Top PDF 662 2 High Explosives and Propellants by Fordham pdf

662 2 High Explosives and Propellants by Fordham pdf

662 2 High Explosives and Propellants by Fordham pdf

Sensitiveness high explosives 67 test results 71 Series firing of electric detonators 113 Shaped charge 158 commercial 150 military 158 Sheathed permitted explosive 83 Shell 154 Shockwav[r]

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Propellants and Explosives   Thermochemical Aspects of Combustion (Kubota) pdf

Propellants and Explosives Thermochemical Aspects of Combustion (Kubota) pdf

The mechanical properties of propellants are important to the formulation of the desired propellant grains. During the pressure build-up process in a rocket motor such as during the ignition transient or unstable burning in the chamber or very high pressure (> 1 GPa) in gun tubes, very high mechanical stresses act on the grains. If the internal grain shape is complicated, increased chamber pressure causes a crack in the grain and increases the burning surface area. The increased burning surface area due to an unexpected crack increases the chamber pressure, which can cause a catastrophic explosion of the rocket motor or the gun tube. In general, mechanical properties of propellants are dependent on the environmental temperatures. Elongation properties of propellants become poor at low tempera- tures (approximately below 200 K). This causes in-depth crack formation when a mechanical stress acts on the grain at low temperatures. On the other hand, strength properties become poor at high temperatures (approximately above 330 K). This causes deformation of the grain when an external force such as acceleration force or gravitational force acts on the grain. Accordingly, the selection of propellant ingredients to form the propellant grain shape is not only dependent on the com- bustion performance but also the mechanical properties of the formed propellant grain. The design criteria of gun propellants are different from those of rocket pro- pellants. The size and mass of each grain of gun propellants are much smaller than those of rocket propellants. The burning surface area per unit mass of propellant is much larger for gun propellants. Furthermore, the operational combustion pressure is in the order of 1 GPa for gun propellants and 1 ± 10 MPa for rocket propellants.
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662 2 The Chemistry of Explosives by Jacqueline Akhavan (1998) pdf

662 2 The Chemistry of Explosives by Jacqueline Akhavan (1998) pdf

Many accidents occurred during the preparation of nitrocellulose, and manufacturing plants were destroyed in France, England and Aus- tria. During these years, Sir Frederick Abel was working on the instabil- ity problem of nitrocellulose for the British Government at Woolwich and Waltham Abbey, and in 1865 he published his solution to this problem by converting nitrocellulose into a pulp. Abel showed through his process of pulping, boiling and washing that the stability of nitrocel- lulose could be greatly improved. Nitrocellulose was not used in mili- tary and commercial explosives until 1868 when Abel’s assistant, E.A. Brown discovered that dry, compressed, highly-nitrated nitrocellulose could be detonated using a mercury fulminate detonator, and wet, compressed nitrocellulose could be exploded by a small quantity of dry nitrocellulose (the principle of a Booster). Thus, large blocks of wet nitrocellulose could be used with comparative safety.
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Propellants and Explosives   Thermochemical Aspects of Combustion pdf

Propellants and Explosives Thermochemical Aspects of Combustion pdf

The mechanical properties of propellants are important to the formulation of the desired propellant grains. During the pressure build-up process in a rocket motor such as during the ignition transient or unstable burning in the chamber or very high pressure (> 1 GPa) in gun tubes, very high mechanical stresses act on the grains. If the internal grain shape is complicated, increased chamber pressure causes a crack in the grain and increases the burning surface area. The increased burning surface area due to an unexpected crack increases the chamber pressure, which can cause a catastrophic explosion of the rocket motor or the gun tube. In general, mechanical properties of propellants are dependent on the environmental temperatures. Elongation properties of propellants become poor at low tempera- tures (approximately below 200 K). This causes in-depth crack formation when a mechanical stress acts on the grain at low temperatures. On the other hand, strength properties become poor at high temperatures (approximately above 330 K). This causes deformation of the grain when an external force such as acceleration force or gravitational force acts on the grain. Accordingly, the selection of propellant ingredients to form the propellant grain shape is not only dependent on the com- bustion performance but also the mechanical properties of the formed propellant grain. The design criteria of gun propellants are different from those of rocket pro- pellants. The size and mass of each grain of gun propellants are much smaller than those of rocket propellants. The burning surface area per unit mass of propellant is much larger for gun propellants. Furthermore, the operational combustion pressure is in the order of 1 GPa for gun propellants and 1 ± 10 MPa for rocket propellants.
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662 220 Explosive Dusts by Lecker pdf

