The analysis in this report is based on the UK-wide data files for the UK Commission’s EmployerSkills Survey 2011 and Employer Perspectives Survey 2007. In 2011, in order to maintain a reasonable interview length, establishments in the sample outside of Scotland were randomly allocated to two modules, and only those in the first module (and all establishments in Scotland) were asked questions relating to HPW. These are marked with an asterisk in Table 2.1. In addition, the 2011 data file includes responses from establishments with one or more people working at them, whereas the 2007 EPS sample is of establishments with two or more people working at them. In order to ensure comparability with the population covered by the 2007 survey, the descriptive analysis excludes establishments with just one person working at them. The unweighted base size for the HPW questions in the 2011 sample was 44,691; slightly over half the total sample. The HPW and related indicators in the 2011 survey can be grouped into sets of practices. The analysis undertaken for this project, including assessing the correlations between practice use, is based on three main groups of practices: work organisation (opportunities for employee involvement and participation); skills acquisition (training and development); and motivation enhancement (incentives to perform in line with the organisation’s objectives) (Appelbaum et al. 2000; Kalleberg et al. 2006; de Menezes and Wood 2006). These groupings align well with the 4As model identified above. Only one practice (Equal opportunities policy) relates to the Access category. The remaining three areas (application, attitude and ability) correspond reasonably closely to employee involvement, motivational practices and skills acquisition respectively.
Therefore the aim of this project is to develop a common, longitudinal, employer based survey tool on HPW capable of providing results comparable by: nation; sector; size of firm; organisational strategy. The parameters for and remit of the project need to be appreciated in reading this report. In undertaking this work, it must be acknowledged that a variety of employer survey tools, some relating to HPW are already in existence in the UK but that coverage is not always comprehensive or comparable. In particular there is some variation across the four nations of the UK in terms of their employerskillssurveys but this is minor when compared to differences with employerskillssurveys that exist outside of the UK. Some consideration would need to be given to developing appropriate synergies between existing and any new survey tools in the UK, including the possibility of harmonisation. Additionally, the need to capture employee views of HPW was recognised as being of central importance as the project progressed compared to its initial focus, and further investigation into employee-based surveys on working and working conditions would be desirable in any further development of the survey tool. The specific goal of the project was to develop a longitudinal survey tool. There are a number of potential challenges which have been identified for longitudinal compared to cross-sectional surveys, such as the need for a large sample to cope with attrition in response and to obtain a sufficient sub-sample of firms with variations in HPW practices over time. Alternatives such as cross-sectional surveys involving the linking of performance data are discussed within the report, and careful consideration will be needed in selecting the most appropriate option which will meet the UK Commission’s needs.
Skills is a derived demand. Employers do not simply provide training or seek to recruit skilled people as an end in itself, the level and nature of the skills they require is derived from the business strategy they pursue and from the way they organise their work. As these factors drive employers demand for skills, so too it impacts on their experience of skill challenges and the practices they implement to address those challenges. Businesses that adopt highperformanceworking practices (HPW) and those that pursue “very high product market strategies” (PMS, i.e. who lead the way within their industry, offer premium products and services with a high degree of customisation and whose competitive success is not at all price dependent) tend to be more active in the labour market and consequently to have a more frequent experience of skill shortages: however, they also find it easier to fill their vacancies in the sense that a smaller proportion of their vacancies are hard to fill. HPW and high PMS employers are
environments that offer mutual advantages to the individual as well as the employer. Although it may seem counter-intuitive, the current economic circumstances in the UK could offer a window of opportunity for developing policy initiatives directed at increasing the uptake of HPW amongst UK employers. This could help to maximise employee skills, and,
73 instance, an employer may always view workers as cheats, limited in potentials for highperformance and hence, will not yield positively to motivation (McGregor’s theory X), envious, and inherently ungrateful. All these will not encourage employers to want to empower the employees. But, there is no losing sight of the fact that, most times, the poor treatments of workers may be traceable to self-love/greed of the employers. This is especially so if the apprehension that the empowerment of working class through better pay may reduce the population of the poor, loyal employees, as some of them may enjoy upward mobility in wealth stratification ladder. The capitalists will like to shield themselves because the larger their class becomes when some better-treated low or medium income employees join, the lower the population of the available working class. The lower the population of available working class, the enhanced is the status of the remaining workers, since the demand for them will exceed their supply/availability. This simple illustration by the law of demand and supply may perpetuate poor treatment of workers by the employers. Whatever is the case, absence of trust from either side has the potential to discourage high and sustained production/performance. The advocacy in this paper will be beneficial both to employers and their employees, if adopted.
