My hon. Friend the Member for Telford has an interest in early intervention. I assure her that, across Government, we are addressing the root causes of children’s needs early - be it by supporting children with alcohol-dependent parents or in families affected by domestic abuse, preventing young people from being drawn into serious violence, or investing in early years and children’s and young people’s mental health. Our “Working Together to Safeguard Children” statutory guidance is clear that local areas should have a comprehensive range of effective evidence-based services in place to address assessed needs early. The Government have also committed £920 million to the troubled families programme, which aims to achieve significant and sustained improvement for up to 400,000 families with multiple high-cost problems by 2020.
Local authorities are required to ensure that children in their area with special educational needs (SEN) receive the support they need. The Children and Families Act 2014 provided for an overhaul of the system for identifying children and young people in England aged 0-25 with special educational needs (SEN), assessing their needs and making provision for them. The reforms to the system of support began to be implemented in September 2014, in a phased introduction planned to be completed in April 2018.
Local authorities should, the guidance states, approach cases where the suitability of education is in doubt using powers under the Education Act 1996 (as set out above). It adds, however, that they should also be ready to “fully exercise their safeguarding powers and duties to protect the child’s well being” if a lack of suitable education appears likely to impair a child’s development. The guidance emphasises that a failure to provide suitable education is capable of satisfying the threshold that a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm, but whether this is the case will depend on the particular circumstances of the case. Actions that a local authority could take include applying to the court for an education supervision order (giving the authority a formal supervisory role in the education of the child) or a care order under the Children Act 1989. Both of these give the local authority the right to contact with a child. The guidance emphasises that care orders must only be used as a last resort “in the most egregious cases of a failure to provide a suitable education, and a persistent refusal by parents to co- operate with the local authority.”
In its fifth annual state of the nation report, published in November 2017, the Social Mobility Commission noted that schools in deprived areas often struggle to recruit teachers and, where they can, they often lack high-quality applicants. Noting that high teacher turnover can have a negative effect on disadvantaged children’s attainment, the report highlighted that secondary school teachers in the most deprived areas are also more likely to leave. In comparison, there is much more stability in the teacher workforce in more affluent areas. 115 Rural and coastal
The majority of public funding for non-apprenticeship adult (19+) further education in England is provided by the Education and Skills Funding Agency (ESFA) through its Adult Education Budget (AEB). In particular, the AEB supports the statutory entitlements to full funding for certain adult learners. These entitlements, set out in the Apprenticeships, Skills and Children’s Learning Act 2009 (as amended by the Education Act 2011), enable eligible learners to be fully funded for the following qualifications: • English and maths, up to and including level 2 (see box below), for
Efforts to conduct a more rigorous analysis of family outcomes are ongoing as the evaluation establishes a robust comparative group outside of the Programme. By March 2019, comparative data indicated that the Programme had reduced the number of Looked After Children, as well as the number of custodial sentences and convictions. However, in areas such as employment, Children in Need, health, and school attendance, evidence was either mixed, showed little change, or had not yet been possible to analyse. The 2019 cost-benefit analysis suggested that the Programme had resulted in economic and fiscal benefits to the taxpayer and wider society. These benefits had mainly been realised through reductions in the number of Children in Care and youth offending. Despite Ministers’ continued support of the Programme’s aims, it is unclear if it will be funded beyond 2020.
This action plan outlines the cross-government programme of work to support carers in England over the next two years and builds on the National Carers Strategy. It retains the strategic vision for recognising, valuing and supporting carers from 2008, which has been the vision of successive governments. It sets out this Government’s commitment to supporting carers through 64 actions across five priorities emerging from the carers' Call for Evidence. The actions focus on delivery and tangible progress that can be made in the near future, and give visibility to the wide range of work that is planned or already underway across government to support carers, their families and those they care for. 128
the quality of education, health and care plans remains too variable and the contributions from certain partners too weak. Some areas have led the way in showing what can be done with these plans to support better outcomes for children. But too many have not. The result is, to return to my analogy of the slope, the gradient for some young people with SEND is getting steeper, not shallower. Identification of SEND is often inaccurate or late, and the gap in outcomes for children with SEND is widening, which in turn places even greater strain on services. 28
On 28 February 2017, the DfE announced that £415 million of funding from the soft drinks industry levy would be allocated to schools in 2018-19 to “pay for facilities to support physical education, after-school activities and healthy eating.” It added that schools would be able to use the funding – referred to as the healthy pupils capital fund (HPCF) – to “improve facilities for children with physical conditions or support young people struggling with mental health issues.” 15
1.31 Sexual orientation and what is taught in schools is an area of concern for some parents. Schools that liaise closely with parents when developing their sex and relationship education policy and programme should be able to reassure parents of the content of the programme and the context in which it will be presented. 1.32 Schools need to be able to deal with homophobic bullying. Guidance issued by the Department (Social Inclusion: Pupil Support Circular 10/99) dealt with the unacceptability of and emotional distress and harm caused by bullying in whatever form – be it racial, as a result of a pupil’s appearance, related to sexual orientation or for any other reason. […]
There are a relatively small number of free schools with pupils in the final year of primary (Key Stage 2) or compulsory education (Key Stage 4). Consequently, the number of free schools for which we have attainment and performance data is also comparatively small. As such, caution is needed about drawing firm conclusions on performance compared to other types of school. In 2018:
8.2 In relation to equality legislation, the proposals are that schools should encourage pupils to respect other people, even if they do not agree with them. This does not extend equality requirements or discriminate against Christianity or religious freedoms. The amended standard would not require a school to do anything that they are not currently required to do by the Equality Act 2010 (which applies to independent schools). 8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural] standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.
