One of the major engineering challenges faced by engineers working with CSP technology is to effectively concentrate the beam radiation onto the receiver with proper sun tracking techniques (Müller-Steinhagen and Trieb, 2004). This can be achieved by line or point focussing systems. Line focussing systems use rows of parabolic troughs (PT) or linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR) to concentrate the beam radiation onto a stainless steel absorber tube. Special coatings are used on the absorber tube to improve the absorptivity. These systems track the sun in one axis and have low concentration ratios. Concentration ratio is defined as the “the ratio of the area of aperture to the area of the receiver” (Duffie and Beckman, 2013) and higher concentration ratios are desirable for CSP systems. High concentration ratios are indicators of higher operating temperatures and greater precision in tracking the sun. Point focussing systems use curved mirrors mounted on a structure (parabolic dish) or heliostats arranged in a field (power towers or central receivers). Powertower systems have high concentration ratios, thus have the capability to reach very high operating temperatures. Higher operating temperatures lead to higher cycle thermal efficiencies and have a positive effect on the levelized costs of energy (LCOE) (Guédez et al., 2015). Power towers with molten salt as primary HTF can realize temperatures as high as high as 565 °C. Most parabolic trough plants which are currently operational use synthetic oil as HTF and can only operate at a maximum temperature of 393 °C due to temperature limitations of the HTF (Relloso and Lata, 2011). Currently, powertowerplants are more capital intensive than parabolic trough plants, due to lower technology maturity and greater land requirements. However, power towers are advantageous since less site preparation is needed and have higher plant efficiencies.
If a power plant has no emission abatement techniques installed the costs of mercury reduction can be relatively high. The total costs of a fabric filter and a system for injection of activated carbon based on the Toxecon process were estimated to be 62.000 $/lbs, or 106.000 euro/kg mercury abated (ref. 17). The costs per installation are estimated at 10 million euros. In the USA DOE/NETL estimated the cost effectiveness of mercury abatement to range from 3.810 to 166.000 $/lbs Hg, or 6.500 to 300.000 euro/kg mercury (ref. 20). The lower values in the range are costs for installations that are already equipped with abatement techniques. In that case the costs of abatement mainly consist of the costs of the used sorbent. The high values are for installations that have to add an additional fabric filter to remove the sorbent from the off-gases. The costs per installation are estimated to range from 6 million to 30 million euros.
systems which nowadays have become less expensive are introduced in such systems to ease the instability ten- dency of grids, with the ability of compensating for intermitted and fluctuant outputs of wind/PV plants. As the cost gradually falls, energy storage systems have been put into use in grids on a larger scale. Single type energy storage systems cannot meet the demands in real appli- cations, considering the power and energy requirement at different time scale. As a result, hybrid energy storage systems turn out to be the feasible choice. The most common hybrid energy storage system is composed of batteries, such as advanced lead-acid or lithium-ion bat- teries, and supercapacitors .
In a central tower receiver/collector power station, arrays of sunlight reflected from Heliostat are collect at the peak of the tower . At the top of the tower, the receiver collects all the radiations coming from sunlight and utilizes the heat energy into the conversion of outlet water/steam into high temperature and high pressure. This heated water/steam can be further proceeding in the Rankine cycle for the generation of electricity. Heliostats install on the ground in a particular manner so that the sunlight collects the rays at small area due to which it produces a large amount of heat energy. The technology of producing solar power based on Fresnel concept. According to Fresnel concept, the hollow hemispherical curved mirror split into small pieces and then further arranged on a common Centre (as shown in the figure: 1-d). This advancement helps in the enhancement in efficiency and in the reduction of cost. The simple option is the use of a parabolic dish, which is mounted directly facing the sun. To reduce the height of the tower (focus point), concentric parabolic dish arrangement has introduced (fig: 1-c). After this, the design has further optimized to avoid the negative shadow of the dish by increasing the distance between the mirrors, as shown in fig: 1-d and the final arrangement called as standard Heliostat.
especially in the beginning of the process. Both methods reduced the number of iterations to one half of the traditional Hopfield neural network. When the momentum is introduced to all methods in either input or gain, the number of iterations and the computation time are reduced in the order of magnitude. This promises a great potential of the proposed method for real-time ELD. , Evolutionary programming based algorithm  for environmentally-constrained economic dispatch was developed to solve the highly non linear ED problem without restrictions on the shape of fuel cost functions. These applications, however, involved a large number of iterations and were susceptible to the related control parameters. Simple Tabu Search algorithm (STS)  introduced by Glover has been successfully applied to a number of integer optimization problems. STS avoids cycling by storing the information of the past from the search. [PSO] Particle swarm optimization technique  is a powerful technique to solve combinatorial optimization problems. It minimizes the probability of falling into a local minimum. It has good rule of finding a diversified and intensified neighborhood so that a vast solution space can be explored.