662 220 Explosive Dusts by Lecker pdf

The dusts and fine powders of all materials described in this manual are deadly explosives. Many of these materials are also extreme fire and explosive hazards in their natural forms, and some are deadly poisons. Whenever dealing with high explosives or hazardous materials, special precautions should be followed in accordance with industry standards for experimentation and production. Failure to strictly follow such industry standards may result in harm to life or limb.

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Warheads pdf

Warheads pdf

able operation over a wide range of conditions. The pro- cessing algorithms optimise the warhead effectiveness using the missile I target geometry during the terminal flight phase. The fuze is designed to achieve the highest possible lethality against a range of target types. When the missile is on a collision course with the target the proximity fuze does not produce any output trigger sig- nals and impact fuzing occurs. The Proximity fuze trig- gers the warhead immediately following the closest passing point of the missile and target. The combination of blast and kinetic energy ensures a high probability of target kill. Missile lethality is thus maintained or bettered for large targets,and is greatly improved for small tar- gets. The Fuze is fully automatic requiring no operator pre-flight setting or low altitude inhibits. Fig 12 shows schematically the fuze operating beam profiles. Shaped Charge, Blast and Fragmentation Warhead To achieve a significant proximity kill potential whilst still maintaining the kill probability on impact of the Mkl Rapier Semi-Armour-Piercing warhead, a compact war- head of the blast, fragmentation and shaped armour piercing type is incorporated.
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Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards pdf

Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards pdf

through tunnel openings. Debris Traps are pockets excavated in the rock at or beyond the end of sections of tunnel, designed to catch debris from a storage chamber detonation. Debris traps should be at least 20 percent wider and 10 percent taller than the tunnel leading to the trap, with a depth measured along the shortest wall of at least one tunnel diameter. Expansion chambers are large rooms located between the storage chamber(s) and the tunnel entrance(s), having a cross-section area at least three times as great as that of the largest tunnel intersecting the expansion chamber, and a length that is at least as great as the expansion chamber width. Expansion chambers are very effective in entrapping debris, as long as the tunnels entering and exiting the chambers are either offset in axial alignment by at least two tunnel widths, or enter and exit the chambers in directions that differ by at least 45 degrees. Portal Barricades provide a means of reducing or eliminating debris hazards by obstructing the path of the debris as it exits the tunnel. Construction and location requirements for barricades are contained in paragraph 8–30. High-pressure closures are large blocks constructed of concrete or other materials that can obstruct or greatly reduce the flow of blast effects and debris from an explosion, from or into a storage chamber. For chamber loading densities of 0.6lb/ft 3 (10 kg/m 3 ) or
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Detection of Explosives by Electronic Noses pdf

Detection of Explosives by Electronic Noses pdf

landmines (1). The sense of smell, or olfaction, is an important sense for both humans and animals, because it allows them to identify food, provides sensual pleasure (e.g., the scent of flow- ers or perfume), and warns them of dangers (e.g., spoiled meat). The olfactory epithelium, situated under a dog’s forehead, is a membrane covered with receptors that has a large, convoluted sur- face area. For example, in the German shepherd, the surface area is ~100 cm 2 compared with 3 cm 2 for a human (2). Each receptor is connected by its own nerve fiber to the olfactory bulb, where the signals are processed before being sent to the brain. A good search dog can recognize at least 14 different types of odors, including drugs, human odors, and explosives. Moreover, because the dog’s nares (or nostrils) are completely separated by a septum, it has an essentially bilateral separation of olfactory stimuli, which allows it to determine the direction or location of an odor’s source (3). However, there are several problems associated with using dogs to detect explosives. They require rigorous training, test- ing, and validation exercises in various operational scenarios with different types of explosives. Dogs are trained to identify specific explosive ingredients rather than specific products; for example, a dog is trained to detect nitroglycerin instead of dy- namite, so the explosive’s exact formulation is not important. Dogs learn to discriminate between the vapor of that substance and other odors in the environment.
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Sproll, Stefan Michael
  