It is argued that in the UK and the US, the education and training systems follows the innovation model based on “high level elite skills in science and technology” (Toner, 2011, p.50). These are particularly eminent in industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electronics, software, defence and aerospace indicated by, measures such as R&D intensity, trade performance and patenting activity shows the strength of this high level science base (Toner, 2011, p.50). The absence of labour market regulations on hiring and firing and high levels of job mobility, including “scientific, engineering and managerial elites”, is well suited to these industries (Toner, 2011, p.50). High-level skills also underpin international competitiveness in financial services and creative industries such as advertising, publishing, design, entertainment and management consulting (Tether et al, 2005, p. 70). A high-level of labour mobility, especially amongst the “technical elites”, is also a critical means of technology diffusion in industries where change in technology and markets is particularly rapid (Finegold, 1999, cited in Toner, 2011, p.50). Where there is a large pool of workers with advanced and highly portable skills, there is a reliant on flexibility characterised by “rapid product innovation strategies” and a “high responsiveness to new business opportunities” (Estevez-Abe et al, 2001, p.174).
As levels of training have not increased over this period, hypotheses for why skills gaps have fallen might be that perhaps fewer people have been moving jobs and so have had time to become proficient in the role they are performing. More pessimistically, it could be that due to the recession, establishments have been less likely to innovate their working practices, to introduce new technology or to introduce new products or services that would require employees to improve their skills and may be reflected in transient skills gaps while they get up to speed. The reduction in skill gaps could also reflect the impact of downsizing since firms are most likely to lay off staff not fully proficient in their jobs first. Even though skill gaps characterise a relatively small proportion of establishments and workers, they were more prevalent than skill-shortage vacancies. Skill gaps can adversely impact on business performance by increasing cost, hindering innovation and delaying the development of new products and services. Thus, the development of high value added business strategies in parallel with effective skills use and development by firms in Northern Ireland are critical to avoid such mismatches and remain competitive in the global economy.
theoretical and measurement issues, skills gaps can be measured in a more scientifically meaningful way. Viewing the problem in these terms, a partial list of operational measurement questions that arise are revealed. Ideally, national skillssurveys would measure the importance and existence of particular skills that constitute occupational proficiency; determine whether the absence of particular skills in specific occupational groups and contexts impact firm performance; explore how compromised firm performance due to skills deficiencies affects the economy as a whole, specifically high-skills dependent development trajectories such as knowledge-based development; and generate policy relevant data to suggest public policy interventions that might affect the behavior of firms in remediating skills gaps. In order to do this, the conceptual divergence concerning the definition of a skills gap must be resolved. Both the resource and competence-based view of skills gaps and their associated measurement approaches are theoretically related, with the competence-based view of skills gaps being a causal extension of the resource-based view of skills gaps. However, the theoretical underpinnings of the two views of skills gaps has resulted in skills gaps being defined concurrently as a situation in which employers perceive current employees to be less than fully proficient for their current jobs or a gap between the skills of current employees and the skills needed to meet business objectives. The
The government’s Productivity Plan identifies innovation as a key step to encourage productivity (HM Treasury, 2015). But ESS 2015 reports that skill deficiencies impact on a business’s ability to innovate. Four in ten establishments with skill-shortage vacancies reported a delay in developing new products or services and 35 per cent reported difficulties in innovating working practices. These impacts were reported less frequently for skills gaps (though were still cited by 17 per cent and 24 per cent respectively of establishments with skills gaps), perhaps reflecting the occupations in which skill- shortage vacancies and skills gaps are most likely to arise. This is further suggested by the finding that, the skills that are required to drive forward innovation within businesses often appear to be lacking: two in five of all skill-shortage vacancies and skills gaps were attributed to individuals lacking the ability to solve complex problems. Within existing staff, this was particularly apparent for those in high-skill occupations, such as Managers and Professionals. Similarly, complex numerical or statistical skills and understanding were often deemed to be lacking.
The new interest in HPWS can be attributed, in part, to employer responses to contemporary changes in market and technological conditions. For example, the inten- sity of global market competition; consumer demand for a broad range of high quality products and services; and continuing developments in information and communica- tions technologies that facilitate more ﬂexible manufacturing and service systems (Ashton and Sung, 2002; White et al., 2004). It is argued that these conditions demand more ﬂexible, skilled and committed labour, which, in turn, requires more indirect and subtle management control strategies if the mass of tacit knowledge held by workers is to be fully exploited for the beneﬁt of capitalist enterprise. The concept of HPWS may be seen to embody the different sets of management techniques that provide such control. Rather than drive labour harder through the practices of direct supervisory control or assembly line techniques, the potential of HPWS is supposed to lie in their emphasis on worker participation, skill development and high job satisfaction. With these conditions in place, it is believed that employee commitment and greater dis- cretionary effort may ensue with potentially positive outcomes for ﬁrm performance (Appelbaum et al., 2000). The types of practices that generate these conditions are assumed to operate in a ‘synergistic’ way as coherent ‘bundles’ or ‘clusters’. Typically, they include participatory teams and job rotation, high commitment practices such as problem-solving groups and extensive employee consultation, and complementary HRM policies such as generous training provision and job security measures. They also rely on co-operative industrial relations systems based on partnership between man- agement and unions.
