This briefing provides information on schoolgovernance structures in England, Northern Ireland and Wales and looks at the main responsibilities of school governors in England. School governors provide strategic leadership and accountability in schools in England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Scotland does not have a formal system of schoolgovernance and instead schools have Parent Councils to maintain links with the school community. The first section of this briefing looks at how schoolgovernance is structured in different school types in England, Northern Ireland and Wales. The following sections look at the main roles and responsibilities of school governors and some of the challenges associated with the position. Finally, the briefing will look at recruitment and skills of school
Have a warm winter coat Celebrations on special occasions Eat fresh fruit and/or vegetables every day Go to a playgroup at least once a week Go on school trip at least once a term Leisure equipment, e.g. sports equipment or a bicycle Hobby or leisure activity Outdoor space / facilities to play safely Have friends round for tea or a snack once a fortnight Attend organised activity once a week Bedrooms for every child aged 10+ of different gender One week's holiday away from home with family
leadership, governance, administration arrangements and admissions policies across the school. The school intends to bring all year sevens together for at least half a day a week, and that will extend to all five-year groups as the extended site fills up. There will be a range of cross-site curricular activities, including in personal, social, health and economic education, languages and music, reflecting the integrated split-site school. In addition, the school will continue to operate a house system that will apply to students regardless of their site location, and this will further secure regular, cross-site learning. New staff contracts will make it clear that staff are expected to work on both sites.
University Technical Colleges (UTCs) are technical schools for 14-19 year olds, working alongside employers and universities, introduced under the Coalition Government. They operate as a type of academy, with relevant freedoms such as not having to follow the national curriculum, or employ teachers with qualified teacher status. In keeping with other forms of academy school, they operate in England only.
The Bill as introduced included provisions to introduce a new requirement for local authorities in England to keep a register of all children of compulsory school age in their area who were entirely educated at home. Authorities would be required to monitor those children to ensure that they were safe and well and receiving a suitable education. The Bill also included new regulation making powers to allow the procedural detail of the new registration scheme, and how it would operate, to be set out in regulations.
The decision not to enter a pupil for the EBacc combination of subjects will need to be considered on a case by case basis by each school, and schools will need to take into account a range of factors particular to each pupil. These will include, for example, complex SEN; having spent significant amounts of time out of education; recently arriving in the country; and only being able to take a limited number of key stage 4 qualifications as significant additional time is needed in the curriculum for English and mathematics. We believe that no single factor should automatically exclude a pupil from entering the EBacc. 24
We should learn some lessons. First, it is a mistake to commit in a manifesto to not raising the three most important taxes — that ties the chancellor’s hands to an absurd degree. Second, some long-term planning and strategy would not go amiss. The self- employed have been handed two big bonuses in recent years: access to a much enhanced state pension and the abolition of class 2 national insurance contributions. Announcing an increase in the class 4 rate at the same time, rather than as an apparent afterthought, might have made more sense. And finally, we need a more sensible debate about tax and spend. If we really can’t raise taxes, then even more (and even deeper) public spending cuts are the only alternative. 83
overestimation of poverty in workless families and underestimation of poverty in working families by scaling the HMRC figures so they sum to national estimates from HBAI. However, clearly this is a crude fix. The End Child Poverty figures are also adjusted for more recent changes in the number of working and workless households at the national level, using data from the Office for National Statistics’ Labour Force Survey (up to July-September 2017). Figures are presented based on income both BHC and AHC, although the AHC figures are obtained by applying a fixed scaling factor to the BHC figures rather than incorporating any additional information about variations in housing costs. 33
However, none of these changes will affect schools directly. They will affect the amount that each local authority receives and it is the local authority (in discussion with schools themselves through ‘School Forums’) who will decide how much each school actually receives. The minimum funding levels for primary and secondary schools are not obligatory and local authorities are able to reduce individual schools’ funding per pupil by up 1.5% in cash-terms if they wish. It is sensible that this latter protection is less than the 0.5% increase in the main formula as it will allow local
─ The best ‘starting point’ to use to assess progress through primary school. Previously, the government had intended to use something called the reception baseline, but this plan was abandoned after finding problems with comparability between three commissioned baseline assessments. • The key stage 1 grammar, punctuation and spelling test would
‘transition year’ where tailored support will be provided based on their prior attainment. Routes will then extend up to higher skill levels, with the Institute for Apprenticeships maintaining a register of technical qualifications at levels 4 and 5 which are eligible for Government-backed student loans. The five National Colleges will focus on delivering technical education at levels 4 to 6 in sectors crucial to the Government’s productivity agenda. In addition, a network of Institutes of Technology will be created across the country, likely building on existing infrastructure, to provide technical education in STEM subjects at levels 3, 4 and 5.
