Top PDF House of Commons Library briefing paper : The forthcoming review of post-18 education and funding

House of Commons Library briefing paper : The forthcoming review of post-18 education and funding

House of Commons Library briefing paper : The forthcoming review of post-18 education and funding

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8577: 30 May 2019: The Post-18 Education Review (the Augar Review)
recommendations

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8577: 30 May 2019: The Post-18 Education Review (the Augar Review) recommendations

Two critical features of England’s current student finance system are a statutory entitlement to a government loan to cover tuition fee and maintenance costs, and repayment of the loan after graduation on an income-contingent basis, i.e. according to the borrower’s capacity to pay based on their income. These distinguish it from many other countries’ arrangements for university funding and ensure that it encourages access and collects contributions in a broadly progressive way. The loan entitlement guarantees that students do not have to pay the substantial fees and maintenance costs in advance from their own pockets. The pay-as-you earn principle is designed to produce a fair balance of contributions between the taxpayer and students and to collect a contribution from high, medium and low earners in a progressive way.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7708, 13 June 2018: Adult further education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7708, 13 June 2018: Adult further education funding in England since 2010

announced in the Spring Budget [see section 5.4 above] to test innovative approaches to helping adults up-skill and re-skill.” 45 5.7 Post-18 education funding review On 19 February 2018, the Prime Minister announced that there would be a government-led review of post-18 education, which would be supported by an independent panel, led by Philip Augar. The Prime Minister stated that the review would look at “the whole post-18 education sector in the round, breaking down false boundaries between further and higher education, so we can create a system which is truly joined up.” 46
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House of Commons Library : Briefing Paper: Number 5108, 18 January 2017: Home education in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing Paper: Number 5108, 18 January 2017: Home education in England

As regards children with statements of SEN which name schools as the appropriate placement for a child but parents decide to educate such a child at home, it remains the local authority’s duty to ensure that the child’s needs are met through the provision made by the parents. The local authority can support parents financially in these circumstances under section 319 or section 19 of the Education Act 1996 (this would fall under either paragraph 18 or paragraph 20 of Schedule 2 to the School and Early Years Finance (England) Regulations 2012). In deciding how much support is needed, the local authority should be aware that, unlike schools, parents do not receive base funding from the public purse in support of SEN, and should not therefore be expected to pay £10,000 before they receive any support.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07375, 18 September 2019: School buildings and capital funding (England)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07375, 18 September 2019: School buildings and capital funding (England)

The energy and skill with which so many colleagues have lobbied underlines how effectively so many hon. Members across the House represent the most needy in their constituencies. We have already made £1.4 billion available this year to deal with maintenance problems. Overall, we are spending more on school buildings in every year of this Parliament cumulatively than the previous Government spent in every year of their first two Parliaments. But I want to do more, which is why today I am launching a new privately financed school building programme to address the schools in the worst condition, wherever they are in the country. The programme will be open to local authorities and schools that had been due funding via BSF but, critically, it will also be open to those which, despite real problems, had never been promised BSF funding. I believe strongly that those in genuine need should receive the funding they deserve and that no part of the country should be favoured over any other. Individual schools and local authorities will all be able to apply, and I am launching the application process today. The scheme will be rigorously policed to ensure that we do not incur the excessive costs incurred by previous privately financed schemes. The programme should cover between 100 and 300 schools, with the
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

Pre-2015 reforms The Government made estimates of the percentage RAB rate on new loans from 2012 when it published proposals for changes to funding. These are discussed in some detail in Changes to higher education funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment threshold uprating, lower assumed repayments from the extra students who start higher education because the numbers cap is lifted 30 and improvements to the Governments loan repayment model which is used to forecast repayments and hence calculate the resource costs of
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7393, 14 June 2017: Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7393, 14 June 2017: Higher education funding in England

least April 2021. An equality analysis was produced alongside the consultation response. 13 This looked at the impact on different types of ‘protected characteristics’ such as age, sex, disability and ethnicity. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015 made some headline announcements about funding paid through the funding council, the extension of maintenance loans to part-time students and new loans for Master’s degrees. It also announced that the discount rate applied to loans would be reduced to 0.7% and set the spending totals for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills which will eventually feedthrough to annual funding allocations for higher education.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

