotter movies, Steve Kloves, who is an American screenwriter, wrote all the scripts except the fifth movie. Kloves had direct assistance from the author. The correspondence of the plot and tone of the movies and books are almost the same, however, some modifications and deletions have been made because of cinematic structure, time and technical constraints.
Yet the tension between the market and moral economies plays an integral part in Harry’s particular heroism. It is part of Harry’s heroism that he must navigate the compelling lure of materialism, especially when at age eleven he suddenly inherits his parent’s considerable wealth. As Harry enters the Hogwarts Express for the first time, he has a pocket full of money, but no family or friends. To this extent Ron Weasley offers a direct contrast in that he has a large family, but as a consequence his parents have very little money. It is a mark of Harry’s future status that he uses his money to create and celebrate his new friendship with Ron, sharing an exciting new gastronomical and cultural experience with him. During this feast of chocolate frogs, cauldron cakes and Bertie Bott’s Every Flavour Beans, Ron helps Harry interpret and understand the wizarding society he is entering; subjects of a picture are active in a wizarding photograph and Albus Dumbledore is regarded as “the greatest wizard of modern times”, for example (HPPS 77, italics in original). But equally, the experience of giving is formative for Harry’s character, who, the narrator declares, “had never had anything to share before or, indeed, anyone to share it with. It was a nice feeling, sitting there, with Ron, eating their way through all Harry’s pasties and cakes” (76).
HarryPotter novels define a variety of spells. These are keywords cast by witches and wizards to achieve purposes, such as turning on a light (‘Lu- mos’), unlocking a door (‘Alohomora’) or killing (‘Avada Kedavra’). They abstract complex and non-ambiguous actions. Their use also makes it possible to build an automatic and self-annotated corpus for action prediction. The moment a spell occurs in a text represents a response to the en- vironment, and hence, it can be used to label the preceding text fragment as a scene description that ends up triggering that action. Table 1 illustrates it with some examples from the original books.
The new Portfolio Edition draws on popular culture, from HarryPotter to “The Matrix.” It includes basic elements of symbolic logic, informal fallacies, discussions of ethical relativism, and string theory, fuller discussions of Kant, and of democracy as a value, and a questionnaire for students based on Mill’s idea that there are qualitative differences in pleasures and pains.
Like some fantasies (including Lord of the rings and the Chronicles of Narnia), the HarryPotter series by J.K. Rowling makes a social comment on a particular dominant discourse within a particular sociocultural context. One of Rowling’s social comments is the dehumanising and fragmenting effect of the power and consumerist discourse in Western society – where great value is placed on what a person owns. An example of this theme in the series is the characters of the Dursleys, as prime examples of ‘Muggles’. Although it is not power that Muggles seek, but rather to fit in by having what the Jones’ have, which fits in well with the capitalist discourse as developed by Lacan – as discussed by Meylahn. Rowling juxtaposes this discourse with the alternative sacred story of the Christ discourse (community and fellowship are more important than material possessions), that she has subtly woven into her narrative. This alternative discourse challenges adolescents’ identity and spirituality by offering the Christ discourse as an alternative discourse to the dominant discourse of consumerism and power they live in. In his article, ‘Holistic redemptive pastoral ministry in the fragmented transit hall of existence’, Meylahn (2010) speaks of a ‘wounded Christ’ healing a ‘wounded community’ and this ties in well with the Christ discourse presented by Rowling. Meylahn gives us a useful hermeneutical tool to interpret the actions of some of Rowling’s characters. Hence, Meylahn’s ‘wounded Christ’, will be brought into conversation with the actions of some of Rowling’s characters. By bringing Rowling into conversation with Meylahn, pastors and youth workers are presented with an ideal tool to help guide adolescents towards a more spiritual life that is not bound to the dehumanising discourse of consumerism and power.
The Gerstle River Quarry Site has been investigated several times since its discovery in 1976 by Charles Holmes (Holmes and Dilliplane 1976). After initial testing in 1976, in 1977, Holmes excavated 12 m2 finding two components in stratified context (Rabich and Reger 1978). In 1983 and 1985, Japanese researchers under the general direction of Yoshinobu Kotani excavated 71 m2 from the Upper Locus, recovering thousands of artifacts, faunal remains, and identifying at least two probable features. The only report on these investigations is a Japanese-language report published by the Japanese Museum of Ethnology in 1989 (Kimura et al. 1989). This paper was recently translated by a University of Alaska Fairbanks Anthropology student, Hiroko Ikuta, thus allowing for the full synthesis presented here. However, the paper only details lithic artifact distributions for part of the 1985 excavation (A-grid, see below), with minimal information on artifacts recovered in 1983, and no data on the faunal remains. No features were mentioned in the paper, though the original plan-views of several excavation units illustrate concentrations of bone, charcoal, and artifacts. It is possible that hearths were excavated in the 1985 excavation of A- and G-grids. Several scatters of large cobbles labeled “debris” and shaded areas labeled “carbon” were noted in the Japanese field plan maps. Faunal remains were also noted, but no information regarding taxa or element was provided in the report. In 1996, Holmes conducted further testing at the Upper Locus and excavated the first test pit at the Lower Locus recovering fauna and artifacts from multiple strata. In 1999, 2000, and 2001, I excavated 36 m2, 16 m2, and 32 m2 respectively at the Lower Locus, documenting three components, two of which predate the lowest component found in the Upper Locus (Potter and Holmes 2000; Potter 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b).
