Langat Forest Reserve. This plantation is situated on a much larger peat soil area of mixed land use in South
Selangor of c. 670 km 2 . Within this, approximately 48 km 2 remains as peat swamp forest (albeit highly disturbed). Average annual rainfall in the area is 2419 mm with the dryseason normally occurring from May to September (with rainfall dipping to c. 100–150 mm per month) and, to a lesser extent, also December to February. The examined sites were a first-generation oilpalm plantation, established in 2000, replacing secondary forest and a second gener- ation plantation, established in 2006 (original conver- sion from secondary forest in 1978). Immediately prior to plantation establishment, the forest would have been cleared and ditches dug (to a depth of approximately 1.5–2 m) to drain the peatland resulting in a lower water table. These are then retained for the plantation growth. The peat depth at the time of sampling ranged between 1.5 and 2.1 m. On both plantations, four replicate sites were allocated for CO 2
Tropical peatlands are estimated to occupy 441,025 km 2 globally, with more than half of the total area (247,778 km 2 ) being located in South-East Asia (Page et al. 2011a), and provide the largest long- term sink of terrestrial carbon (Page et al. 2011b). The substantial amount of carbon (C) present in peatlands of the region has been sequestered over millennia. Nevertheless, recent developments which lead to deforestation and drainage of wetlands, for instance for the purpose of establishment of plantations, may be rapidly turning tropical peat environments into the world’s largest sources of carbon emissions (Hoijer et al. 2012; Tonks et al. 2017). The growing world demand for palmoil has driven the extensive conver- sion of peat into agricultural plantations, with 3.1 million ha of peatlands in the region drained for the establishment of plantations, primarily of oilpalm and Acacia (Lo and Parish 2013). Peatlands are especially attractive as areas for plantation establishment due to the capacity for water retention of organic soils and high nutrient release from decomposing drained peat soils (Corley and Tinker 2003). However, since oilpalm trees do not grow well on waterlogged soil due to poor anchorage and anoxic conditions, the establish- ment of oilpalm plantation requires drainage of peat. This greatly increases the risk of high levels of organic matter decomposition, as the presence of oxygen enables the activity of aerobic microorganisms (Hus- nain et al. 2014).
Performance of an organization should be appraised simultaneously, both in terms of its efficiency in resource utilization process and effectiveness in realizing the pre- determined goals. Measuring performance provides the required information to the management for effective decision making and is used by industries to assess progress against set goals and objectives in a quantifiable way. Deficient maintenance management can severely affect competitiveness of an organization by reducing throughput, increasing inventory, and leading to poor performance. Applying Overall Equipment Effectiveness, this research study, has evaluated maintenance management performance in Malaysianpalmoil mills, highlighted how it helps to identify the factors causing poor performance and demonstrates how to improve and perpetuate company’s productivity, profits, and sustainability by adopting world class maintenance strategies such as Total Productive Maintenance. This research study supplicated data by mail survey questionnaire sent to all Malaysia palmoil mills, validated data through triangulation, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The research exalts practitioner’s perspective and has determined that Scientific Management Theory axioms and Total Productive Maintenance principles are not being applied to optimize productivity in palmoil mills. The research also identified theory and practice gaps pertinent to maintenance management in palmoil mills and provided shop-level solutions to bridge those gaps. Research findings established how efficient and effective maintenance management offers, besides substantial cost savings, a wide scope of improvements for the palmoil industry. In order to ensure competitiveness and sustainability in the 21 st century, it is obligatory for Malaysianpalmoil mills to adopt best management practices in processing, manufacturing and maintenance.
To measure soil biochemical properties, soil samples were taken at 0.1 m depth from the frond- stacked area (3.5 m from the rows of oilpalm tree); from the fertilized area (1.4 ± 0.1 m from the palm stem) and from inter row where no fronds were stacked (> 2.0 m from the oilpalm tree). Soil samples were air-dried for a week and sieved (2 mm sieve) before measuring the pH, total N, an effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), soil organic carbon (SOC), exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K, Na), extractable P, and total aluminum (Al). Soil sampling and analysis were reported by Allen, Corre, Tjoa, & Veldkamp (2015). To identify whether nutrient leaching was not only caused by the soil nutrient stock but also the water pass flow, they also flow, the study also measured soil macro-porosity using methylen blue dye (Suprayogo et al., 2006) under the frond-stacked and in the fertilized area only in the Sarolangun regency because the soil fraction was dominated by clay content, having high nutrient holding capacity, whereas the soil texture in the Batanghari was loam with lower nutrient retention (Allen, Corre, Tjoa, & Veldkamp, 2015; Kurniawan, 2016). The soil macro-porosity was determined by tracing the distribution of methylene blue dye both vertical and horizontal within the frame of 100 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm (the application of methylene blue was 0.4 g l -1 water).