The Government gradually introduced new arrangements for students starting in autumn 1998 (academic year 1998/99). In the first year new entrants received support through loans and grants. The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 6 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2000. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 will be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 7
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8655, 12 September 2019: Funding for healthcare students in England

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8655, 12 September 2019: Funding for healthcare students in England

• Other bursary elements such as extra week’s allowances for courses that run for longer than 30 weeks and 3 days each academic year, and practice placement expenses. Students who qualified for a bursary also had the costs of their tuition paid directly to their higher education institution by the NHS. Healthcare students could also apply for a non-income assessed reduced rate maintenance loan from Student Finance England.

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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7847, 29 December 2016 : UK Funding from the EU

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7847, 29 December 2016 : UK Funding from the EU

subsequent parliamentary question asking about the conditions for continuation of funding received the following response: “The Chancellor announced that the Treasury will provide a guarantee for all new structural and investment fund projects, signed after Autumn Statement, and before we leave the EU, where they provide value for money and support domestic strategic priorities. Each government department will take responsibility for the allocation of money to projects in line with these conditions and the wider rules on public spending. The Treasury will work with departments to embed this approach.” 41 Various other PQs have been asked on the subject of the ESI funds, to which the Government has reiterated these commitments.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7357, 21 May 2018: Further Education: Post-16 Area Reviews

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7357, 21 May 2018: Further Education: Post-16 Area Reviews

The report concluded that it was unclear how the area reviews would “deliver a more robust and sustainable further education sector”: It is unclear how area-based reviews of post-16 education, which are limited in scope, will deliver a more robust and sustainable further education sector. The departments appear to see the national programme of area-based reviews, which they announced in July 2015, as a fix-all solution to the sector’s problems. But the reviews have the potential to be haphazard, and it is too early to speculate on whether they will lead to significant improvements in local provision. Each review only covers further education and sixth form colleges, and does not include school and academy sixth forms or other types of provider. If a review concluded, for example, that there was over- provision of education for 16- to 19-year-olds in an area, it is not clear that this conclusion would have any influence over decisions regarding provision by local schools and academies. The
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7357, 28 March 2017: Further Education: Post-16 Area Reviews

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7357, 28 March 2017: Further Education: Post-16 Area Reviews

Box 4: An insolvency regime for colleges The Government expects the area review process to “stabilise the financial position of the sector” and leave “each continuing college…in a financially resilient position.” 36 However, it has additionally noted that the area review process does not remove the possibility of colleges failing financially in the future. 37 With regards to what will happen in the event of future financial failure, the Government intends to introduce an insolvency regime, including a Special Administration Regime, for FE and sixth-form colleges, which would come into effect “around the end of the implementation of the area review process.” 38 The area review guidance notes that the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 does not currently include provision for colleges to close other than by transferring their assets and liabilities to another willing provider and states that “there should be a process which allows them to close in an orderly way which protects learners.” 39
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7708, 20 March 2019 : Adult further education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7708, 20 March 2019 : Adult further education funding in England since 2010

After the UK leaves the EU it will no longer receive European structural funding (of which the social fund is a part). In order to replace this funding, the Government has pledged to set up a Shared Prosperity Fund to “reduce inequalities between communities and help deliver sustainable, inclusive growth.” 20 In the short term, the draft Withdrawal Agreement would mean that the UK would continue to participate in the ESF until programmes end in 2023. The Government has additionally guaranteed to fund all European Social Fund projects that would have been funded by the EU under the 2014-2020 programme period in the event of no deal being reached. 21
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 13 June 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 13 June 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