The country case studies reveal the close relationship that has been developed between HPW-type initiatives at workplace level and innovation polices in some countries. In Germany, for example, this is an increasingly central tenet of thinking. This is relevant to the development of policy in the UK: not only can promoting HPW systems be a potentially powerful driver for businesses within a voluntarist approach, but HPW systems are also logically, and probably most effectively, promoted through innovation policy (in its funding provisions, provision of information, consultancy support, and so on). The „conducive to innovation‟ aspect (i.e. the understanding that appropriate forms of work organisation are crucial to effective innovation) is a powerful argument in support of HPW, and assigns a further and more central role to the concept compared to its being envisaged as essentially a skills/HR issue. This has potential lessons for the UK: innovation in the UK continues to be conceived in relatively narrow terms and a benefit of exploring means of encouraging HPW may be found in terms of its relevance to innovation.
Skills challenges are faced internally as well as when recruiting. The employerskillssurveys carried out in each of the countries of the UK over the last few years have consistently shown that a key cause of establishments having skill gaps is where staff are new or inexperienced (in NESS 2007 68% of establishments with skills gaps reported this as a cause of at least some of these gaps, compared to only 28% for the next most important reason). It follows that where there is a high turnover of staff an establishment is more likely to have skills challenges / gaps and face high recruitment and vacancy costs. The CIPD Annual Survey Report Recruitment, Retention and Turnover shows that 70% of establishments highlight the loss of staff as having a negative impact on business performance and suggests an average cost of filling a single vacancy of £4,667 and as much as £5,800 when associated labour turnover costs are included) (CIPD, 2008). It is interesting therefore to consider the extent to which employers experience difficulties holding on to (skilled) staff. All employers were asked the extent to which they agreed or disagreed that holding onto valued staff presented them with a significant problem. Whilst the majority of establishments (63%) do not report difficulties in holding onto valued staff, a significant proportion (28%) do report that the retention of valued staff poses a problem. (This question was not asked in previous waves of this research.)
The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in highperformance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative teams, 19 members of Cross-Functional teams and 6 of 6-Sigma Projects, all of them belonging to a company of the Maquiladora Industry in Tijuana, B.C., México. The study indicates that 100% of the members of the Production Area teams and the Operational Administrative teams developed some personal skills or increased their satisfaction or productivity as a result of their participation in some kind of self-managed team. In Cross-Functional teams members, the changes took place in the 94.3% of the cases and in the 97% of the 6-Sigma teams’ members. There was also a significant difference found between the results of the four types of self-managed teams studied. This paper provides information to CEOs regarding the importance of the design and the implementation of working programs for self- managed teams; these not only will strengthen the employee achievement of a greater satisfaction and productivity, but will also allow them to develop personal skills.
followed by unsocial hours and the lack of regular, stable working patterns: “It’s difficult to retain staff over all the hours the store has to stay open. We employ returners – who move on to more family friendly jobs, local authority, administration”. Furthermore, the high proportion of student workers in retail may be inflating the turnover figure: “We experience high turnover as students move on. They only stay for 2 years”. It was believed that more people left through “boredom and lack of opportunities”. One solution was to purposely understaff to ensure that the staff were always busy. However, any associated impact on customer service was not discussed. Having the right store manager in place is considered influential in reducing staff turnover, and an effective manager could often reverse a specific store’s turnover problems.
a very high standard quality of outcome from the job given. In addition, the last two question is regarding to the job focus. For the first question, the graduate engineering will try to impress the superior with show that he/she is a good worker. Its mean, they will try to show that he/she is a good person. With this regard, the engineering graduates will show that he/she is the best workers and the correct person to the job given. At the same time, will show that he/she was a kind person with high determination of works, high discipline in job and always try the best in the organization. The final question will show that the engineering graduates is a mature person and always have a positive thinking. Even though they doesn’t get the credit for, they still can effort to show high value of working spirit and keep effort to work and try the best in the job given. Its mean, the engineering graduate a very mature and have a very high level of patient, thinking and always look what ever happen in a positive ways and always prioritize their superior and job in the organization compare to the credit they should get.