Abstract. Losses of reflected Direct Normal Irradiance due to atmospheric extinction in concentrated solar towerplants can vary significantly with site and time. The losses of the direct normal irradiance between the heliostat field and re- ceiver in a solar tower plant are mainly caused by atmo- spheric scattering and absorption by aerosol and water vapor concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer. Due to a high aerosol particle number, radiation losses can be signifi- cantly larger in desert environments compared to the standard atmospheric conditions which are usually considered in ray- tracing or plant optimization tools. Information about on-site atmospheric extinction is only rarely available. To measure these radiation losses, two different commercially available instruments were tested, and more than 19 months of mea- surements were collected and compared at the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Both instruments are primarily used to determine the meteorological optical range (MOR). The Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is based on a monochromatic near-infrared light source emission and measures the strength of scattering processes in a small air volume mainly caused by aerosol particles. The Optec LPV4 long-path visibility transmissometer determines the monochromatic attenuation between a light-emitting diode (LED) light source at 532 nm and a receiver and therefore also accounts for absorption processes. As the broadband solar attenuation is of interest for solar resource assessment for concentrated solar power
From previous OPF simulation results, the transmission line connected between bus 16 and 24 (see Fig. 1) is the major constraint during the 24 hour period. It causes 15 out of 25 buses in the whole system to have positive congestion costs during 2 pm and 9 pm. The reason is that the 300 MW hydro generators (G9) are scheduled to operate from 3 pm to 8 pm. Keeping Fig. 1 in mind, during peak hours a large amount of energy flows from the generation area (upper location) to the load area (lower location) and causes significant congestion through bus 24. Additionally, most of the large powerplants located remotely from load centers are coal, nuclear, and hydro generators (i.e. G7, G8, G9, G5, G6 and G10 in Fig. 1) which have an advantage on fuel or emission price, or both, and are always dispatched. Consequently, the highest marginal congestion price of 337.8 $/MWh occurs on bus 24 at 7 pm.
Currently there is hardly any experience regarding the dis- mantling of offshore wind turbine generators. Therefore the costs had to be estimated. The following concept was ap- plied: At first, the costs for dismantling a generator were ex- amined. They amount to about 30 % of the original installa- tion costs. Dismantling also requires special ships with high daily rental costs. Initially, rotor blades, nacelle and tower have to be disassembled. Then, monopile or jacket piles, re- spectively, are cut off with special equipment several meters beneath the seabed, they are loaded and then transported back to the port. Depending on the site, there will remain a varying amount of steel in the seabed. The recycled steal can be sold as steel scrap and generate additional revenue. Assuming a usable portion of the originally used amount of steel and a constant scrap price of 250 Euro/ton, we can ar- rive at the revenues from the sales that would reduce dis- mantling costs.
These activities generated step-function LCOE reductions in direct steam and similarly in molten salt commercial plants, and additional reductions are already identified for future iterations. Since the SCS modular design is applicable to both direct steam and molten salt technologies, project volumes will further drive cost improvement. Due to the flexible design and small individually controlled reflector facet, this SCS can be also be used for advanced receiver schemes like falling particle, S-CO2 and air receivers, which takes advantage of industry cost reductions.
The increase in power demand has made operation and planning of large interconnected power system more complex and therefore less secure than before. Hence, the modern power systems are more prone to widespread failures. One family of device that has enhanced the safe and reliable operation of the network and has contributed to capacity augmentation is FACTS. But, they are very expensive and must be suitably sized and located to maximize the overall benefit to the system. This work aims to identify the optimal location and size of the Static Var Compensator (SVC) by optimizing the multi objective function, formulated by different factors that define the system security, namely Voltage Deviation, System Overload and Real Power Losses. The multi
At Bain, we work closely with utility executives to develop sustained cost transformations that make sense in a variety of regulatory and competitive environments. In our experience, four areas offer the greatest potential for costreduction: raising productivity at the front line, reducing external spending, streamlining organizations and pruning the portfolio of assets. This brief gives an overview of the constraints faced by utilities as they try to cut costs and offers tools to help executives think about where to fi nd savings and how to make them stick.
