The homeeducation guidance for local authorities notes that “there is no proven correlation between homeeducation and safeguarding risk”. It adds, however, that a child being home educated is not necessarily being seen on a regular basis by professionals such as teachers, which “logically increases the chances that parents who set out to use homeeducation to avoid independent oversight may be more successful by doing so.” Local authorities should, the guidance states, approach cases where the suitability of education is in doubt using powers under the Education Act 1996 (as set out above). It adds, however, that they should also be ready to “fully exercise their safeguarding powers and duties to protect the child’s well being” if a lack of suitable education appears likely to impair a child’s development. The guidance emphasises that a failure to provide suitable education is capable of satisfying the threshold that a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm, but whether this is the case will depend on the particular circumstances of the case.
Local authorities should, the guidance states, approach cases where the suitability of education is in doubt using powers under the Education Act 1996 (as set out above). It adds, however, that they should also be ready to “fully exercise their safeguarding powers and duties to protect the child’s well being” if a lack of suitable education appears likely to impair a child’s development. The guidance emphasises that a failure to provide suitable education is capable of satisfying the threshold that a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm, but whether this is the case will depend on the particular circumstances of the case. Actions that a local authority could take include applying to the court for an education supervision order (giving the authority a formal supervisory role in the education of the child) or a care order under the Children Act 1989. Both of these give the local authority the right to contact with a child. The guidance emphasises that care orders must only be used as a last resort “in the most egregious cases of a failure to provide a suitable education, and a persistent refusal by parents to co- operate with the local authority.”
The Bill as introduced included provisions to introduce a new requirement for local authorities in England to keep a register of all children of compulsory school age in their area who were entirely educated at home. Authorities would be required to monitor those children to ensure that they were safe and well and receiving a suitable education. The Bill also included new regulation making powers to allow the procedural detail of the new registration scheme, and how it would operate, to be set out in regulations.
The majority of parents who arrange homeeducation for their children work closely with, and share information with, the local authority. However, this is a voluntary act on behalf of the parent and a number of parents are not willing to provide information to the local authority. In both of these cases [unregistered settings and homeeducation] the local authority is not able to assess either the quality of education being received by the child or whether there are any safeguarding issues that require attention. This needs to be addressed urgently. New guidance should be provided which makes clear the responsibility of parents to ensure information about their child’s education is provided to the local authority.
Local authorities have no statutory duties in relation to monitoring the quality of homeeducation on a routine basis. However, they do have duties to make arrangements to identify children not receiving a suitable education, and to intervene if it appears that they are not. Intervention could, for example, take the form of issuing a school attendance order, although Government guidance on homeeducation encourages authorities to address the issue informally before serving such a notice. As part of their safeguarding duties local authorities have powers to insist on seeing a child to enquire about their welfare where there are grounds for concern, but this does not extend to seeing and questioning children for the purpose of establishing whether they are receiving a suitable education.
2.2 From the start of the study it was recognised that there may well be proportions of the home educating population that were not known to LAs. This is because some children may have been in receipt of EHE from an early age and therefore never registered at school and because there is no legal obligation for parents to inform the LA if they choose to withdraw their child from school. However, with the integration of Children’s Services and moves to improve multi-agency information sharing in the context of Every Child Matters (ECM), it was felt that LA data and information may be more reliable than was the case historically.
As regards children with statements of SEN which name schools as the appropriate placement for a child but parents decide to educate such a child at home, it remains the local authority’s duty to ensure that the child’s needs are met through the provision made by the parents. The local authority can support parents financially in these circumstances under section 319 or section 19 of the Education Act 1996 (this would fall under either paragraph 18 or paragraph 20 of Schedule 2 to the School and Early Years Finance (England) Regulations 2012). In deciding how much support is needed, the local authority should be aware that, unlike schools, parents do not receive base funding from the public purse in support of SEN, and should not therefore be expected to pay £10,000 before they receive any support.