The researcher use Excel software to process the data gotten from the service industry employers. The sample of the service industry employers is shown in Table 1. We got college student’s personal characteristics which perceived by the service industry employers are honesty, trustworthy, ethical behavior, endure pressure, enterpris- ing spirit, strong sense of responsibility, self-esteem, independent, self-confident, adaptability, and enthusiasm. English ability, humanities knowledge, political knowl- edge, and economic knowledge hold very large propor- tion in college student’s basic knowledge which per- ceived by the service industry employers. Interpersonal relationship, teamwork, strain capacity, problem han- dling capacity, and leadership are the employers thought very important skills and abilities. Employers in service industry also pay more attention to college student’s po- litical economy knowledge, information technology ap- plication, and innovation ability. Facing the complex economic environment and the information society, em- ployers will pay more and more attention to these three skills to cope with the changing economic environment. The comparison between the employability skills per- ceived by service industry employers at present and the employability skills perceived by service industry em- ployers in the next five years clearly tell us that interper- sonal relationships, teamwork, professional morality, problem solving, and strain capacity, innovative leader- ship, and expression ability perceived by service industry employers at present are more important than the others, such as natural science, information technology software applications and mathematics knowledge. But talked about the employability skills perceived by service in- dustry employers in the next five years, employee inter- personal skills, team cooperation, professional ethics, and expression ability are relatively important than the other abilities.
The most common reason given, as found in the previous skillssurveys conducted in each country of the UK, was that they consider their staff to be fully proficient and / or that their staff did not need training. This was mentioned spontaneously by almost two-thirds of non-trainers (64 per cent): this figure falls with the size of the establishment, from 66 per cent of non-trainers with fewer than five staff, to 58 per cent of those with 5-24 staff to 41 per cent of those with 25 or more employees. Predictably those that identified skills gaps amongst their staff were less likely to give this response, though a third (34 per cent) of employers with skills gaps that did not train gave as their reason that training was not needed, suggesting there is still work to be done persuading employers of the benefits of training for tackling skill deficiencies. However, it should be noted that just over half of establishments (53 per cent) not training for the reason of staff being seen as fully proficient and / or the employer not seeing the need for training, did provide the kinds of informal workforce development discussed earlier in the chapter (see the „Broader development activity‟ section), suggesting that many of these employers do seek to develop the skills of their staff, though not through activity that would be identified by the employer or employee as training.
Formal planners are defined here as employers who have all three types of formal plan/budget in place (business plan, training plan and training budget). Formal planners account for a quarter (25 per cent) of all employers (and 33 per cent of those that had provided training in the last 12 months). Two-fifths (40 per cent) of all employers reported that they employ some but not all of the methods of formal planning. The most frequent scenario is where the employer has a business plan but no separate training plan to specify how training could complement an overall business strategy, and no budget for staff training (16 per cent of all employers). It is also reasonably common for employers to have a business plan incorporating a training plan, but no dedicated training budget (10 per cent).
To address the varied aims and objectives of each project the pilot allowed employers flexibility to devise their own tailored solutions. Projects frequently undertook different sector-specific solutions, reflecting the different challenges and issues facing each organisation. For example, attempts to address internal skills shortages were more likely to involve developing training with formal qualifications, whereas wider deficiencies in the external labour market often involved the development of unaccredited qualifications. For some projects, responding to known skills challenges in the industry meant addressing more fundamental longstanding issues over the number and type of applicants for vacancies in a sector, for example through the development of pre-employment training or outreach activities. The proposed approaches for EOP Round 1 projects were
Projected preparation levels of U.S. accounting graduates contrast sharply with employer expectations. With less than a quarter of new grads predicted to be IFRS-ready by 2012, public accounting and industry face a shortage of skilled entry-level accountants. According to D. J. Gannon, director of Deloitte & Touche’s IFRS Center of Excellence, an estimated 40 percent of the Fortune Global 500 already use IFRS and that percentage will significantly increase in the next couple of years (Deloitte & Touche, LLP, 2008). A 2008 Deloitte survey of over 200 senior finance professionals underscored the need for additional IFRS education in the U.S. Sixty-four percent of respondents indicated they lacked enough adequately trained IFRS professionals for U.S. operations; for non-U.S. operations, only 34 percent felt there was a skill shortage (Deloitte & Touche, LLP, 2008). As Mary Barth, Stanford University Professor of Accounting and member of the International Accounting Standards Board asserts: ―The question is how, not whether, it will happen, and how, not whether, U.S. academics will participate‖ (Barth, 2008, p. 1176).