1.2 Problem Statement
The study of heatstressamong the workers has been commonly conducted and published. However, there was lack of study has been conducted in Malaysia, particularly among the gloves production workers. Most studies conducted on heatstressamongworkers in various workplaces where shown significant effect between high environmental temperature and negatively impact the worker’s performance, attitude and satisfaction level. This includes the effect on the workers physiological parameter and may lead to heat-related illness. Azlis (2007) stated that there are many industries in Malaysia that have high potential involving heatstress to their employees. Exposure to high temperature can contribute to heatstress but to see the mechanism industry must play a big role in monitoring the heat emits by industry and the health status of workers that expose to high level of heat. Since gloveindustry mainly process using oven, there must be high risk of heatstress to workers. Oven as a source of burning process can contribute to physical hazard to workers such as injury when workers accidently touch the hot surface and heat-relatedillnesses when workers expose to heat emitted from the oven (Akaben, 2016). Besides, Malaysia also have a high potential of heatstress due to our hot whether as a tropical countries (Twatsupa et al., 2010). Previous study have made on heatstress in palm oil and steel industry in Malaysia but the study does not measure the personal heat of the workers compare to this study. Gloveindustry is one of the biggest manufacturing industries in Malaysia (MARGMA, 2018). The top three glove maker in Malaysian are Top Glove Corp Bhd, Hartalega Holding Bhd and Kossan Rubber Industries Bhd (MARGMA, 2018). Malaysia rubber industry exports over 195 countries worldwide and is expected to increase from 232.2 billion gloves in 2017 to 286 billion gloves in 2018 (MARGMA, 2018). According to Malaysian Rubber Glove Manufacturers Association (MARGMA) the rubber gloves industry has grown tremendously throughout the past two decades and continues to display resilient growth (MARGMA, 2018). This tremendously growth of rubber industry leads to increasing of production rates and workforce to meet the global demand of rubber glove.
Working in high temperature environment is unavoidable condition for an outdoor worker, especially the outdoor workers in to tropical countries such as Indonesia. Heatstress leads to various heat-relatedillnesses, such as heat stroke, hyperthermia, heat exhaustion, heat cramps or heat rashes. A mild and moderate heatstress usually less serious and did not harm general health condition, however it could cause individual fatigue and unfocused, which will interfere the working performance and productivity. Numbers of studies showed that there were strong correlation between occupational relatedheatstress and workers’ hydration status. Unfortunately, there were still very limited recommendation and guideline specifically regulated the importance of hydration toward outdoor worker as well as those who were working in high temperature working environment.
Besides, there are some environmental and job-specific factors that increased the risks of heat-relatedillnesses. Environmental factor includes high temperature and humidity, radiant heat sources, direct contact with hot objects, direct sun exposure, limited air movement where is no breeze, wind or ventilation (Department of Occupational Safety and Health Malaysia, 2016). Next, for job specific is physical exertion also use of bulky or non-breathable protective clothing and equipment during working hours (Department of Occupational Safety and Health Malaysia, 2016). There are several indoor and outdoor activities that expose to heat (WorkSafeBC, 2000). Outdoor work activity such as construction, roofing, forestry, forest fire fighting, and road construction. On the other hand, indoor activity includes glass manufacturing, industrial laundries, bakeries, steel manufacturing and fabricating (WorkSafeBC, 2000). Workers who were exposed to hot environments working condition must be trained in order to recognize the early stage symptoms of heatstress to prevent heatrelated illness.
Environmental conditions in mines, as previously described, can place high and sometimes uncompensatable heat loads on workers. In order to help protect workers from experiencing heatstressrelatedillnesses, heatstress indices have been created (i.e. WBGT, BET). Overall, the purpose of heatstress indices is to provide a one-measure system which will predict safe, tolerable, and repeated bouts of exposure for workers to work in the heat that integrates all relative aspects of climate. These indices are based on mathematically derived equations which encompass various environmental, physiological, and time variables. The validity of these indices have been scrutinised by various authors (Parsons 1995; McNeill and Parsons 1999; Srivastava, Kumar et al. 2000) and as a result, there is not one index that is universally accepted throughout industry. Despite the existence of multiple indices, however, typically one index is used in all mining occupations within a particular mine irrespective of clothing or PPE worn.
