• A growth in the overall child population. 33
• Additional new duties from legislation and policy. 34 The report explained the role of wider societal determinants:
These wider societal determinants, such as poverty driven by the cumulative impacts of welfare reform, insecure work and lack of affordable housing, lead to an increased risk of strained, poor- quality family relationship, which in turn increases the risk of poor-quality parenting, parental mental ill-health and emotional distress. The cumulative impacts of these factors affect children’s wellbeing, which in turn affect their outcomes and life chances. If these factors are not addressed, and taking into account the projected continued growth in population, then we can expect the number of children and families who require support to continue to grow, unabated. 35
This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.
in February 2014 as a report, Caring & Family Finances Inquiry. The inquiry found there were significant additional costs associated with caring for loved ones who are older, disabled or seriously ill:
Experiences of carers who gave evidence to the Inquiry, included the need to keep the vulnerable and ill warm, meant families footing bills for running heating for 12 and more hours a day, with no let-up in warmer months when those with serious illness must be kept cool; costs of travel to medical appointments and the need to rely heavily on taxis; the need to wash three or more loads of washing a day when caring for someone with continence problems, or who is tube fed; the increasingly prohibitive price of buying in care to simply get out of the door for work or respite, compounding the isolation caring can bring; the cost to future financial security and resilience of quitting work or cutting hours to care. 33
Education Act 1996 they do have a duty to make arrangements to identify children in their area who are not receiving a suitable education. 21
The DfE’s guidance for local authorities explains that, while the law does not assume that a child is not being suitably educated if they are not attending school full-time, it does require local authorities to enquire what education is being provided. 22 There are no detailed requirements as to how a system of oversight should work, and it is for each local authority to decide its approach. However, the guidance emphasises that a proportional approach needs to be taken and local authorities should not exert more oversight than is actually needed when parents are providing a suitable education. It recommends that an authority should ordinarily make contact with home educating parents on at least an annual basis so that it can reasonably inform itself of the suitability of the education provided. 23
Concerns were raised that some potential students risked missing out on the opportunities offered by postgraduate study because of
difficulties with funding. 3 The potential impact on disadvantaged groups was highlighted as a particular issue. An independent review of social mobility undertaken by Alan Milburn in 2012, for example, described the lack of funding options for postgraduate students as a “social mobility time bomb.” 4 Similarly, a 2012 report from the Higher Education Commission noted that postgraduate qualifications were becoming a “de facto requirement for employment” and warned that
This briefingpaper provides more information on these policies and more recent developments in the provision of PE and sport in schools.
PE in the National Curriculum
Under the reformed National Curriculum, which local authority maintained schools have been required to teach since September 2014, PE remains a compulsory subject at all key stages. Academies and free schools do not have to follow the National Curriculum but are required to provide a broad and balanced curriculum that promotes, among other things, the physical development of pupils. National Curriculum programmes of study outline what should be taught at each key stage.
6. This chapter sets out our proposals to increase the number of good school places by lifting the restrictions on selection, but at the same time requiring selective schools to play a greater role in raising standards at other schools. In doing so, we do not propose a re-introduction of the binary or tripartite system of the past or a simple expansion of existing selective institutions. We propose that selective schools should be asked to contribute to non- selective schooling in certain ways, ensuring the expansion of good selective education alongside the creation of new good school places in nonselective schools. We believe that these proposals will make grammar schools engines of academic and social achievement for all pupils, whatever their background, wherever they are from and whatever their ability. 37
Maria Miller: My hon. Friend is right to raise this issue, which has been a concern for many of our constituents. I can confirm that nothing will change what children are taught. Teachers will be able to describe their belief that marriage is between a man and a woman, while acknowledging that same-sex marriage will be available. It is important to reassure people. There is a great deal of what perhaps one could call scaremongering. It is important that teachers and faith schools are aware that they will continue to enjoy the same situation as they do now. 18
Clearly the emphasis on whole-family working has been […]
unambiguously positive. The key worker approach has been unambiguously positive. At the moment there is an interesting conversation to be had around whether more of the support should be targeted at the very early stage of young children’s lives, from conception to two years old. It is something that the Leader of the House, Andrea Leadsom, has formed a ministerial group and a taskforce on, which both of us sit on. She is someone who has a passion for that area. It is something that others, including the Science and Technology Committee, have talked about as well. There is good research to show that those first crucial couple of years are vital in a baby or child’s development, for all the various things that might happen down the line.
not expect to get back. It is frequently expressed as a proportion of the value of loans, the so-called RAB charge.
Spending on student loans (cash outlays) is classed as a financial transaction and not included in the Government’s main measure of public spending on services. It therefore does not count towards the fiscal deficit 22 . Similarly, loan repayments have no impact on this fiscal aggregate either. Under this measure only loan interest and write-offs are counted. The interested added to the outstanding debt on loans counts as income and write-offs as expenditure.