After emphasising the importance of the reforms to technical education, including the additional funding to implement them, the Minster then addressed the funding of the sector in general. She stated: The additional funding [for technical education] will benefit FE colleges, which provide most of the technical programmes, but many sixth-form colleges and some school sixth forms will also benefit. At a time when public finances are under considerable pressure, that represents a significant commitment to the 16-to- 19 age group, in the context of the wider pressures on finances. I will not spill out political rhetoric, but a strong economy is important and we have had some difficult decisions to make. Our commitment to maintain the 16-to-19 base rate for all types of advisers at current levels until 2020 is important. We have done that, but the Government will keep funding under consideration.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 7 November 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 7 November 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

After emphasising the importance of the reforms to technical education, including the additional funding to implement them, the Minster then addressed the funding of the sector in general. She stated: The additional funding [for technical education] will benefit FE colleges, which provide most of the technical programmes, but many sixth-form colleges and some school sixth forms will also benefit. At a time when public finances are under considerable pressure, that represents a significant commitment to the 16-to- 19 age group, in the context of the wider pressures on finances. I will not spill out political rhetoric, but a strong economy is important and we have had some difficult decisions to make. Our commitment to maintain the 16-to-19 base rate for all types of advisers at current levels until 2020 is important. We have done that, but the Government will keep funding under consideration.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7708, 4 December 2018: Adult further education funding in England since
2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7708, 4 December 2018: Adult further education funding in England since 2010

5.5 FE maintenance loans The March 2017 Budget additionally announced that from 2019-20 maintenance loans like those available for higher education students would be provided to students on technical education courses at levels 4 to 6 in National Colleges and Institutes of Technology. It added that these loans will “support adults to retrain at these institutions.” 43 However, in its response to a consultation on FE maintenance loans in September 2016, the DfE stated that it needed to “consider the value for money case and fiscal position before taking any decision on the case for FE maintenance loans.” 44
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7708, 21 April 2017: Adult further education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7708, 21 April 2017: Adult further education funding in England since 2010

2015-16, with the addition of funding for 24+ Advanced Learner Loans and the Employer Ownership pilots from 2013-14 onwards. 14 Box 3: Advanced Learner Loans From 2013-14, grant funding for leaners aged 24 and over studying at levels 3 and 4 (e.g. A-levels) was removed and replaced with Advanced Learner Loans. Initially, loans also replaced grants for apprentices aged 24 and over studying at level 3 and above. However, loans for apprentices were dropped from February 2014 onwards, in part due to low take-up, and higher level apprenticeships were instead made eligible for grant funding from the ASB. 15 The Spending Review 2015 announced plans to expand eligibility for Advanced Learner Loans to 19-23 year olds studying at levels 3 and 4, and to learners aged 19 and over studying at levels 5 and 6. 16 The availability of loans does not replace the entitlement to full grant funding for learners aged 19-23 undertaking their first level 3 qualification. 17
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7019, 19 February 2020: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7019, 19 February 2020: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

funding “only repairs around a quarter of the cuts that 16-19 providers have experienced since 2010-11.” It also noted that, unlike for schools, the settlement for 16-19 is only for one year, which, it said, is likely to mean that the sector continues “to suffer from financial uncertainty.” 52 David Hughes, Chief Executive of the Association of Colleges, welcomed what he termed “the first meaningful investment in further education for 16 to 19 year olds for more than 10 years.” He added that it was “not enough to reverse the decades of cuts, nor to properly stabilise the sector for the future, but it is a good start.” 53 The AoC also published a summary of the key points regarding the funding. 54
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

Quality of language teaching As noted in section 2.1, the 2011 Ofsted report identified good teaching in two thirds of the lessons observed in primary school, with primary teachers’ subject knowledge and their teaching methods described as predominantly good. Some weaknesses lay in the assessment, and the monitoring and evaluation of provision, often because school leaders did not feel competent enough to judge language provision. The 2011 report stated that in many of the secondary schools visited, opportunities for students to listen to and communicate in the target language were often limited by many teachers’ unpreparedness to use it, and that teaching in Key Stage 4 was focused on achieving good examination results, but this did not always prepare students sufficiently for study at a more advanced level, post-16. However, teaching and learning were good in most of the post-16 providers visited, and the relatively small numbers of students on modern language courses achieved well. 11
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