Performance was higher on average at faith schools across all the other headline performance indicators. However, pupil intake differs between in faith and non-faith schools, both background characteristics (such as free school meal eligibility) and their prior attainment, so headline results may not give us the most meaningful comparisons. The table below summarises a range of 2016 secondary performance data for faith and non-faith schools and gives some background data on intake. Pupils at faith schools were less likely to have low prior attainment when starting secondary school, more likely to have high prior attainment and less likely to be eligible for free school meals or be looked after by their local authority. When the attainment 8 results are broken down by prior attainment bands the faith/non-faith gap falls to a single percentage point in each band. There were similar gaps in the English and maths measure. Progress 8 takes prior attainment into account and while the average at faith schools was higher and statistically significant the absolute difference was small at around one grade higher per subject for one in every fourteen pupils. 25
The BIS accounts give an idea of the sensitivity of the model to assumptions about inflation and earnings. If RPI were around 4% higher (or lower) than forecast (ie. 3.1% rather than 3.0%) then the value of post-2012 loans held would be 1% or £225 million lower (or higher) than the model suggests. This difference is said to be larger than the inherent random variation in the model. Similarly if earnings growth were 2.4% higher than forecast (ie. 4.6% rather than 4.5%) then the value of post-2012 loans held would be 1% or £225 million higher than the model suggests (and vice versa) . 30
There was much variation across individual institutions and even with an aggregate surplus of 4.9% there were still 24 of 163 institutions in deficit in 2015/16. This was an increase on the previous year, butwell down on the 40 in deficit in 2008/09. The distribution is illustrated opposite. One clear pattern is the large drop off between those in surplus by a few percentage points and those in deficit by more than 1%. While most institutions were in the 0% to +7% range a small number had much larger surpluses/deficits.
Multi-academy trusts, or MATs, usually run more than one academy. MATs themselves are single legal entities, and will have one set of trustees. Their member schools will operate under a single governance structure. A handful of MATs are very large, with 40 or more schools; most MATs are much smaller than this, having between 1 and 10 schools. The Department for Education now publishes performance data for MATs.
The focus that there has been on exams in every one of those final four years of school education can lead to young people failing to deliver and develop that deep understanding of their subject, and to their failing to make connections between topics. Re-sits have also led to too much teaching time being sacrificed for assessment preparation. Research—hon. Members have said that they are keen on it—from Durham university and Cambridge Assessment suggests that repeated opportunities for students to re-sit exams have also risked a form of grade inflation. This is why our reforms to A-levels are so important. Ofqual announced the first stage of the reforms last autumn by removing the January exam window, which will reduce the number of re-sits, as the hon. Member for Feltham and Heston said.
Parents are, under section 7 of the Education Act 1996 , responsible for ensuring that their children of compulsory school age receive a suitable education. Most often this takes place at school, however parents may home educate their children if they wish. All education must be full-time and suitable to a child’s age, ability and aptitude, and to any special educational needs that they may have. Welsh Government Guidance has been published on elective home education.
Nick Gibb: The funding for schools provided through the school lunch grant has not been abolished, but continues to be available through the Dedicated Schools Grant in 2011-12. This will allow schools to make their own decisions about the use of this funding. This is in line with the Government's drive to devolve responsibility for making decisions about the best use of resources to professionals in schools. Consistent with our philosophy of reducing bureaucracy and increasing the professional autonomy of schools, we have no plans to collect information from
• Non-UK EU students: EU students who have been ordinarily resident in the EEA/Switzerland for the three years prior to the start of their course and will be living in England when their course starts. The Government has stated that EU students applying for a place at an English higher education institution in the 2017-18 academic year will continue to be eligible for the same funding and support as they are now, and that their eligibility will continue throughout their course, even if the UK exits the EU during that period. Eligibility for individuals applying after 2017-18 has not yet been confirmed (see box 6 below). 4
In January 2012, the then Culture Secretary, Jeremy Hunt, announced the publication of a five-year youth and community sport strategy aimed at increasing the number of young people developing sport as a habit for life. Among other things, the strategy aimed to improve the link between schools and local sports clubs, with the objective that by 2017 “every secondary school and many primary schools will have links with at least one local club.” The strategy additionally committed funding “to allow schools to open up their sports facilities … to the public.” 62