The asymptotic properties of these non-parametric conditional efficiency estimators are derived by Jeong et al. (2010) while a full bootstrap test detecting the significance of environmental factors on the conditional efficiency scores is available by Daraio and Simar (2014). Also, conditional measures have been extended to unconditional hyperbolic order−𝛼 distances towards the frontier as discussed by Wheelock and Wilson (2008) and to order−𝑚 radial partial frontiers along with their estimators as explored by Wilson (2011), Simar and Vanhems (2012), Simar, et al. (2012). Those are conditional directional distance functions, conditional to environmental factors. Badin et al. (2010) eliminate most of the influence of 𝑍 on the estimated efficiency (𝜆̂(𝑥, 𝑞│𝑧)) by using a flexible location-scale nonparametric model and optimal bandwidth selection by data-driven methods. Concurrently, the process allows to rank DMUs facing different operating conditions. Two very flexible location-scale nonparametric models have also been used by Florens et al. (2014) so as to eliminate dependence of 𝑍 on inputs 𝑋 and outputs 𝑄 and obtain pure inputs and outputs. This is a novel method to obtain conditional efficiency scores but without explicitly estimate a non-standard conditional distribution. The merits of the method have been well developed using US banking data which shared great diversity in terms of size and services offered in the production process. The conditional efficiency approach is fully nonparametric and flexible enough to detect various possibilities, so it is increasingly used for several different research questions. In the education sector the method has
The system of education in the UK is organised into four broad sectors: primary schooling, which terminates at age 11; secondary education, completed at around the age of 16; further education which typically serves students between the ages of 16 - 19 and is pre-degree level; higher education which serves the 18/19+ age group and is degree and post-degree level. While the quality of pro- vision in the primary, secondary and higher education sectors in England has been the subject of scrutiny for some considerable time, the quality of education in the further education (FE) sector in England has been largely ignored. The Foster Report  highlights the need for assessing the quality of FE provision, and this has been reiterated in a White Paper , which calls for the con- struction of performance indicators to allow clear and meaningful comparisons between FE providers, and to create incentives for the providers to focus on the achi- evement and progression of their students. It is envisaged that these incentives might ultimately be strengthened by linking the distribution of funds to performance in- dicators .
1.21 Young people, when asked about their experiences of sex education at school, often complain about the focus on the physical aspects of reproduction and the lack of any meaningful discussion about feelings, relationships and values. Sex and relationship education set within the framework for PSHE across the four key stages will significantly redress that balance. It will help young people to respect themselves and others, and understand difference. Within the context of talking about relationships, children should be taught about the nature of marriage and its importance for family life and for bringing up children. The Government recognises that there are strong and mutually supportive relationships outside marriage. Therefore,
Secondly, in exploring articulations between race, class, gender and VET, our position is one of race ambivalence (Leonardo, 2005). In short, our understanding is that while race may be ‘unreal’ in the sense that it is not a coherent scientific category, its effects or ‘modes of existence’ (Leonardo, 2005: 409) are real and have innumerable consequences. For this reason we have not trivialised the term race by placing it in quotation marks. In short, we live race in practice, experiencing the world in ways that are mediated by racialised social categories and relationships. These are divisive and often arbitrary, nevertheless, we live, day-to-day, as if race has meaning (Warmington, 2009). It is not sufficient, therefore, merely to regard race as an epiphenomenon of other more ‘real’ relationships, such as class. The other implication of our understanding of race is that it must be treated as ‘more than just a variable’ (Lynn and Dixson, 2013: 3). As Apple reminds us, ‘Race is not a stable category ... “It” is not a thing, a reified object that can be measured as if it were a simple biological entity. Race is a construction, a set of fully social relationships’ (Apple, 2001: 204). In short, our research does not treat race as a social identity that simply exists prior to the field of education and we are interested in the ways in which racial identities and divisions are produced within neo-liberal VET.
Mr. Boswell: To ask the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills what information he holds on the (a) value and (b) change in value of university endowments in each of the last five years, broken down by (a) donations, (b) surplus transfers, (c) match funding, (d) realised asset sales and (e) unrealised capital gains.  Mr. Lammy: It is not possible to answer this question precisely from the data which are currently collected centrally. The following table sets out the information we hold on the overall income English higher education institutions have generated in each of the last five years from endowments. In August, we launched a £200 million matched funding scheme over three years to promote more philanthropic donations to higher education. We shall be working closely with institutions and discussing what data should be captured in future to enable us to quantify progress being made in diversifying the range of funding streams available to higher education providers.
The areas where the most disadvantaged children are being let down by the education system in 2013 are no longer deprived inner city areas, instead the focus has shifted to deprived coastal towns and rural, less populous regions of the country, particularly down the East and South-East of England. These are places that have felt little impact from national initiatives designed to drive up standards for the poorest children.
HEIs are independent, autonomous bodies and their governance and regulatory systems are varied and complex. Much of the complexity of the system is the result of the complicated legal basis of the higher education sector. There has been a good deal of academic discussion about the private/public nature of universities and their autonomy over procedures and regulation. This somewhat esoteric issue stands to become increasingly relevant as the government intends to open up the higher education sector to more private providers and decrease public funding of universities further blurring the distinction between public and private higher education. The government white paper, Students at the Heart of the System, proposed giving the state an increased role in the regulation of private institutions and moving the higher education regulatory system towards a more risk-based approach. These proposals would have a significant impact on the higher education regulatory system and change the role of the regulatory bodies.
