Fuller details on our study’s findings are described in the ‘Results’ sections of this report. The study is comprises of a health assessments of villagers from participating areas depicting their health profiles, health complaints highlighted in self-reported surveys of villagers from Sarasmal, Kosampali and Dongamouha which lie within a kilometre of coalmines or coal-fired power plants who were further examined by medical doctors in a temporary medical clinic set up for this study’s purposes to achieve a clinical diagnoses of each participants’ health conditions in parallel with an environmental assessment examining samples of air, water, soil, sediment and fly ash to ascertain the presence of pollutants in the local surrounding environment. While all long-term Sarasmal households present at the time of surveys and medical examinations undertaken between 22nd and 24th of May , 2017 were visited, resource constraints limited our survey in Kusampali to every third household and in Dongamouha, every fifth household. The findings of self-reported health complaints and medical examination records for residents of Sarasmal are therefore presented in more detail than the other two villages surveyed as part of this study.
nutrients the efficiency of work is affected badly so proper nutritional intake is the prime necessity. Although the availability of nutrients in food is dependent upon the geographical environment of an area but socio-economic factors also play an important role in this regard. So the interrelating study of geo-economic environment and nutrition is prime requirement while considering heath of coal miners. As our newly formed state Chattisgarh is having rich mineral recourses, as coal, iron ore. bauxite, dolomite, lime stone even diamond, so mining industries are the base pillar of our economy . Also a significant part of our population is engaged in mining, so every relevant study is of community importance, especially coalmining sector Nutritional assessments indicates the nutritional health of an individual through nutritional assessment of the coal mine workers, it is easy to identify the level of nourishment of coal mine workers that ultimately an essential aspect to formulate the health case community development program to improve the overall health scenes of the Korba coal mine region. Nutritional status of the coal mine workers is determined by clinical examination, anthropometric measurement.
Our findings reveal that the soils in the mining and processing sites serve as a sink for PHE, particularly Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Cu and Zn, confirming that mining/mineral processing activities are the main causes of PHE soil contamination thereby constituting a potential risk to human health (Lar et al 2013 and in press). The total concentrations of PHE in the vegetables are significantly high. Notably Pb concentration in the spinach and sweet potatoes are greater than WHO admissible limit of 1mg Pb/kg in foodstuff. A country like the United Kingdom (UK) is attempting to restrict importation of foodstuff with Pb > 1 mg/kg (Abraham et al., 2013). The ingestion of the PHE contaminated soils is a major route of exposure of many of these PHE soil contaminants. Thus, in determining the human health risk assessment, the oral bioavailability of PHE soil contaminants (the fraction of the PHE that reaches the systemic circulation) is of relevance to assess (Oomen et al., 2002). Reports from most in-vitro digestion models simulating the human gastrointestinal tract to assess bio accessibility of PHE contaminants (the maximum amount of PHE available for intestinal absorption) from soil during digestion show that bio-accessibility differs between individual chemical elements (contaminants) as well as the pH of the gastric juice where a pH of about 1 might lead to a liberation of PHE into the system (Oomen et al., 2002). According to the works of Oomen et al., 2002, they concluded that in most cases < 50% of bio-available PHE contaminants are bio-accessible during digestion, indicating that a reduction of bioavailability will minimize the human health risk.
The River plays a most important role in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Rivers are under immense pressure due to the various kinds of natural and anthropogenic activities among which indiscriminate extraction of construction grade sand and stones, are the major factor. River Bed Mining is the major activity occurring in all over the world for constructing the buildings, urbanization, roads and industries. The demand for the river bed materials increasing day by day due to manmade activities which may led the major environmental effects in and around terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystem. For the development purposes the natural resources like river bed material (Sand, gravel, Cobbles and boulder) are the major raw material. The development of the country is mainly focused on the growth of urbanization and indusrtization of that country. The increasing demand of river bed materials, the illegal mining (sand mafia) and mining in the agricultural field, floodplain area are increase and its effect the health, physical process and different function of rivers, degradation of the riparian zone, degradation of aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity. There are many environmental effects are generated due to the unscientific and up hazard river bed mining. The present review paper deals with the environmental effects of indiscriminate River Bed Mining from the catchments basin of the river.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------ Abstract - Coal is a major source of energy in India for many decades and assumed to contributes to nearly 60% of India’s energy requirement. Coalmining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole but it is also a very cheap and abundant source of energy. Coalmining is basically associated with the extraction of coal mineral and resulting in degradation of natural resources like air, water, land and the destruction of habitat., thus poses a threat to biodiversity. A huge quantity of waste material is produced by several mining activities in the coalmining region. If proper care is not taken for waste control and disposal, mining activity degrades the surrounding environment. Thus this study is aimed to assess the impact of excessive coalmining on the environment and attempts to make a realistic examination of the environmentalimpact of mining operations on the ambient air parameters by coal siding and processing carried out in the Jamuna Kotma Coal Field Region in the district of Anuppur, Madhya Pradesh (India).
Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB, 2006) documented several cases relating to sustainable development in the coal industry. Typically the issues reported are acceptance and integration of sustainable development principles, balancing TBL objectives, role of technology, differing regional views, collaboration along the value chain and implementation of government policies and regulations. Specifically the report shared the insights from fifty case studies that exposed several challenges surrounding people, value chain, environmental impacts, resource stewardship, communities and management processes and systems in the coalmining industry. From the CIAB report it is evident that awareness of sustainable development is picking up and there is growing awareness of reducing GHGs in the coal industry across the globe. Another issue that has been debated in the CIAB report is on trade-off among balancing TBL objectives with substantial consideration given to economical and financial aspects. The trade- off worked well for larger firms compared to smaller firms. In terms of technology, multiple cases revealed improvement of efficiency, health and safety and environmental performance. A study by Lederwasch & Mukheibir (2013) provided a perspective on trade-off among TBL objectives in the coal industry based on a case study in Australia. The study suggested to avoid assigning equal importance to all TBL objectives as well as finding interdependent relationship among TBL objectives; instead the study suggested to find potential impact on all elements of the TBL. In line with the views of Lederwasch & Mukheibir (2013), we review the impact of operational, environmental and social improvement initiatives on elements of the TBL. Overall, the impact assessment of operational improvement practices in the mining industry is scant. Typically the studies measuring efficiency and productivity of coal mines have been exploratory in nature and do not follow standardised practices and procedures. A few studies employed data environmental analysis (DEA) to analyse the performance of both opencast and underground coal mines (Kulshreshtha & Parikh, 2002). The studies show that efficiency of opencast mines has improved due to the technological advancement in opencast mining compared to underground mining. In addition, coal firms all over the world are exploring best practices to improve their performance and their overall efficiency. Comparative research using a DEA approach shows that coal firms in China have low efficiency compared to the coal firms
Aquatic habitats in marine environments may be altered by marine dredge mining, deep sea mining, off-shore loading activities, port construction, and tailings disposal. Rivers and run off impacted by mining operations can also impact the marine environment. Key impacts of concern to the marine environment may include habitat disturbance and destruction, suspension of sediment in the water column, change in water temperature, and changed water quality . Project sponsors should engage the services of appropriate specialists to carry out marine impact assessments which also include socio- economic impacts (e.g. impacts on fishing grounds). Assessment and management of impacts should be in compliance with applicable host-country commitments to international conventions, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 12
quality standards that have been agreed. The criteria used in this design refers to the environmental quality standards based on legislation in force include clean water quality standards according the Minister of Health No. 416 / Menkes / IX / 1990 and the consideration of environmental standards set by local governments such as South Sulawesi Governor Decree No. 14 Year 2003 on the Management, Water Pollution Control, Air, Determination of Waste Quality, Ambient Air Quality Standards and Emission Levels and Standard in Operation Disruption Event in South Sulawesi (Indonesia).
1. OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTIVITY CHANGE: PRE-1970S, 1970S, POST-1970S The position of the coal industry in America’s fuel and power picture remains one of prime importance. (See Figure 1-1.) Measured in Btu terms, the industry is the country’s leading energy producer. Coal’s one-fifth share of the nation’s energy consumption is nearly as high as that of natural gas. Coal is the electric utility sector’s principal fuel supplier, accounting for around 55 percent of electricity generated at power stations. The roughly nine percent of coal production that is exported yields annual proceeds of approximately $4 billion. Notwithstanding the industry’s increasing obligation to accommodate health, safety, and environmental regulations, coal appears to retain an important competitive edge in its ability to continue serving its traditional markets -- especially the electric power sector, whose sustained coal purchases have provided most of the momentum for the industry’s viability in recent decades. Absent significantly more restrictive environmentally-related “downstream” constraints -- stemming, for example, from possible restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions -- DOE’s Energy Information Administration projects coal to retain its ranking importance, amidst stable or declining real prices, into the first several decades of the 21st century.
a stoic ‘macho’ culture, which combined with the stigma surrounding mental illness, may present as a significant attitudinal barrier to the overall acceptance of mental health related programs [21, 22]. Other factors associated with working in the mining industry that may impact on employee mental health and wellbeing include: working long hours, compression rosters, shift work, performing tasks that are both physically demanding and repetitive, working considerable distances from home, and displace- ment from familial social support networks. Most mines are located in rural or remote areas, where the availabil- ity of local professional support services is limited . To be effective, mental health programs must overcome these unique cultural and social challenges, and tailor a program to meet the specific needs of the industry. Hence, any program developed for the mining industry needs to be both evidence-based and informed by indus- try specific needs, to ensure it is culturally relevant and acceptable.
