et al. 2014, Recio et al. 2017). These findings still held true after controlling for traffic related air pollution. Eze et al. (2018) found noise exposure from different traffic sources to be associated with exacerbations in adult asthma. As in adults, evidence for associations between noise exposure and respiratory outcomes in children and adolescents is sparse. Lineares et al. (2006) found that >4 % of the admissions due to pneumonia in children may be related to environmental noise exposure. There is some evidence on effects by long-term noise exposure on respiratory and allergic outcomes in children. A majority of the studies show positive associations with bronchitis and asthma-related symptoms (Duhme et al. 1996, Ising 2003, Ising et al. 2004, Niemann et al. 2006, Bockelbrink et al. 2008). One study found statistically significant associations between self-reported lorry traffic and wheezing in early adolescence, however, not during childhood and no statistically significant associations were observed with self-reported asthma (Behrens et al. 2004). Most of these studies did not have objective data on noise exposure and used questionnaire-reported trafficnoise. In our study there was a tendency for increased risks of asthma ever up to 16 years of age in relation to residential roadtrafficnoise during infancy, which is generally in line with some earlier studies. However, we did not find a clear overall association in the longitudinal analyses. To our knowledge ours is the first study that longitudinally examined allergic outcomes such as asthma and wheeze in relation to objectively assessed noise exposure.
This notion does not explain why exposure to road trafﬁc noise was related to improved episodic memory scores. Road trafﬁc noise is unlikely to increase arousal sufﬁciently to improve performance on the memory tasks we used, which are difﬁcult and might be impaired by increased arousal. Another explanation is confounding, but the only signiﬁcant interaction between road trafﬁc noise, sociodemographic status, and episodic memory was for crowding, in which the effects were stronger for those from crowded households. This unexplained ﬁnding needs further study. The absence of an association between road trafﬁc noise and reading is inconsistent with previous studies, but the highest noise levels we recorded were 71 dB LAeq, which is lower than in previous work. 31
Nowadays transportation noise becomes a major problem. There are some noises sources like motor-cycle, bus, trains, aero planes and cars. Roadtraffic has been the major source of annoyance. It is due to the large number of automotive vehicle in comparison with other machines. The mechanism of radiation of noise to outside from a vehicle has been different from the generation of noise inside the vehicle. The noise pass off depends on the relative levels, characteristics and the interaction of the directly spread noises from the vehicles. The most important noise source of the vehicles is the engine and its accessories. According to WHO the most important effects regarding trafficnoise are: psychological & physiological effects, work-related stress and increased risk of accidents. Environmental noise caused by traffic, industrial and recreational activities as their main local environmental problem especially in urban areas. It has been estimated that around 20 present of inhabitants in Indian suffer from noise levels that health experts consider to be insufferable, where most people become irritated. The same survey showed a significant rise in the public's willingness to take action to reduce noise.
Roadtraffic and related noise is a major source of annoyance and impairment to health in urban areas. Many areas exposed to roadtrafficnoise are also exposed to rail and air trafficnoise. The resulting annoyance may depend on individual/neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Nevertheless, few studies have taken into account the confounding or modifying factors in the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance due to roadtraffic. In this study, we address these issues by combining Geographic Information Systems and epidemiologic methods. Street network buffers with a radius of 500 m were defined around the place of residence of the 7290 participants of the RECORD Cohort in Ile-de-France. Estimated outdoor trafficnoise levels (road, rail, and air separately) were assessed at each place of residence and in each of these buffers. Higher levels of exposure to noise were documented in low educated neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models documented positive associations between roadtrafficnoise and annoyance due to roadtraffic, after adjusting for individual/ neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. There was no evidence that the association was of different magnitude when noise was measured at the place of residence or in the residential neighborhood. However, the strength of the association between neighborhood noise exposure and annoyance increased when considering a higher percentile in the distribution of noise in each neighborhood. Roadtrafficnoise estimated at the place of residence and roadtrafficnoise in the residential neighborhood (75th percentile) were independently associated with annoyance, when adjusted for each other. Interactions of effects indicated that the relationship between roadtrafficnoise exposure in the residential neighborhood and annoyance was stronger in affluent and high educated neighborhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that it is useful to take into account (i) the exposure to transportation noise in the residential neighborhood rather than only at the residence, (ii) different percentiles of noise exposure in the residential neighborhood, and (iii) the socioeconomic characteristics of the residential neighborhood to explain variations in annoyance due to roadtraffic in the neighborhood.