Pupils who were new to the school system in Year 6 but had English as their first language also made extra progress (12.9 months); some of these pupils may well also have been new to the English school system having arrived from international schools overseas, or may have experienced challenging home circumstances that resulted in a move from the independent school sector at a non-standard transition point, either of which could have negatively affected their performance in Key Stage 2 tests resulting in extra measured progress by the time they had settled in to the English state system by Key Stage 4. Figure 3.12 Key Stage 4: Attainment and progress comparison between four groups of pupils
Our results lead us to hypothesise that there are efficiency gains with respect to resource allocation to be made by increasing the numbers of higher education students in FE colleges. We investigate this hypothesis by examining whether or not economies of scale or scope exist from expanding the proportion of students in each of our categories. In order to do this we estimate, in table 4, models using the quadratic specification that includes interaction and squared terms involving student numbers of all types. The fit of the random effects model is clearly good (R-squared = 0.90). The SFA quadratic specification reveals some significant interactions between the higher education subjects and further education higher-level (e.g. A levels), and a test of the restriction that the coefficients on all the interaction and quadratic terms are zero indicates that the interaction and quadratic terms are in fact jointly significant and should be included in the model. 18 This finding is similar to that of Johnes et al (2005). The estimates of the quadratic model are used to calculate our economies of scale and scope.
Academies are schools directly funded by central government and independent of direct control by local government. An Academy may receive additional financial or other support from sponsors, must offer a broad and balanced curriculum, but does not have to follow the national curriculum. Like maintained schools, Academies are required to have a broad and balanced curriculum promoting the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils and preparing them for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of later life.Academies are self- governing and most are registered charities or are operated by educational charities. Most are secondary schools, for pupils aged 11 to 16, but, since 2012,an increasing number caters for children of primary age upwards. Interestingly, since devolution of education policy, there are no Academies in Wales, where the policy has been resisted successfully by the Welsh Assembly, whilst the number in England is increasing rapidly. The knock-on effects on religious education in England are very significant, since Academies, although they have to teach RE, do not have to use a locally Agreed Syllabus (UK Parliament,2010), although, like Agreed Syllabuses,their curriculum must reflect the fact that the religious traditions of Britain are mainly Christian but take account of the teachings of other principal religions represented in Britain. RE remains part of the funding agreement of individual Academies, but future funding agreements could, in principle, seek to omit religious education.Following the passing of the Education Act (UK Parliament,2011), Local Authorities needing to create a new school must in most circumstances seek proposals for an Academy or Free School. They can only propose a community school if no suitable Free School or Academy is proposed. This policy will enhance the demise of a state system which has guaranteed the place of an open and impartial religious education via agreed syllabuses for all in the majority of its schools.
Mothers who had established secure relationships and provided stimulating home environments had children with the highest language scores (Murray & Yingling, 2000)  . Children who spent more time in front of the TV showed more behavioral problems, had smaller vocabularies and did less well on math problems. The same study also revealed that when home environments which were more stimulating and well organized, children had better vocabularies, advanced attention and memory skills and got along better with peers (NICHD, 2001)  . Parents who have higher expectations of success for their children have their children scoring significantly higher on picture vocabulary, verbal analogies, letter-word identification and reading comprehension tests and also found that parental expectations and consistent reading to children at home are significantly related (Castro, et. al. 2002)  . Children’s self-perceived competence and the home environment stimulation were positively correlated, especially home were important variables that affected children’s perceived competence in cognitive, social and physical domains (Lee, 2003)  . The development of children after two-years of attendance and indicated that, factors in the home environment, not center-based care explained developmental risks two years later ( Anme and Segal, 2003)  . In Brazil, a study among 70 families of first-grade children showed that school achievement and social competence at school are mediated by family support and child resources in the home environment (Marturano, de Cássia Trivellato and D'Avila Bacarji, 2005)  . Parents make the greatest difference to achievement through supporting their learning in the home rather than supporting activities in the school (Harris and Goodall, 2007). In the past, research on the physical environment of homes and communities primarily focused on environmental hazards, environmental stress and impacts of poverty. This body of research strongly indicated that physical aspects of the home such as cleanliness, water, noise and pollution influence the overall health and development of children. (Evans, 2003; Guo & Harris, 2000)  . Recently, there has been increasing interest among researchers on the quality of home environments and their impact on child development (Ansell & van Blerk 2005; Evans, 2006; Flores, 2004;
A growing number of applications were approved by lenders but not accepted by consumers. The increase was likely due to a rise in consumers “shopping around” for the best loans either on their own or through a mortgage broker. These loans are important in evaluating how much credit was being offered by lenders to New England populations and areas.
Homeschooling is a legal option for parents in most countries to provide their children with a learning environment as an alternative to public or private schools outside the home. Parents cite numerous reasons as motivations to homeschool their children. The three reasons that are selected by the majority of parents in the United States are concern about the traditional school environment, to provide religious or moral instruction, and dissatisfaction with academic instruction at traditional public and private schools. Homeschooling may also be a factor in the choice of parenting style. Homeschooling can be an option for families living in isolated rural locations, living temporarily abroad, and to allow for more traveling; also many young athletes and actors are taught at home. Homeschooling can be about mentorship and apprenticeship, where a tutor or teacher is with the child for many years and then knows the child very well.