Asbestos has a number of applications in construction and manufacturing processes due to several industrially desirable characteristics, including: high tensile strength, fire and heat resistance, durability and versatility (Harris and Kahwa 2003). However, due to the harmful health effects of asbestos dust mining (McDonald and McDonald 1997; Tossavainen et al. 2001), the use of asbestos mate- rials in developed nations has been decreasing. During the twentieth century, evidence suggested that asbestos fibres could lead to serious health disorders, such as asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Subsequently, asbestos became the focus of extensive scientific and medical research. Research indicated that all asbestos fibres are not alike and that fibre length and type, dose and exposure play a significant role in the health risk associated with occu- pational and environmental exposure to asbestos fibres (Harris and Kahwa 2003; Natural Resources Canada 2000). Scientific consensus exists on the fact that fibres in the amphibole group are more harmful (100–500 times) to health than chrysotile, particularly for mesothelioma (Anon. 2004).
We could not produce a single regression using mine-specific abatement measures that had an estimated negative effect for MSHA, which we attribute to the inability of the instrumental variables approach to correct for the endogeneity of MSHA whereby additional injuries in a mine trigger additional inspections. Regressions with specific deterrence regressors that parallel our focal regression in terms of specification and instrument sets appear in Appendix C. For our subsequent cost-effectiveness calculations we selected the only regression from over 200 we estimated that simultaneously satisfied the following criteria: computational feasibility (maximum lag length for an instrument is 15 quarters), quarterly data; time and location dummies; four-quarter lags on the injury rate, production, and MSHA; at least one negatively signed MSHA coefficient that is 1.68 times its standard error; and the estimated equilibrium impact effect of MSHA is also negative ( ˆ j 0
‘before and after’ comparison. Importantly, we were able to accurately measure the number of prosecutions both before and after the Gretley disaster, but the Mine Safety Performance Measures database was only developed in the aftermath of Gretley (Department of Primary Industries 2008), as was the Department of Primary Industry's (hereafter the Department) enforcement policy and accompanying measures. Prior to Gretley there was “no computer data bases system which records incidents and can produce sophisticated reports”. In any event, in the opinion of one senior regulator, even if previous records had been available they would have been unreliable since “having to record information in the data base itself has changed behaviour and accountability” (R Morrison, personal communication, 11 August, 2008). The difficulties of making ‘before and after’ statistical comparisons were exacerbated by the fact that there was no specialist enforcement unit prior to Gretley, a lack of audit tools, and insufficient level of training (particularly investigation training) of mines inspectors (R Morrison, personal communication, 11 August, 2008). On the other hand, the fact that all these developments took place in the aftermath of Gretley, in itself, provides evidence of the impact of that disaster, and the comparison of the prosecutions conducted before and after Gretley also tells a stark story.
The companies working in coalmining have an obligation to make detailed environmental studies and environmental management plans before starting the coal extraction activities, but each company presents its own environmental study and environmental management plan. As there are several companies involved in the activity even if the effect of single company does not seem significant, probably the effect of all the companies together can damage the environment. For that reason it is important to assess the overall and long-term effect of coalmining and establish a prediction system and sustainable monitoring program of water quality changes in Zambezi River Basin. The general monitoring program should be done by an independent institution, not by the coal mines.
The present study illustrates that time duration of exposed subjects was quite protracted. Prolonged hours of exposure can lead to multiple drastic effects on general and reproductive health of male children and adult brick kiln workers. These findings were in correspondence with work done by  establishing the facts that work duration is an important factor that formulates links between environmentalhealth and reproductive problems. Occupational exposure to high temperature in several industries can lead to a higher prevalence of pathologic sperm profiles among the exposed subjects when compared to control subjects . Excessive heat exposure for extended periods can have adverse effects on spermatogenesis and hormonal secretion eventually leading to male infertility .
Lee KY, Ho LY, Tan KH, Tham YY, Ling SP, Qureshi AM, Ponnudurai T, Nordin R reviewed the environmental and occupational healthimpact of bauxite mining in Malaysia. In bauxite mining, activities such as site clearance and road building, open-pit drilling and blasting, loading and haulage, vehicular movement, ore and waste rock handling generate dust particles can react with the air in atmosphere, causing various chemical reactions, affecting soil, hence health of plants; dust can also dissolve in water from where it is ingested by humans or aquatic animals. Heavy mining activities which have been carried out aggressively contaminates water, especially drinking water sources, causes potential harm impacts due to components of heavy metals and harm the aquatic ecosystems. In open cast bauxite mining large volume of soil removed; this destabilizes the environmental balance by changing the geo-morphological processes. In addition, land clearing processes before mining, such as deforestation, forest fires, opening up new road networks for better access and waste disposal, lead to habitat destruction and soil erosion. Potential health effects include noise-induced hearing loss, loss of hearing sensitivity, and sleep disturbances and there are many cases of pulmonary fibrosis, cancer, tuberculosis, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases as well as premature deaths due to the exposure of bauxite dust.