The prospect of attempting to link ancient languages or proto- languages with recurring sets of material culture is daunting if not impossible (cf. Renfrew 2000). A number of proposed linkages may be consistent with the data but difficult to test; data in this region tend to be coarse- grained, limited to supposed stylistic attributes of lithic technology. Recently, Dumond (2010), Ives (2010), and Potter (2010) summarized and evaluated Na- Dene prehistory in the context of Vajda’s (2010) linguistic connection between Na- Dene (Athapaskan- Eyak- Tlingit) and Yeniseian languages. Potter (2010) focused on patterns of material culture continuity and discontinuity, identifying contemporaneous archaeological groups with separate material culture traditions, and evaluating antiq- uity of language groups from the present (direct historical approach). Dumond, Ives, and Potter agreed that evidence for migration and discontinuities was present in the northeast Asian and northwest North American record at 14,000– 12,000 cal b.p. (initial colonization), 6000– 4800 cal b.p., and 1000 cal b.p. It is plausible that Na- Dene ances- tors migrated to North America as part of late Pleistocene or middle Holocene popu- lation expansions from northeast Asia, but a specific material cultural correlate with Na- Dene speakers is unclear. Microblade technology, argued by a number of research- ers to be associated with Na- Dene or Athapaskan ancestors (Borden 1968; Dumond 1969; Matson and Magne 2007), is ubiquitous across northeast Asia, including Japan and northern China, while it is generally more isomorphic with Na- Dene speakers in northern North America.
monitoring techniques and analytical methods, including forest health data (Smith and Conkling 2004), soils as an indicator of forest health (O’Neill and others 2005), urban forest health monitoring (Cumming and others 2006, 2007; Lake and others 2006), health conditions in national forests (Morin and others 2006), crown conditions (Schomaker and others 2007, Randolph 2010, Randolph and Moser 2009), sampling and estimation procedures for vegetation diversity and structure (Schulz and others 2009), ozone monitoring (Rose and Coulston 2009), establishment of alien- invasive forest insect species (Koch and others 2011), spatial patterns of land cover (Riitters 2011), changes in forest biodiversity (Potter and Woodall 2012), and the overall forest health indicator program (Woodall and others 2010). For more information, visit the FHM Web site at www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/fhm.
Furthermore, two extra conditions regarding the con- text in which peer support appeared needed to be fulfilled as well. First, contact between students was only coded if the peer support was offered voluntarily. Second, only interactions occurring between two living characters, at- tending Hogwarts at the same moment, were coded as peer support. Consequently, when dead characters reap- peared in the books, interactions between these dead characters and living students were not coded. One ex- ample for such reappearance is Cedric Diggory’s return at the end of book 4, when Cedric asks Harry to return his dead body to his parents. Furthermore, interactions with former or future Hogwarts students at a certain point in time were not included. For example, although Harry and Ginny met before Ginny attended Hogwarts, peer support relations between both characters were only coded when both students attended Hogwarts together.
Although these two systems of justice share both a proximity to water and an understanding that we are all tormented most and most effectively by our own personal demons, they differ radically in the purpose each was designed to serve. In the hands of Lord Voldemort the purpose of justice is to yield “the satisfaction of revenge,” 36 but for Harry the aim of justice is to redeem, restore, and renew, to “get people . . . to a present from which a better future can be obtained,” 37 and “to restore a shared narrative of their lives.” 38 In Harry’s realm, justice offers those who encounter it a way home, though not necessarily a free ticket there. In the realm of Lord Voldemort, however, those who encounter justice must be forever tormented by justice’s consequences and forever segregated from their community.
“I told her I’d written it to fill a gap – I couldn’t find contemporary Scottish novels for the children I was teaching. She liked that. My most successful book, Exodus, was published when young adult books about the future were supposedly out of fashion – now they are all the rage. HarryPotter became a massive success when ‘gritty realism’ was in vogue. There are so many other examples. A good book with an original twist or ‘voice’ is what publishers and readers enjoy, so don’t be afraid to go against the grain.”