(2010):


	Investigation of Nitrogen-Rich Polymers based on tetrazoles and triazoles.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Chemie und Pharmazie

Sproll, Stefan Michael (2010): Investigation of Nitrogen-Rich Polymers based on tetrazoles and triazoles. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Chemie und Pharmazie

The formed hydrogen bromide precipitated as hydrazine hydrobromide and could be removed by hot filtration. Compound 11a was purified by recrystallisation from water. 11a was obtained as crystalline monohydrate, whereas recrystallized 11c was obtained as colorless amorphous powder. Compound 11b was used as crude material for further reactions, because a recrystallization from common solvents was not possible, probably due to a hindered crystallization. An explanation gives the asymmetric character of the 1-methylethyl bridge disturbing the packing in the crystal structure. This effect becomes obvious when comparing the melting points of 12a, 12b and 12c. The impurities of 11b contained traces of hydrazine and hydrogen bromide, coordinating as adducts to the hydrazine moieties of the tetrazole. Purification by column chromatography was not possible either (low solubility in organic solvents). The tetrazolyl hydrazines 11 were then converted into the corresponding bis-5-azido-1H-tetrazoles 12 by the reaction with sodium nitrite in hydrochloric acid. Therefore, the tetrazolyl hydrazines were dissolved in 2 N hydrochloric acid and an excess of sodium nitrite in water was added drop wise
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Hot Spot Initiation Theory of High Explosives   UCRL JC 145031 pdf

Hot Spot Initiation Theory of High Explosives UCRL JC 145031 pdf

Mesoscale modeling of the shock compression and temperature dependent chemical decomposition of individual explosive particles are currently yielding accurate predictions of hot spot for[r]

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Big Book Of Mischief pdf

Big Book Of Mischief pdf

Picric acid, or 2,4,6-trinitrophenol is a sensitive compound that can be used as a booster charge for moderately insensitive explosives, such as T.N.T. It is seldom used for explosives anymore, but it still has applications in many industries, including leather production, copper etching, and textiles. Picric acid is usually shipped mixed with 20% water for safety, and when dried it forms pale yellow crystals. In small quantities picric acid deflagrates, but large crystals or moderate quantities of powdered picric acid will detonate with sufficient force to initiate high explosives (or remove the experimenter's fingers). Picric acid, along with all of it's salts, is very dangerous, and should never be stored dry or in a metal container. Contact with bare skin should be avoided, and ingestion is often fatal.
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explosives 6th edition pdf

explosives 6th edition pdf

Dangerous Goods Regulations, Inland Waterways (GGVBinsch) The Dangerous Goods Regulations are internationally harmonised regulations (W ADR, W RID, W IMDG Code, W ADNR, W ICAO TI) for the transport of dangerous goods. All substances and articles that have defined explosive properties are assigned to Class 1 “Explosives and Articles with Explosive Substance”. To classify into one of the 6 Risk Classes (sub-classes of Class 1), the hazardous property of the substance or article is studied, including in its dispatch packing. This examination takes place in accordance with the test methods de- scribed in the “Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Manual of Tests and Criteria, United Nations”. The W BAM (Federal German Materials Testing Laboratory, W BICT for the military area) is the competent authority in Germany for classifying explosives, detonators, propellants, pyrotechnical mixtures and articles.
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Granular Explosives & Initiation Sensitivity pdf

Granular Explosives & Initiation Sensitivity pdf

Fundamental chemical reaction rates are temperature depend. However, the initiation process for a hetero- geneous explosive is dominated by peaks in the temperature field called hot spots. Numerical simulations typically use empirical pressure dependent reaction rates. These can be viewed as a subgrid model that accounts for unresolved reaction phenomenon. The limitation of simple burn rates is most severe for the initiation of a detonation wave by a weak stimuli. The problem is particularly acute for accident scenarios that involve damaged explosives. A granular explosive captures the dominant features of damage; a het- erogeneous length scale from the grain size and an additional degree of freedom from porosity. Continuum mechanical simulations on the meso-scale are used to better understand how the hot-spot distribution varies with mechanical stimuli, in particular, the strength of a compaction wave in a granular bed. A physical understanding of the formation and growth of hot spots is needed to develop improved subgrid burn models that encompass a wider domain of applicability.
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Preparatory Manual of Explosives   Ledgard pdf