In addition, surplus power generation can be marketed directly and can lead to an improved CO² footprint. The private and commercial real estate sector is becoming increasingly attractive, facilitating new, innovative business models, such as tenant's sub-metered power supply. Our hybrid concept is particularly suited to municipalities and energy cooperatives. As well as the advantages already mentioned, by bringing together combined heat and power generation, solar, storage technology and energy manage- ment, our hybrid concept offers good predictability and therefore allows to ideally integrate on-site power supply for private and macroeconomic benefit.
If you want to reduce costs in your company, you can’t do it by yourself. There are cost-reduction opportunities in every department. Identifying and implementing these cost reductions requires the enthusiastic cooperation of people in sales, ﬁ nance, engineering, manufacturing, quality assurance, pur- chasing, facilities, and human resources. Even if you wish to limit cost reduc- tions to a single area, you’ll still need help from the people in that area and probably the ﬁ nance organization. You can’t mandate costreduction. You have to have help from the people who will make it happen.
Seismic design requirements applicable in Nuclear PowerPlants in what has been defined in the West, over and above what might be required by individual National Building Codes for conventional industrial Structures, Systems and Components, began in the early to mid 1960’s. For example, there were 5 nuclear powerplants designed in that era in the U.S. which had no seismic design requirements. This approach continued in Finland, Sweden and Great Britain and East block countries until the mid 1980’s. During this period for most sites except in recognized active earthquake regions, the resultant seismic lateral loads required for use in design were typically less than applicable lateral wind loads and would result in little or no damage to engineered industrial facilities. As a result they had little or no impact on design or construction.
or service. Since it has been acknowledged that the cause of a product should be taken into consideration while planning and strategy that is before actuating the production. In this research paper we have studied how to reduce cost of a product after production, and factors taken into picture for the costreduction. When an organization launches a product in the market, it starts reflecting the demand and position of a product in competition. And also for an effective cost of a product after a particular time it is necessary to forecast the demand of the product in the market by various forecasting techniques. Forecasting leads to compute the amount of production to be done so that, organization buy adequate amount of raw materials which reduces the cost of storing and maintaining. Similarly as the virtual demand is a computed organization start with the production and delimit it according to the demand which helps in reducing the cost of inventory and which further leads to reduce the cost of the product. Reduced cost in the market may increase the demand of the particular product which makes out maximum profit. Since we have focused the right time to make out a survey in the market and to analysis the demand and accordingly start the production and delimit various factors to abate the price of a product.
experience and technical superiority. Curtiss-Wright Flow Control has brought together their complementary products and services dedicated to providing support to the world’s nuclear power industry. We continue to focus our energies on forming long-term partnerships with our clients by providing products that meet their critical needs.
Photovoltaics is becoming increasingly inex pensive. In contrast, the prices for electricity from conventional powerplants are climb ing. this is making the solar farm market segment progressively more lucrative for fi nancially strong investors. Photovoltaics of fers a profitable, longterm investment with comparatively low risk. “PV PowerPlants” is the first industry gui de to focus exclusively on utilityscale solar powerplants, and is aimed at system inte grators, distributors, project developers, top planners and investors. Besides corporate portraits, it includes an overview of interna tional market conditions and developments in technology, and depicts crucial issues re lated to planning and financing. www.pvpowerplants.com
It has been made a proposal of new ideal cycle for powerplants which is working by a turbine gas, for both closed and open systems. It has been designed a special device for adding heat at constant volume. The aim of special device is to decrease the amount of added heat for the new cycle. We have made a comparison between the simple gas turbine cycle & the new cycle. The results has been shown, that the efficiency of new cycle is greater than the simple cycle of gas turbine.
For projects with very high heads, between 700 m and 1200 m, multistage Pump turbines are needed in order to ensure good hydraulic efficiency and minimise stress and vibrations incurred by the turbine components. One typical limitation of these multi-stage Pump turbines is that their power output cannot be adjusted due to the absence of adjustable wicket gates on the lower stages. In order to overcome this limitation, Alstom has developed a unique solution consisting of a double-stage Pump turbine equipped with two adjustable distributors, one for each runner. These units can also be dewatered at start up to reduce the input power. These double-stage regulated Pump turbines combine the advantages of single