Between 1994/95 and 2002/03 the number of full-time academic staff at UK HEIs increased by 18% and the number of part time staff by almost 120%. The total headcount increased by 28% and there were above average increases in the number of academics working in research only (not teaching) and in the number of professors, and (non senior) researchers. However, full-timers and academics involved in teaching at least part of the time were still in the majority in 2002/03. More detail is given in Table 4 at the end of this note. The headcount number can obscure some trends in the balance between full- and part-time staff, but it was all that was published at the time. The increase in academic staff headcount over this period was slightly higher than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers, 29 but much of the growth in staff
Around 30,000 individuals enter ITT each year in England through a number of routes. Although they vary in other ways, the main distinctions between the different ITT routes are whether they are school-centred (for example, School Direct) or higher education led, and whether the trainee pays tuition fees or receives a salary. All courses include time spent teaching in at least two schools and lead to an award of qualified teacher status (QTS).
Members often receive enquiries from constituents about school-related matters. Many of these can be answered from readily available information on the internet or in standard publications. Where complex issues are raised it may be more appropriate to refer the constituent to specialist bodies and organisations or to a solicitor if legal advice is sought. This note gives a very brief overview of the structure of the state-maintained school system, including an outline of the different categories of schools, as often an answer to a school-related constituency question may depend upon the type of school in question. The note provides brief background and key sources on a selection of issues that are typically raised with Members by constituents. Members who have questions on topics not covered here may contact the Social Policy Section for information.
temporary agency worker on their payroll. Therefore these companies can have payrolls over the £3million threshold despite small number of staff working directly for the company. The REC argues that this means that small to medium sized recruiters, specialising in temporary agency workers, will be unfairly captured by the levy. The REC also argues that opportunities to take advantage of apprenticeships are limited for recruitment agencies specialising in temporary employees. This is because apprenticeships tend to last longer than agency workers are contracted for.
Nursing Veterinary sciences Education & teaching Subjects allied to medicine Health & socialcare Chemistry Sport & exercise sciences Math. sciences Engineering Psychology Biosciences Geographical & environmental Physics & astronomy Architecture, building & planning Physical, material & forensic sciences Pharmacology, toxicology etc. Economics Sociology, social policy etc. History & archaeology Agriculture, food & related Law English studies Business & management Computing Combined & general studies Technology Creative arts & design Humanities & liberal arts Communications & media Politics Philosophy & religious studies Languages, linguistics & classics
part of the divergent entry rates across schools. Some schools with very similar results had very different entry rates. The top 30 performing state grammar schools had similar A- level scores to the top 30 independent schools and, based on results alone, expected Oxbridge hit rates would be higher in independent schools by less than half of one percentage point. The actual rate for these independent schools was 13.2% in 2006, well above the 7.5% for the top 30 grammars. Different indicators of A level performance might produce somewhat different outcomes, but the report noted a slightly larger gap when hit rates were compared to average A level points per exam entry. 28
In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2017; 60.5% at Cambridge and 56.1% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages between 2010 and 2012 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2017. 23
The fourth area that my hon. Friend raised was planning policy. He described the imbalance between the number of sites in some areas compared with others, particularly in his county. The Government’s planning policy for Traveller sites confirms that our aims include that local planning authorities should make their own assessment of need for the purposes of planning and, working together with neighbouring authorities, identify land for sites. Local planning authorities should consider the production of joint development plans that set targets on a cross-authority basis to provide more flexibility in identifying sites. The policy is clear that local planning authorities should ensure that sites in rural areas respect the scale of, and do not dominate, the nearest settled community. In exceptional cases when a local planning authority is burdened by a large-scale unauthorised site that has significantly increased its need, and where the area is subject to strict and special planning constraints, there is no assumption that the authority has to plan to meet its Traveller site needs in full. 83