preening rate (birds/minute) were recorded in antistressor supplemented groups T1 and T2 as compared to untreated control group. Mean FCR for T1 was significantly lower (1.66) than T2 (1.81) and control (1.83). Mortality rate was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in control group T0: 16.67% and low in T1 and T2: 6.67%. The haematobiochemical data revealed normalization of values in treated groups as compared to control. Dressing % was significantly high (P≤0.05) in group T2 (70.15%) and group T1 (67.15%) as compared to control (64.78 %). Antibody titre was significantly higher in the treated groups as compared to untreated control. Histopathological evaluation of liver, kidney and spleen suggested the potential stress ameliorating and antioxidant efficacy of antistress products that has resulted in minimal damage to tissues and organs in birds of treated groups. From the results it can be concluded that Ayucee liquid is effective in combating heatstress and immunosuppression, besides enhancing the production performance in poultry and can successfully replace vit C in broiler ration.
1. Radiation – transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves (i.e., the body releases heat simply by being in an environment cooler than the body temperature). This is similar to heat leaving a woodstove. Radiation is a normal process of heat moving away from the body when air temperatures are lower than 68°F. 2
Through globalisation, the wearing of abayas became widespread symbolising a person’s faith but now it has transcended that stage to become a truly global fashion garment. Despite this, the black abaya is considered the most conservative way for women to dress in the Arabian Gulf. Several studies [12, 14, 15] examined the abaya as fashion but no one has studied the abaya from the comfort viewpoint. The most significant objectives of Arbaeen’s  study were to identify the properties which veil fabrics must have and to measure the properties so as to set an acceptable limit for each property to provide the Saudi standards council with fabric specifications in terms of modesty and body covering. Al-Ajmi et al.  used both male and female thermal manikins to measure the thermal insulation and clothing area factors of a number of Arabian Gulf garments and ensembles for summer and winter seasons. Their studies provided the data intended to be added to ISO 9920 Ergonomics of thermal environment estimation of thermal insulation and water vapour resistance of a clothing ensemble. However, no research has been carried out to understand the thermal comfort properties of the abaya in a hot environment, in conjunction with studies using a female manikin. Such an investigation would be beneficial because the preferred traditional abaya is black and generally absorbs both visible (colour) and invisible (heat) rays of sunlight. The study gains further importance when considering the high summer temperatures prevalent in Saudi Arabia.
heat wave, individual factors that favor the occurrence of heatstroke during an heat wave, or even factors that may alert the emergency departments for prehospital heat- related excess mortality . The risk score developed in our core study provides a useful tool for the emergency team allowing better allocation of therapeutic options, including access to the ICU. Although many of the patients in this study were probably not good candidates for admission to the ICU either because of old age and/or co-morbidities or reduced autonomy, we think that the very low proportion of patients finally admitted (5%) indicates a catastrophic event with considerable over- whelming health capacities, in particular the availability of ICU beds. Our present study suggests that cTnI levels should be measured in these patients, particularly those with a high risk of death, and that only a severe increase in cTnI (>1.5 ng.mL-1) should be considered as indicating a worse prognosis.
alternatively faint should they ignore the body’s warning. Often drinking water and rest in a cool place will be sufficient to revive the individual however, in some cases intravenous infusion of fluid may be needed.
Prickly heat is a term used to describe skin inflammation in the heat, especially following profuse sweating. The sweat gland ducts become blocked and so the sweat is forced out across the wall of the sweat duct into the tissue under the skin. Infection of the skin can result. Thermoregulation is compromised in this state, removal from the hot environment and good hygiene is often sufficient to eliminate or prevent it.
On June 17, 1994, a rodworker was part of a crew installing rebar on a new bridge. During the lunch break, his co-workers observed him in the hot sun on the bulkhead of the bridge; the recorded temperature by Environment Canada for that day was 31ºC with 51% humidity. Shortly thereafter the rodworker was found lying unconscious on the scaffold, apparently overcome by the intense heat. He was taken to a local hospital, then transferred to a Toronto hospital. However, despite aggressive treatment by numerous specialists, he died. Cause of death: heat stroke.