The estimated WTP used in this paper is based on . Since the data were also analyzed in  we only pro- vide a terse description of the study and the results that are of interest to our analysis in this article. 10 To con- duct their empirical analysis Andersson et al. used a pooled data set for Lerum, a municipality close to Gothenburg, which consisted of two sources; property noise levels from a study on the healtheffects of trafficnoise conducted in Lerum in 2004  and property prices and other attributes (besides the noise variables) from the National Land Survey of Sweden. Descriptive statistics for the dif- ferent variables are listed and described in Table 5 in the Appendix. Prices are reported in 2004 price levels and the explanatory variables used in the regression are Living space, Quality index, Terraced, Linked and Detached which describe property attributes, whereas the other variables, besides the two noise variables, describe geographical attributes of the properties. Of the latter variables one is a dummy for distance to the motorway, E20 150m, a proxy for other negative effects from living close to the road besides roadnoise, two are measures of the distance to nearest train station and motorway entrance, Dist. station and Dist. entrance, i.e. measures of positive effects of the railway and motorway, whereas the other geographical variables define different neighborhoods.
Departure from a common relative effect model was noted for age (p for interaction = 0.018; Figure 3). An exposure effect of roadtrafficnoise was indicated in the youngest age group (18 - 39 years old) at exposure levels 60 - 64 dB(A) OR(95%CI) 1.47 (1.01-2.14), whereas the estimated effect at higher exposure levels was imprecise (Table 3). Among middle-aged (40 - 59 years old), effects of roadnoise exposures were seen in the 60-64 and >64 dB(A) categories. OR(95%CI) 1.30 (1.05-1.61) 2.03 (1.28-3.24) respectively when adjusted for age, sex and BMI. A finer stratification of age indicated that significant exposure effects were present only in the age span 30 - 49 years old (Figure 3). There was no clear association between roadtrafficnoise and prevalence of hypertension in the oldest age group (60 - 80 years old), but the effect estimate for the highest exposure category (> 64 dB(A)) was again imprecise OR(95%CI) 1.10 (0.64-1.89). Effect modification was also indicated for years in residence, with a similar, bell-shaped pattern as for age (p for inter- action = 0.054; not in figures). However, age and years in residence were interrelated and the effect modification by years in residence did not remain (p = 0.29) when adjust- ment for effect modification by age was included in the same model. No apparent difference in effect between the sexes was discerned (Figure 3). The effect was not mark- edly different in subjects born abroad, in subjects with dis- turbed sleep, or with strained economy, but here the confidence intervals were all wide.
59-85 dB (A) It was also observed that higher noise level in the town is due to rapid and unplanned urbanization resulting in great influx of people from all parts of the region and country, improper management of town roads and traffics, lack of sufficient parking spaces and exponential growth of both private and public vehicles in the city. This research study is based on the expected relationship between trafficnoise and its effect on human work efficiency in his/her respective working places. From the survey and findings it is evident that roadtrafficnoise affects human work efficiency at Government Offices, Private Organizations, and Commercial Business Centers beside the busy main roads. Noise is undesirable or unwanted sound. Extended exposure to excessive sound has been proved to produce physical and psychological damage. Because of its annoyance and disturbance implications, noise adds to mental stress and hence affects the general well being of those exposed to it. Noise is a major source of friction among individuals. The results of this study show that the level of noise pollution in Cuddalore town far exceeds the acceptable limits set by the CPCB. Even in the residential areas and vulnerable institutions like schools and hospitals, noise level is much higher than the acceptable limit. This has serious implication on the general health and well-being of the inhabitants of the city. It is also observed .that noise level is closely related with the number of motor vehicles. Urgent measures should be taken to control the level of noise pollution in the town. To reduce noise pollution, several measures can be implemented which include proper maintenance of vehicle and roadway, plantation of trees and construction of sound barriers. Noise pollution is becoming a major public health concern with all of its potential biological and social effects on the body such as cardiovascular, hearing, performance at school and at work, and psychological. This is an especially concerning area for children who are experiencing hearing loss at younger ages that may ultimately affect their learning. These children may be at risk for performing poorly in school and in turn will affect their future career potential. The cardiovascular effects on children may also lead to chronic illness in adulthood.
gina pectoris, myocardial infraction). Noise-induced cardiovascular diseases are considered to be the consequence of stress (Babisch, 2006; Ising et al., 2004; Prasher, 2003; RIVM, 2004). Exposure to noise triggers the production of (stress) hormones like cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline. It does so both directly and indirectly, through disturbance of activities. These hormones may cause changes in the values of a number of biological risk factors, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), blood lipids (e.g. cholesterol) and blood glucose. These risk fac- tors can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (Babisch, 2006; Ising et al., 2004). Persistent exposure to environmental noise could therefore result in per- manent changes to the vascular system, with elevated blood pressure and heart diseases as potential outcomes. The magnitude of these effects will be partly de- termined by individual characteristics, lifestyle behaviours and environmental conditions (Berglund et al., 1999).