The subsidy element of loans is not included in the Government’s main measure of public spending on services and hence does not count towards the fiscal deficit. The total face value of loans do count towards the national debt.
There is considerable uncertainty about the final size of the subsidy element of loans and the Government’s estimate of it increased sharply after the 2012 reforms were first announced. Subsequent changes to loan terms and accounting methods are expected to reduce the size of this subsidy to an even greater degree. These calculations affect the size of any saving in public expenditure and the extent of the shift in costs from the state to the individual beneficiary.
6.6 Social Mobility Commission state of the nation report (November 2017)
In its fifth annual state of the nation report, published in November 2017, the Social Mobility Commission noted that schools in deprived areas often struggle to recruit teachers and, where they can, they often lack high-quality applicants. Noting that high teacher turnover can have a negative effect on disadvantaged children’s attainment, the report highlighted that secondary school teachers in the most deprived areas are also more likely to leave. 165 Rural and coastal areas, however, have the opposite problem in that they can attract fewer new teachers and so have little infusion of new blood into the workforce, leading to stagnation, the report argued.
It is the responsibility of the Department of Health and SocialCare to decide which healthcare courses should be in scope of
receiving an ELQ exemption.
However some students who receive funding from a LETB or Local Ambulance Service Trust may be deemed to have received a healthcare award and students studying on courses which attract an income assessed healthcare award may be eligible for a reduced rate
students through developing their own unique course offerings, high-quality teaching and learning facilities, and investing in career services to achieve high employability outcomes for graduates. Initial evidence collected by Universities UK’s flexible learning project shows that over the past five years, there have been significant changes to the course offerings of institutions – including more online courses, greater tailoring of courses to employer needs, and shifts to shorter, and more intensive, courses. 22
secondary school – an increase of 7% or £24 since 2015. Parents of primary school children spent on average £255, an increase of 2% since 2015. […]
The high cost of uniforms can be put down in part to school policies that make parents buy clothing from specialist shops rather than giving them the choice of buying items at cheaper stores such as supermarkets or high-street chains. Where parents have to buy two or more items of school uniform from a specific supplier, spending was found to be an average of £71 per year higher for secondary school children and £77 higher for primary school children.
The Prime Minister: First, I think we should all pay tribute to the work that our teachers and headteachers do across the country. I am pleased that 1.9 million more children are now in good or outstanding schools. We are backing schools with an extra £1.3 billion over the next two years. Per-pupil funding is being protected in real terms. But we are doing more than that. The Department for Education is working with schools to help reduce their non-staffing costs—that includes up to £1 billion through better procurement—so teachers will be able to do what they do best, which is carry on teaching.
Inspectors observed MFL, history and geography lessons at Key Stage 3 in 51 routine inspections carried out during June and July 2015. Inspectors reported significant weaknesses in all three subjects. Too often, inspectors found teaching that failed to challenge and engage pupils. Additionally, low-level disruption in some of these lessons, particularly in MFL, had a detrimental impact on the pupils’ learning. Achievement was not good enough in just under half of the MFL classes observed, two- fifths of the history classes and one third of the geography classes.
In oral evidence to the Committee on 27 June 2018, then-Education Secretary Damian Hinds MP said he thought it was:
[L]egitimate—more than legitimate, I think that it is important—to be able to know, for parents and for others, what the effect and the value of the different multi-academy trusts is. As to how you do that, I think that it would be wrong to come to an immediate decision, so I have said I will work with the sector to understand what the best way to go about it is, and which body or bodies are required and are best placed to make those assessments. 26
The report stated that it could not conclude that arrangements for training new teachers represented value for money until the Department meets its targets and addresses information gaps:
The Department has missed its recruitment targets for the last 4 years and there are signs that teacher shortages are growing. By taking a national view of the number of teachers required, the Department risks paying too little attention to clearly meaningful local patterns of supply and demand. The Department does not yet have the information it needs to understand how different routes into teaching impact on schools’ ability to recruit and retain newly qualified teachers, and cannot yet demonstrate how new arrangements are improving the quality of teaching in classrooms.
There are also a number of specialist competitive scholarships available to recruits in certain shortage subjects. Scholarships are jointly awarded by the Government and professional bodies, and selection is through an additional application and assessment process. Each scholarship also comes with a package of non-financial benefits, such as early career support and membership of the appropriate professional body. 48 A table on the Get Into Teaching Website provides an overview of bursary and scholarship levels for the 2018-19 academic year. The level of bursary ranges from £26,000 for physics trainees with a 2:2 class degree or higher, to £4,000 for history trainees with a 2:1 or Master’s degree. Scholarships of £28,000 are also available in physics, chemistry, languages, computing, and geography. Scholarships of £22,000 are available in maths, in addition to the early career payments. 49