A B S T R A C T
Peatland in Riau is commonly utilized for agricultural purposes including oilpalm. This utilization has influenced on peat characteristics on the top soil leading to degraded peatland, associated drought-related fire. In this paper, we identified peat dryness from three different oilpalm ages using drought indices proxy to derive information on spatial dryness. Two drought indices were used in this study including the Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI). Our results showed that the TVDI value ranged from 0.46 to 0.92, while the CWSI value ranged from 0.18 to 0.80. The highest value of TVDI was found in 2-years old oilpalm, and the lowest values was in the 11-years old oilpalm. Our CWSI analysis confirmed this pattern that young oilpalm has a high moisture stress, as many peat-soils were exposed to direct sunlight. Our findings also revealed that the TVDI and the CWSI were able to interpret soil moisture dynamics on the top layers (10 cm).
A counterfactual analysis of a sustained 20 percent increase in crude oil prices predicts a direct effect of a 22.94 percent increase in export of palmoil for biodiesel. The indirect effects through the export of palmoil for biodiesel transmission channels are: 11.43 percent decrease in stock, 25.03 percent increase in Malaysian domestic palmoil price, 0.18 percent increase in crude palmoil production, 0.72 percent decrease in domestic consumption and there is also 26.33 percent increase in world price. Meanwhile an ex-ante simulation suggests that the directions are consistent with the theory and counterfactual analysis but the magnitude of changes are smaller.
Recently, derivatives market is a very new-fangled underlying instrument and has become increasingly imperative in the world of business finance and investment. Market participant should be released that it is essential for all professionals to understand how these market work, how they can be used and what determines prices in them. By definitions, a futures contract is an agreement to go long and short position an underlying asset at a certain time in the future for a certain price during contract initiation. There are many exchanges traded throughout the world trading futures contracts such Chicago Board of Trade and Chicago Mercantile Exchange in United States. Euronext in Europe, Tokyo Financial Exchange in Japan, Singapore Exchange in Singapore , Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad in Malaysia and many more.
companies began to incorporate environmental issues as one of determinant factors for their profitability and market share. This study assesses the role of Malaysianpalmoil industry in the Malaysian sustainable economic development. Utilizing secondary data, the paper uses the concept of national income accounting approach to show the contribution of Malaysianpalmoil industry in the aggregate economy. The study shows that the Malaysianpalmoil industry is playing a significant role in sustaining Malaysian economic development via high production and cleaner environment. Keywords: Green economy; sustainable development; sustainable oilpalm; palmoil industry
Our study showed that both arthropods and mammals play im- portant functional roles as predators and consequently may provide important pest control ecosystem services in tropical agricultural landscapes. Interestingly, none of the environmental factors we measured had appreciable effects on rates of predation. This could be due to our fine-scale sampling approach of environmental vari- ables compared to the relatively heterogeneous management prac- tices between plantations and fruit orchards across our study area. All land-use types were owned and managed by smallholders, and therefore, trees were managed differently and planted at different times. This heterogeneity, in combination with the small size of the farms, may have confounded any relationship between environmen- tal variables (e.g., understory vegetation cover and canopy cover) and predation rate. Stronger relationships of environmental vari- ables (e.g., understory vegetation structure) with ecosystem func- tion may be found in larger-scale monoculture plantations where medium-scale heterogeneity is low (Ashton-Butt et al., 2018).
evening/early morning maximum (Yang and Midmore, 2005), isoprene emissions may decrease due to increased cytosolic competition for PEP. It is also known that several other components of the PEP metabolic pathway are under circadian control at levels of transcript abundance and protein activity (Hartwell et al., 1999; Streatfield et al., 1999; Sullivan et al., 2004; Hartwell, 2005), though circadian regulation of all of these components does not occur in all species. Clearly, the circadian control of PEP metabolism and chloroplast-cytosol partitioning, and its relation to the circadian rhythms of isoprene emissions reported here, merit further detailed investigation in a species such as oilpalm. We are currently investigating this and other molecular levels at which circadian control may be imposed on IE.