Logical proof has recommended that chronic aircraft machine noise presentation may debilitate understanding perception and long haul memory among kids though high noise level of modern settings is exposed to queasiness, migraines, contentiousness and regulation of mind-set and uneasiness [Figure 2]. Epidemiological thinks about have indicated that unpredictable trafficnoise of 45 dBA has been interlinked to the obstruction of day by day exercises, dozing, rest, study, imparting, and unfriendly wellbeing suggestions, for example, dissatisfaction, lower resistance, and changes of blood pieces. In particular, roadtraffic irritation is a significant offender with revealed negative side effects of hearing misfortune, gastric discharge, pituitary and adrenal organ incitement, concealment of the resistant reaction, and female proliferation and ripeness disappointments. Logical confirmations have recommended that these intelligent effects of numerous noises indicated more prominent impacts than basically adding the individual stressors, with incessant thoughtful excitement or conditions of defenselessness.
examine healtheffects from environmental exposures. In- formation bias was prevented by using modeled noise ex- posure levels and registry data on sleep medications obtained independently both of each other, and other questionnaire data. The noise exposure was thoroughly assessed, using a detailed noise model. Furthermore, the study population included participants from both urban and suburban areas of the City of Oslo. This resulted in a broad range of noise exposure levels, which strengthened the possibility to detect associa- tions. A common approach in studies on noise and health is to use a cut off level for the noise exposure in order to account for background noise. In the present study, we found it appropriate to use the full range of exposure levels in the analyses. Firstly, be- cause the only noise source included in the noise model is roadtrafficnoise. Thus, by increasing the lowest modeled noise levels to a level of background noise, misclassification of exposure would likely occur, the mean exposure level in the study population would increase, and the association between roadtrafficnoise and sleep medication use could poten- tially be overestimated. Furthermore, a cut off would also mean that some of the variance in the exposure is lost and the accuracy of the analytic model will consequently be reduced.
Noise can be defined as unwanted sound or sound in the wrong place at the wrong time. Noise can also be defined as any sound that is undesirable because it interferes with speech and hearing, is intense enough to damage hearing, or it otherwise annoying. Noise pollution is a very significant component of environmental pollution, not only due to its harmful traits, but also through its presence in all the compartments of modern life. Social survey data has shown that annoyance, sleep disturbance and cardiovascular problems are considered to be the most important environmental noiseeffects (Ouis, 1982; Langdon, 1976). The road transports are the main source of noise in the modern society, with around 80% of a town’s noise pollution being
Second, long-term impaired sleep causes neuronal loss, impaired brain development and failure to ad- equately develop coping skills [32, 33], making a longer noise exposure window relevant. In addition, noise ex- posure and annoyance may cause stress, and it is known that long-term stress in children is associated with sev- eral negative healtheffects, such as impaired brain development and impaired immune system functioning [34, 35]. Among the few studies that have looked at resi- dential noise exposure and inattention, associations have been found with both short-term and long-term noise exposure windows [8, 12]. However, we have only found one study that have investigated whether sleep is a medi- ating factor in this association: Stansfeld et al.  found no mediation by sleep in the association between ex- posure to aircraft noise and cognitive performance in 9 – 11 year-old children.
This observational investigation is driven in the inside heart of the city gazing from Kothi Char Rasta, Raopura road up to Nyay Mandir range as shown in map (Figure 1 ) occupied, imperative shopping territory for residents and congested main road of Vadodara. It is brimming with huge little business shops. Inferable from limit road widths, these exercises make intense movement blockage on the roads for the duration of the day. Hard and fast 150 respondents were met before long along the fringe of road. The data was accumulated by using a sorted out poll blended with appropriate open-completed request. The examination has been finished with the help of rates and cross-arranges on wellsprings of pollution, effects of noise, reactions to noise, and proposals to control pollution to the extent age and moreover sex.
Also included are prioritised RTNM asset works relative to noise exposure for SWP 5 year milestone, implementation of training for Regions/districts staff in the management of RTNM assets, initial consultation with interested stake- holders (local government and community groups etc) to identify key sites and possible projects for upgrading or new works to improve aesthetic and environmental values of the road corridor and ongoing consultation and partnership agreements with stakeholders.
Despite the collection of newborn screening being performed by the 5th day of birth, the doctor only gets the results in the first query that occurs in the first month. It is important that the health unit, through the nurse, goes to the home of the newborn within the first seven days of life, to guide the family about all the symptoms related to chronic diseases screened in the test, and to remind of the importance of the introduction of vitamin D, which should remain until the second year of life or according to the physician’s discretion, assisting in the prevention of various diseases .