In a study to evaluate the quality of broiler meat with green tea extract (0.10 and 0.20 g per kg), both the redness and yellowness indices were increased by the extract supplementation. These discrepancies may be due to the different plants of above mentioned researches and those used in our experiment. In our study, turmeric and cinnamon powders elevated the water-holding capacity and pH. Generally, pH value is a direct reflection of muscle acid content and affects the shear force, drip loss and color in meat. Muscle pH variation is also related to glycogen content of the muscle. It has been accepted that higher catecholamine secretion in response to an acute stressor prior to slaughter, increases glycogen breakdown and the rate of post-slaughter pH decline that causes the pale, soft and exudative meat. 39 It has been reported that heatstress
Subjects were provided with a copy of informed consent and explained to them in detail, consistent with university policy. Risks involved in this study were considered to be low however feelings of dizziness, weakness, fatigue, and thirst were possible. The risk of these symptoms occurring during these specific trials were considered to be slightly higher than previous heatstress studies but could be quickly reversed. Subjects were informed that they may withdraw at any time during the study. The informed consent documentation package was approved by the university Institutional Review Board and has been audited by them. All findings and recommendations made by IRB auditors have been implemented. All individual data collected was secured in the laboratory under the supervision of the Principal Investigator or Co-Investigators. In compliance with the
ABSTRACT: Due to global warming, increase in air temperature is a growing concern at present. This rise in temperature may cause mild to severe thermal discomfortability and heatrelated hazards mostly for the people who are engaged in outside activity throughout the day. The present study shows the distribution of thermal loads over four coastal stations of India viz, Digha (22.38º N, 87.32º E), Visakhapatnam (17.68º N, 83.21º E), Thiruvananthapuram (8.48º N, 76.95º E) and Goa (15.49º N, 73.82º E). In this present study Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is used to estimate the thermal stresses by using last ten years’ meteorological data. It is observed that 36%, 43%, 55% and 35% days of summer months are fall in the partial discomfort category (II) for Digha, Visakhapatnam, Thiruvananthapuram and Goa respectively. It is interesting to note that 2.53% and 6.82% days of winter season of Goa and Thiruvananthapuram are also in the same zone. Severe stresses are observed in the East coast during summer and monsoon months. A positive trend varying from 0.30ºC to 0.45º C per year is observed for all the Coastal stations except Thiruvananthapuram. Regional based Discomfort Index (DI) scale is also proposed in this study.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate DI, WBGT and SWreq/PHS heatstress indices for estimating the heat load on the employees of a petrochemical company located in Assaluyeh of Iran with hot-humid climate. All of the subjects in two groups (acclimated and unacclimated to the hot weather) were monitored in two different weather and working conditions: the work-site and the rest- room. According to results, the mean values of the physiological parameters were significantly higher at the work-site than at the rest-room for both the acclimated and unacclimated subjects. Nevertheless, all of these values were below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values. Data from this study indicate that deep body temperature, on average, had the highest
Arbury, S., Jacklitsch, B., Farquah, O., Hodgson, M., Lamson, G., Martin, H., Profitt, A., Office of Occupational Health Nursing, O. S. and Health, A. (2014) ‘Heat illness and death amongworkers - United States, 2012-2013’, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, pp. 661–665.
Direct sunlight and increased heat load influence mental and physical health of workers negatively and result in performance impairment. Activity reduction is a natural body response to increase in internal body temperature, and a compensatory mechanism to make body balanced. This study was carried out to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure among Iranian outdoor workers. The study population was entire Iranian outdoor workers in 2014, in different job categories. Heat exposure was calculated using Wet Bulb Globe Temperature using of meteorological data from 83 synoptic stations in 30 Iran‟s provinces. Estimation of heat induced productivity loss was done based on graph of “work capacity”. The results show that WBGT value reached its highest level during summer, especially in Bushehr (38.87 °C), Khuzestan (38.54 °C), and Sistan-and-Baluchestan (32.51 °C). While, in Chahar-Mahal-and-Bakhtiari (26.55 °C) and West-Azarbaijan (27.25°C) the least values of WBGT was observed. The highest productivity loss occurred during summer with its highest level in two provinces of Khuzestan and Bushehr (96%). In conclusion, by moving from north-west regions toward south- east regions, the level of productivity loss greatly increased. In Iran, the average of productivity loss during summer period is 60%, which is a significantly high value, in terms of climate condition and occupational distribution. Due to the important role of outdoor workers and growing trend of increase in temperature, productivity loss of this working population is undeniable. Adopting preventive strategies to increase compatibility and reduce sensitivity of exposed workers is essential.
in the class of radially symmetric functions, where denotes the Laplace operator. The heat equation plays an important role in a number of ﬁelds of science. It is strongly related to the Brownian motion in probability theory. The heat equation is also connected with chemical diﬀusion, and it is sometimes called the diﬀusion equation.