Social network analysis or network mapping is a set of relationships mapped between key actors. The actors are represented as nodes and their interactions are represented as links, with the aim of understanding the social and political situation by focusing on both formal and informal structures. The characteristics of actors such as their power/influence and goals are given less attention. That is to say the power/influence of actors is only explained by the positions of the actors in the network, for example, their closeness, betweenness, and centrality. Power mapping, on the other hand, is good for collecting data about the perceived power of various actors within a policy field. By bridging these two methods, Net-Map creates a three-dimensional structure in which interviewees and interviewers together draw a network map of the actors involved in the issue, including the different kinds of links between the actors. Then influence towers are added to the network in order to transfer abstract concepts of power/influence into the three-dimensional form. Finally, the interviewees are asked to assess the goals that these different actors pursue (Schiffer and Waale, 2008). However, my experience in the field suggested that there were not many stakeholders involved in oilpalm adoption issues in the three villages: a total of 15 key actors, which included government agencies, private seedlings suppliers, private merchants, large-scale oilpalm producers, inspirational local leaders, and large-scale palmoil refinery in Chonburi province. Thus, their networks and influences could be mapped and understood individually through the semi-structured interview. Difficulty in gathering the oilpalm farmers together was another constraint on the application of this research method. I had made several attempts to assemble the oilpalm farmers in Baan Tarn village, but failed for various reasons, such as the workload in the rice paddy fields, the necessity for them to be at social events such as ‘tum boon’ at the temple or attending an ordination ceremony, and unavailability in the morning due to harvesting rubber at night. When I asked if it would be possible to gather the oilpalm farmers at a place in the village, the head of Baan Tarn village responded, “Can they be rice farmers instead? Rice farmers are a lot easier to find and make a group. We have plenty of them around here, every household. Oilpalm farmers, we have like 10 to 15 households in each village around this area. Difficult. Very difficult.”
The palmoil industry may achieve economic escalation along with the development of greener production process- es through cleaner production implementation and higher efficiency of utilisation of fuel, electricity, and labour, which suggests improving the operation for cleaner tech- nology and less production cost [64, 77]. Furthermore, increased utilisation of renewable energy resources (in par- ticular oilpalm wastes) is strategically viable as it can con- tribute to the POM sustainability of energy supply while minimising the negative impacts of energy generation on the environment. It can also solve the agriculture disposal problem in an environmentally friendly manner while recovering energy and higher value chemicals for commer- cial applications like bio-fuel in helping the government to achieve its obligation to prolong fossil fuel reserves . With the rising volume of palmoil residue accumulation due to palmoil production, palm biomass is gaining signif- icant attention and is being increasingly utilised to produce various green products as well as highly valuable biochem- icals such as bioethanol, vitamins, etc. . The oilpalm biomass as non-food biomass from the mill is a great strat- egy toward zero discharge in the palmoil industry and min- imize greenhouse-gas emissions .
The development of the downstream palmoil industry in Malaysia, on the other hand, was due to several factors. Firstly, the favourable agro-climatic condition in Malaysia, which is similar to that of West Africa and the tropical region of the American continent, the palm's natural habitat, is ideally suited for oilpalm cultivation. The fairly long daily sunshine hours together with high rainfall meet the requirement of the crop. This has resulted in palms having comparatively high yields compared with those grown in its homeland. Secondly, the plantation system of cultivation under which rubber has been successfully produced, can be readily adapted to oilpalm cultivation. This became very evident during the period of high competition between natural and synthetic rubber, when the dampened price of natural rubber caused numerous large plantations to convert their rubber land into oilpalm plantation within a short period. Thirdly, there was a concerted joint effort
CART is a non-parametric decision tree learning technique which produces prediction models from training data. The models are obtained by recursively partitioning the data space and fitting a simple regression or classification model within each partition to predict continuous or categorical dependent variables respectively.