The mining industry has been expanding at a rapid rate keeping in mind the demand of the present day. For this bigger, stronger and faster machines and equipment have been invented to keep pace with the demand. Technological developments have been taking place and with it, concerns about the future of the planet. This has flagged greater safety and environmental protection measures to check the pollution caused by the mining industry. The measures taken with respect to water pollution is commendable but we still have a long way to go before we can pull the planet out of the critical situation it is presently in. The analysis was carried out using certified instruments namely multi water quality analyzer, flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Indian standards were used to compare the concentrations of various parameters and accordingly assess the danger each element pose to the environment.
Depending on the EIA system, responsibility for producing an EIA will be assigned to one of two parties: (1) the government agency or ministry, or (2) the project proponent. If EIA laws permit, either party may opt to hire a consultant to prepare the EIA or handle specific portions of the EIA process, such as public participation or technical studies. Some EIA laws recognize the inherent conflict of interest produced when a mining company or other project proponent hires a consultant to prepare an EIA. Using a consultant carries the risk that the document will be biased in favor of proceeding with the project. If a consultant is hired by the mining company, conflicts may arise if the consultant believes it will receive future work if the project is approved or even indirect benefits from related activities (e.g., consulting work for a port where ore will be exported).
marine environment, terrestrial and air based on Archipelago concept. Development as part of state policy for the prosperity of people, conducted by utilizing natural resources continuously. Meanwhile, the available natural resources are very limited and uneven both quantity and quality, while the demand for natural resources is increasing as a result of increased development to meet the increasing needs of population. Such development activities contain the risk of pollution and destruction of the environment. The fact shows that the development of Indonesia is rested on industry and mining among many uses various kinds of chemicals, radioactive substances and damaging natural resources. In addition to producing products that are beneficial to people’s lives, the development of industry and mining in Indonesia are also produce hazardous waste and toxic materials when discharged into the environmental media and can threaten the health and survival of humans and other living creatures. The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. Environmental protection is also getting the attention of the World Trade Organization, as in its preamble which states that every WTO’s member must take into consideration the objectives of sustainable development and the achievement of protection and environmental protection. It is known that the environmental damage in Indonesia has given effect miserable for life. 34% of poverty rate, 85% of natural disasters, 3.5 million hectares of forest were destroyed and a number of violence and horizontal conflict are also caused by environmental dispute, has caused 60% of them became refugees of development. Even, in the refugee, it is not uncommon of them dealing with a new problem that causes a decreased quality of life. Various issues of mining activities that are less environmentally sound and environmental degradation need to be considered to ensure a balance between human needs and the preservation of environment and also to ensure a conducive investment climate for large-scale mining investors. Realizing the importance of balance in environmental management, then in investment activities in the field of coalmining, the environment cost-loading for companies becomes very important to do and enforced. Therefore, in this study the issue studied is the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coalmining activities, both when mining taken place and post-mining.
The tabulated values (Table-10) received as a result from analysis in EPA laboratory have exceeded the recommended exposure limits The most obvious reason of higher concentrations of coal dust in Baluchistan coal fields is the lack of monitoring by EPA, mine and mineral department and implementation of environmental laws. This has given rise to numerous of health problems like, respiratory Problems, Impairment of long tissues, pneumoconiosis, Impact on brain, kidneys and other organs, itching and irritation problems, Tuberculosis, Asthmatic problem are most common due to overexposure of coal dust in Baluchistan. The few of the pictures as shown in Figure-1 of the lungs taken during the X-ray at CMH Quetta of coal workers of all three sites clearly Indicates the presence of all symptoms of lung impairment, changing color of lungs from pink to black is the indications of dusty lung. During medical examination the maximum strength of coal workers was diagnosed with T.B.The concentration of quartz contents in the coal was also found higher than the threshold exposure limits prescribed internationally by health safety agencies like NIOSH, OSHA and ACGIH(Table-11) .The reasons of high concentration of quartz are the same as that of coal dust (Carbon contents).Adverse health effects of over exposure of quartz on coal mine workers of Baluchistan have been reported during medical examination like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,lungimpairmenttuberculosis(T.B),shortness of breath, asthma etc