Preparatory Manual of Explosives Ledgard pdf

21-01. Nitroform. Trinitromethane page 328 21-02. HNF. Hydrazine nitroform; Hydrazinium nitroformate page 332 21-03. KNF. Potassium nitroform page 334 21-04. Silver nitroform page 335 21-05. TNM. Tetranitromethane page 336 21-06. TBA. 4,4,4-Trinitrobutyraldehyde page 340 21-07. TNB. 4,4,4-Trinitro-1-butanol page 341 21-08. 4,4-DNB. 4,4-Dintro-1-butanol page 343 21-09. HNH-3. 1,1,1,6,6,6-Hexanitrohexyne-3 page 344 21-10. TNP. 1,1,1,2-Tetranitropropane page 346 21-11. TNEN. 2,2,2-Trinitroethyl-2-nitroxyethyl ether page 347 21-12. NTND. 2-Methyl-2-(N-nitro-N-trinitroethylamino)-1,3-
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Fast Burning Rocket Propellants Based on Silicone Binders  New pdf

Fast Burning Rocket Propellants Based on Silicone Binders New pdf

The burning behavior was determined by Crawford measurements. Burning rates were determined on coated propellant strands with 5 mm 5 mm cross section and 50 mm measuring distance. In Table 4 two formulations based on AP/PDMS and two formulations based on AP/Al/PDMS are shown with their measured burning rates at 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 18 and 25 MPa and a medium pressure exponent. The burning behavior of one aluminized formu- lation and one without Al is graphically presented in Figure 6. In both cases the achieved burning rates are close Figure 3. Casting viscosity of AP/PDMS propellant batches
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Explosives and Demolitions   FM 5 250 pdf

Explosives and Demolitions FM 5 250 pdf

c. Observe the proper priorities. The demolition reconnaissance report must clearly state the priorities and separately list the requirements for Priority 1 actions and Priority 2 improvements (priorities are explained below). If a sufficient gap will result by attacking bridge spans, do not perform the Priority 2 improvements unless the report specifies complete destruction or an excessively long gap. If the total gap spanned by a bridge is too small to defeat enemy assault bridging, consider the site an unsuitable obstacle unless the gap can be increased. Your engineer effort may be better applied elsewhere. Alternatively, to improve an obstacle, it may be necessary to increase the gap by demolishing the abutments and building craters on the immediate approaches. In this case, you should also attack nearby bypass sites (place mines and craters).
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Polymer Bonded Explosives 1 pdf

Polymer Bonded Explosives 1 pdf

This discrepancy may indicate a lack of convergence of the FEM computations on the models of PBX 9501. It is conceivable that further refinement would lead to improved solutions. However, the associated computational cost is very high and further mesh refinement has not been explored except for one model (PP4). For model PP4, each subcell was subdivided into four eight-noded displacement elements (800,000 nodes). FEM computations using this grid led to values of moduli that are only 3% lower than those using 200,000 nodes. Hence, we may assume that the FEM computations have probably converged.
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LANL Explosives Performance Data pdf

LANL Explosives Performance Data pdf

The detonation pressure is a function of the charge length, the charge diameter, the confinement, and the booster.. The interrelationships of these effects are yet to be determined so th[r]

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Performance and Sensitivity of Explosives pdf

Performance and Sensitivity of Explosives pdf

It is tried here to connect the performance and sensitivity data from ISL experiments to a single but complete explosive description. The representation proposed here can cover the desirable total aspect only to some extent as (for good reasons) exclusively own data from well de®ned tests are applied. So the valuation of explosives is based on only two or in a more profound consideration on three tests, each.

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High Explosives Technology and Applications pdf

High Explosives Technology and Applications pdf

Shaped Charge Slug & Jet Formation The slowest moving, rear portion of the ‘Jet’ is called the ‘Slug’ or ‘Carrot’ and only travels at a few hundred meters per second and contributes noth[r]

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