The study of the influence of epiphytes on insect variety was conducted at the same locations. At each location three 1 ha plots were randomly chosen, each being at least 100m from the others. Then the palms in one 1 ha were stripped of epiphytes using the recommended dose of herbicide, another 1 ha plot had half the epiphytes removed by cutting them down and epiphytes on the third 1 ha plot were left undisturbed. Insects were collected from three trees in each plot one week after the epiphytes had been removed. Two one meter square cloth containers were placed under each tree. Then each tree was sprayed with the recommended dose of pesticide containing Deltamethrin (a synthetic pyrethroid). Insects were also collected from the other chosen trees that had half or all their epiphytes intact. After thirty minutes the insects that had fallen into the cloth were collected and placed in 70% alcohol for identification in the laboratory
Theory suggests that species at the highest trophic levels are most vulnerable to extinction from habitat disturbance (Bascompte and Sole, 1998; Hill et al., 2011). We found that the average trophic position of species in forest was not related to any of the forest properties we measured, but that the average trophic position of species within oilpalm could be predicted from the richness and average trophic position of species in the adjacent forest. Because species richness in forest was strongly associated with forest area, we conclude that the size of forest fragments affects the proportion of predatory ants within plantations, even though trophic organisation did not appear to alter within the forest fragments themselves. This is an important consideration from an agricultural perspective, because predators can play an important role in pest management (Way and Khoo, 1992). Other studies have shown that proximity to forest can boost ecosystem functions such as pollination and predation by parasitoids (Klein et al., 2006; Ricketts, 2004), and our results suggest that forest fragment size could affect ecosystem functioning within oilpalmplantations. The fact that the trophic organisation of ant assemblages varied within plantations with respect to features of the adjacent forest, but did not vary within forest fragments might suggest that composition of ant assemblages in plantations adjacent to large fragments are not only affected by spillover of forest predatory species from large fragments, but that conditions in the plantation near to large fragments are more favourable for predators. For example, there may be more spillover of prey species from adjacent forest, which enables more predatory species to persist in plantations closer to large areas of forest. More research is needed to examine whether the increase in predatory species could benefit pest control in plantations, or whether this benefit is negated by the presence of more prey.
that pruning, weeding, use of legume cover crops, and frond stacking practices are similar among all farmer types, and generally require improvement. Knowledge transfer to smallholders on good practices in oilpalm cultivation has been limited in our research areas, with farmers receiving very little formal training, and with most knowledge coming from their input suppliers and their fellow farmers (Jelsma et al., 2017a; Woittiez et al., 2018a). Although the organisation of smallholders into cooperatives or groups is a key condition for RSPO or ISPO certification, and while there is evidence that organised oilpalm smallholders can maintain high-input high output systems (Jelsma et al., 2017b), there are many barriers to improving practices. In Indonesia the extension services are weak, knowledge on GAP and certification is not widely available, and strong institutional structures through which knowledge can be readily distributed among smallholder farmers are rarely in place (Brandi et al., 2015; Hidayat, 2017). To add to this complexity, strategies need to be tailored to specific types of farmers in order to be effective. Ideally this would constitute easy access to quality information via local farmer training centres run by companies in collaboration with governments to support small and medium farmers, who mostly reside locally. Large peat investors might require a different approach as the scale of their activities is much larger and their environment poses different challenges. Yields in peat plantations were significantly less, which may be attributable to higher degrees of absenteeism, speculative investment decisions, difficulties in collecting fruit bunches due to flooding in the rainy season and other agro-ecological difficulties of peat soils relative to mineral soils for cultivating oilpalm.
sample plot, the pest and desesae distribution within the sample plot from affected areas of the plantation or desease Indicated plant damaged by the caused and effected part, treatment applied, net fretilizer inputs, soil orgenize matter content, quantity and quality of irrigation water . Provides information that an integrated approach to weed control and mice can maximize the benefits of weeding while reducing production losses due to rats . If the ground cover and weeds are not controlled and weeded the various pests will make the habitat under the cover of the weed pests, especially rodents. To eradicate pests should not be done after infection, and prevention of pests better to do than get rid of it, namely by applying imidacloprid on the oilpalm trees are still young, this pest prevention methods to avoid the attack of pests and species of Coleoptera Curculionidae . Weeding regularly have a certain relationship with fertilization with weed control activities that exist in the disc and chemically assisted on palm trees can improve work efficiency, organizing easier as well as save energy supervision . While, giving the herbicide glyphosate on oilpalmplantations are actively kill weeds without a negative effect on the oilpalm . In areas that are difficult to eradicate weeds growing , performing weed classification method using SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) of observations detected the types of weeds that are disturbing. Of the detection results can be known and be prepared to use herbicides with SIFT method accuracy reached 95.7% up on the stage classification. using a less harmful herbicides to control weeds in immature plantations (aged <3 years) are the type of paraquat. The result showed that there was no effect on the plant and does not have adverse effects on vegetative and generative growth of palmoil. This suggests that the use of appropriate herbisida a positive effect to improve the growth and productivity of plants.