Not all disadvantaged pupils currently attract funding. Some schools do not focus funding on disadvantaged pupils appropriately or use the most cost-effective interventions, and, in any event, the evidence base is still underdeveloped. Furthermore, the core school funding that the PupilPremium supplements is not distributed on the basis of need. Most importantly, there is a risk that accountability and intervention mechanisms allow schools to waste money on ineffective activities for many years without effective challenge. As the impact of the PupilPremium becomes clearer, the Department will need to review if it is investing the right amount in it, including whether spending more in this way could allow it to close the gap more quickly, generating wider savings for the taxpayer. 38
“optimise value for money”:
The Department has already created a strong drive to improve support for disadvantaged pupils by targeting the PupilPremium at schools on a rational basis; clearly communicating the funding’s objective; investing in research and sharing best practice; and empowering teachers to try new things. However, the Department, working with others, has more to do to optimise value for money. Not all disadvantaged pupils currently attract funding. Some schools do not focus funding on disadvantaged pupils appropriately or use the most cost-effective interventions, and, in any event, the evidence base is still underdeveloped.
Universal Credit, which will see five benefits combined into one, means the end of the current basis for determining free school meals and therefore PupilPremium eligibility. The Department does not yet know how it will identify disadvantaged pupils following Universal Credit’s introduction, and there is relatively little time to find an answer. There has also been substantial variation in the level of under-claiming between local authorities.
School leaders are free to use the money in any way that they choose to benefit their pupils. This may include providing financial support for uniform and equipment purchase, school trips and activities. We understand how important it is for pupils to be ready to learn and to participate in school activities. We know that many schools use the pupilpremium to help their pupils with these necessities.
The Controlling Migration Fund includes a local services fund worth
£100 million (£25 million in each of the four years from 2016-17 to 2019-20), which councils in England can bid for funding from.
The prospectus explaining how local authorities can access the fund makes clear that proposals for funding should demonstrate how they will benefit the resident community in the first instance. It also notes, however, that “legitimate migrants may be the focus of some projects, for example English language support.” 35 In response to a parliamentary question, the Minister, Robert Goodwill, additionally stated that local authorities had been encouraged to consider whether the fund could be used to “help with any short-term pressures as a result of recent arrivals of unaccompanied asylum seeking children.” 36
Again, the proposals proved highly controversial and generated strong feeling among commentators – particularly with respect to the
proposed subject content. On 20 March 2013, The Independent published a highly critical letter signed by a large number of academics about the curriculum proposals. 24 The letter’s authors criticised what they saw as the new curriculum’s “endless lists of spellings, facts and rules” and “mountain[s] of data” which would not develop young
For 2019-20 the bursary scheme will be extended to graduates with 2:2 degrees who train to be religious education, history, design technology and music teachers. 44
There are also a number of specialist competitive scholarships available to recruits in certain shortage subjects. Scholarships are jointly awarded by the Government and professional bodies, and selection is through an additional application and assessment process. Each scholarship also comes with a package of non-financial benefits, such as early career support and membership of the appropriate professional body. 45 A table on the Get Into Teaching Website provides an overview of bursary and scholarship levels for the 2019-20 academic year. The level of bursary ranges from £26,000 to £6,000 depending on the subject.
classrooms, including whether the money could be more effectively spent in other ways, such as on retention measures.” 45 This call for more evidence on the effectiveness of bursaries was echoed by the Institute for Fiscal Studies in its 2016 report on the costs and benefits of ITT routes. 46
More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 47
This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.
4.1 Value for money
The Higher Education Policy Institute’s 2018 Student Academic
Experience Survey, stated that from 2012 to 2017 there was a constant decline in the number of students stating that they felt their higher education represented good value for money. In 2018 however the number of students who said that their course was good value for money increased by 3% to 38%. – but there was still a significant proportion of students (32%) who said that their course was poor, or very poor value for money. The survey further showed that students perceptions of value for money varied across institutions and across subjects – with students at Russell Group universities and on medical degrees showing the highest levels of satisfaction.
Millennials are much less likely than older colleagues to have had access to defined benefit pensions. The amount paid into a scheme by an individual’s employer tends to be considerably higher under defined benefit schemes than defined contribution schemes. Additionally, since the investment risk in defined contribution schemes lies with the employee rather than the employer, there is less certainty as to what income can be expected in retirement. The House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee explains:
3.2 Momentum for change
Concerns about the operation of the existing system
During the later period of the 1997-2010 Labour Government, concerns were raised about the operation of the SEN system. In July 2006, the then Commons Education and Skills Select Committee reported on special educational needs, and highlighted strong concerns about parents’ confidence in the SEN system. The report raised issues about the statementing process and the issuing of statements; transfer of statements; placement decisions; the role of local authorities; school admissions and fair access for children with SEN; and parental choice in relation to academies. 30
Margaret Hodge: We said in the White Paper, "The Future of Higher Education", that graduates enjoy different returns from different courses and according to the institution attended.
Recent research found a 44 percentage point difference in average returns between graduates from institutions at the two extremes of the graduate pay scale. No specific estimates have been made of the distribution of lifetime earnings premia by type of course or institution attended, for either first-degree graduates or post-graduates. However, we will be publishing research evidence later this year on how lifetime earnings premia might differ according to institution attended.
5.1 Children sexual imagery
The CAP Code does not prevent marketers from using images of children but they should do so in a socially responsible manner. On 2 January 2018, rules 4.8 and 4.13 were added to the CAP and BCAP Codes respectively. These rules state that advertisements should not portray or represent anyone who is, or seems to be, under 18 years old in a sexual way. This does not apply to advertisements whose principal function is to promote the welfare of, or to prevent harm to, under 18s, provided any sexual portrayal or representation is not excessive.
Asked by: David Burrowes
Following yesterday’s deliberations on Sunday trading, may I congratulate the Government on the precedent they have set in the publication of the family test alongside new legislation, even though it was published too late, coming as it did just a few hours before Report? It helpfully conceded the negative impact of the proposals on the family. Will the Leader of the House confirm that for all primary and secondary legislation, a family test will be published at the beginning, rather than at the end, of
The Government gradually introduced new arrangements for students starting in autumn 1998 (academic year 1998/99). In the first year new entrants received support through loans and grants.
The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 6 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2000. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 will be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 7
We will carefully consider all responses and then publish the two guidance documents in their final form. 41
Box 4: Integrated Communities Green Paper and Home Education
Plans to look at revising the guidance around home education were also outlined in the Government’s Integrated Communities Strategy Green Paper, published in March 2018. The strategy noted the Government’s concerns about cases where home educated children are not receiving a suitable education, and about cases where children are said to be home educated but are in fact attending an unregistered setting. It is essential, the strategy said, that local authorities can identify children who are missing education or are being neglected, but many local authorities currently feel that they lack the necessary powers.
Single and small academy trusts and sixth form colleges were able to bid for funding through the Condition Improvement Fund, with guidance published by the Education and Skills Funding Agency stating that the HPCF “is intended to improve children’s and young people’s physical and mental health by enhancing access to facilities for physical activity, healthy eating, mental health and wellbeing and medical conditions, such as kitchens, dining facilities, changing rooms, playgrounds and sports facilities.” 33 In March 2018 the Education and Skills Funding Agency published the list of schools who had successfully bid for funding from the Condition Improvement Fund. £38 million will be provided for specific projects supported by the HPCF in 2018-19. 34 Local authorities, large multi-academy trusts and other bodies are not eligible to bid for the Condition Improvement Fund and instead receive School Condition Allocations (SCA). They will receive a direct allocation from the HPCF in addition to their normal SCA for 2018-19. 35 School