Gynecomastia, defined as benign proliferation of the male’s breast glandular tissue (Figure 1), a common finding in boys during childhood and adolescence, reported to be between 30 % and 60%. Most cases of gynecomastia in children occurs in the neonatal period, due to placental transfer of estrogen, and in puberty due to an imbalance between estrogens and androgens in breast. Although pre-pubertal gynecomastia is rare,and the majority are idiopathic. However there are various recognized causes including chronic diseases such as liver, renal or thyroid disorders. In addition, drugs have been associate with development of gynnecomastia (Glenn and Braunstein 2007; Jurayyan 2016; Cuhaci et al 2014; Dickson 2012; Nordt and DiVasta 2008). In this brief review we highlight different aspects of male’s breast enlargement in childhood particularly the pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis and differential diagnosis and to discuss the different modalities of therapy.
Abstract: Noise can have negative impact on health. Hearing damage, annoyance, sleep disturbance, high blood pressure, poor cardiovascular health is all linked to community noise. Children, people with existing physical and mental illness and elderly people are most susceptible to community noise. High level of noise from sources such as busy traffic can adversely affect the health of the people living near road highways. It is therefore desirable to model a roadtrafficnoise that predicts well the trafficnoise near highways so that the people living near highways who are highly exposed by everyday trafficnoise can be protected from noise exposure to some extent . Measurement of noise level ( dB(A) ) by noise analyzer will be conducted on road segment of Tirupati town at different locations. In the present paper a roadtrafficnoise prediction model for Indian conditions is developed using regression analysis which is based on Microsoft Excel. Data collected has been analyzed and compared with the values predicted by analytical models . After comparison of results it was observed that Developed Model could be satisfactorily applied for Tirupati town conditions as they give accepted results with a good value.
The biological changes associated with the transition of early adolescence are marked. When the hormones controlling physical development are activated in early puberty, most children undergo a growth spurt, develop primary and secondary sex characteristics, become fertile, and experience increased sexual libido. Girls begin to experience these pubertal changes earlier than boys (by approximately 18 months), so girls and boys of the same chronological age are likely to be at quite different points in physical and social development between the ages of 10 and 14. In any sixth-grade classroom, there will be girls who are fully mature and dress like adult women, girls who still look and dress like children, and boys whose bodies have not even begun to change. It is easy to imagine how this variation in physical maturity complicates the social interactions in classrooms and organized coeducational programs. A central task of adolescence is to develop a sense of oneself as an autonomous individual. The drive for such autonomy derives from the internal, biological processes marking the transition to a more adult role (puberty and increasing cognitive maturity) and from the shifts in social roles and expectations that accompany these underlying physiological and cognitive changes. Compared to children under age 10, teenagers are given new opportunities to experience independence outside of the home. They spend much more unsupervised time with peers which (compared to adult-child relationships) are relatively equal in terms of interpersonal power and authority (Eccles et al., 1993, Wigfield et al., 1997). The varied timing of pubertal development also creates different psychological dilemmas for early-maturing girls versus early-maturing boys. Early maturation tends to be advantageous for boys, enhancing their participation in sports and their social standing in school. It can be problematic, however, for girls. Early-maturing girls are the first individuals in their cohort to begin changing, and the resulting female physical changes (such as increasing body fat) do not fit the valued image of the slim, androgynous fashion model (Simmons and Blyth, 1987, Petersen, 1988). At the same time, however, they continue to rely on the support and guidance offered by adults in the family, in school, and in community based programs or activities.
To calculate noise pollution level of the area with use of physic and wave relations, complex equations are resulted. Therefore, possibility of error is higher and measuring of wave parameters (like wavelength) are more difficult. For better results, equations have been made to calculate noise pollution level with use of traffic parameters. These equations are easier to conduct and are shown better results. Different models are defined in each country. These differences are due to various factors that have unique effect in each region.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2-3 % of the worldwide population [1-3]. The prevalence differs among populations, peaking in northern Europe and being less common in South America and Asia [4, 5]. Disease onset can occur at any age but onset in early adulthood is common and onset in adolescence and childhood is not uncommon. In approximately 30% of psoriasis patients disease appears before the age of 25 years [3, 6-8]. Onset before puberty is more unusual and psoriasis is estimated to occur in only 10% of patients before the age of 10 and in 2% before the age of 2 years, however these numbers are based on small and few studies [6, 9]. Health insurance data from Germany have shown an overall prevalence of 0.4% in individuals ≤ 18 years of age, prevalence ranged from 0.1% at the age of 1 year to 0.8% at the age of 18 years [10, 11]. In a study from Sweden > 8000 children aged 12-16 years were examined for dermatological disorders and prevalence of psoriasis was found to be 0.3% .