Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

1. Background 1.1 Pre-2012 Student loans first became part of the student support package in 1990/91. In that year students could take out a maximum 3 of £420 or around one sixth of the maximum amount of public support. Over the following years their value was increased at the expense of grants and stood at just under 50% of the maximum support level in 1996/97. 4 Student loan interest rates for those loans and all those to pre-2012 students are set in line with inflation and hence have a zero real interest rate. Repayments of loans taken out before the late 1990s were made on a ‘mortgage-style’ system. They became repayable from the April after the student finished higher education when their gross income exceeded the threshold of 85% of national average earnings. If their income stayed above the threshold then repayments were made over 5 years in 60 equal monthly instalments; 5 hence ‘mortgage-style’.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 59 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2005. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 would be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 60 Further changes in the student finance system were introduced in 2006/07 when new students attending institutions in England and Northern Ireland could be charged variable fees of up to £3,000.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

The Government gradually introduced new arrangements for students starting in autumn 1998 (academic year 1998/99). In the first year new entrants received support through loans and grants. The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 6 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2000. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 will be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 7
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

Neither of the first two falls changed the overall upward trends, they were dips linked to changes in fees. Applicant numbers recovered more quickly after the introduction of variable fees in 2006. There is no way to assign a set proportion of these changes to tuition fees. Variations in applicants and acceptances across the home countries since 2006 can help focus on the impact of higher fees to some extent. The number of applicants who lived in Scotland (and hence were not liable for variable fees at institutions in Scotland) increased by 2% in 2006, compared to a 4% fall among those living in England. However, after then the increase in applicants has been larger in England and the total increase between 2004 and 2011 was 28% in England compared with 15% in Scotland. 44 These comparisons are far from perfect as they exclude the impact of underlying demographics and differences in the courses covered by UCAS in each country. They provide no evidence that variable fees caused a major ongoing decline or downward shift in overall numbers of applicants or entrants to higher education in England. Similarly there is no evidence that those from ‘lower’ socio-economic groups or (deprived) areas with historically low levels of participation have been adversely affected by tuition fees. The proportion of students from these groups has increased over this period. The note Higher education and social class looks at this subject in detail. A report from the funding council concluded that there have been substantial and sustained increases in participation among young people from disadvantaged 45 areas in England. More of the increase in participation since the mid-
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7033, 2 December 2016: Free schools statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7033, 2 December 2016: Free schools statistics

needed. This is particularly important at a time of tight public finances and growing demand for new places. The Department for Education has said that 83% of the 213 mainstream free schools approved in waves 5-11 in areas where there was a need for extra school places or there is a projected need for new places in the future. 11 The area is defined as the planning area 12 which the free school located in and those adjacent to it. The underlying data used to inform this assessment compares the expected number of places available in the relevant future year with projected number of pupils. 13 The National Audit Office looked at schools opening up to 2013 and found that almost 90% of the places in primary free schools were in local authority districts forecasting some need for new places, as were 19% of
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

Neither of the first two falls changed the overall upward trends, they were dips linked to changes in fees. Applicant numbers recovered more quickly after the introduction of variable fees in 2006. There is no way to assign a set proportion of these changes to tuition fees. Variations in applicants and acceptances across the home countries since 2006 can help focus on the impact of higher fees to some extent. The number of applicants who lived in Scotland (and hence were not liable for variable fees at institutions in Scotland) increased by 2% in 2006, compared to a 4% fall among those living in England. However, after then the increase in applicants has been larger in England and the total increase between 2004 and 2011 was 28% in England compared with 15% in Scotland. 44 These comparisons are far from perfect as they exclude the impact of underlying demographics and differences in the courses covered by UCAS in each country. They provide no evidence that variable fees caused a major ongoing decline or downward shift in overall numbers of applicants or entrants to higher education in England. Similarly there is no evidence that those from ‘lower’ socio-economic groups or (deprived) areas with historically low levels of participation have been adversely affected by tuition fees. The proportion of students from these groups has increased over this period. The note Higher education and social class looks at this subject in detail. A report from the funding council concluded that there have been substantial and sustained increases in participation among young people from disadvantaged 45 areas in England. More of the increase in participation since the mid-
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number CBP07802: 2 December 2016: Social Work Regulation (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number CBP07802: 2 December 2016: Social Work Regulation (England)

Whilst there is evidence of much good social work practice in England, a number of serious case reviews and inspections have highlighted inconsistency in practice across the country, and in some cases have pointed to failings in practice including: “variability in leadership, supervision and line management; accountability and governance structures that work better in some areas than others; and, a weakness in the overall system’s ability to learn effectively from good practice and from mistakes”. 28 Two independent reviews of social work education in 2014 highlighted the need for improvement in social worker initial education and continuous development. 29 In October 2016 the National Audit Office published a report criticising the Government’s progress in improving children’s services:
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House of Commons library: Briefing paper: Number 07819, 2 December 2016: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons library: Briefing paper: Number 07819, 2 December 2016: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

The Scottish Government guide to Choosing a School states that: If you have a child who is due to start primary school or who will be transferring to secondary school soon, your council will probably suggest that you should use the local school designated by them. Of course most people are happy to do so, but the council must also tell you of your right to choose a different school. It can give you a contact address where you can get information to help in making up your mind. If you write to a council and request a place in a particular school, this is known as a placing request. The council has a duty to grant such a request wherever possible. However, the size of the school, the current roll and number of children who already live in the catchment area and other factors will affect the council's ability to grant a placing request. 7
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049: 5 December 2016: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049: 5 December 2016: Postgraduate loans in England

1.154 Autumn Statement 2014 therefore introduces a new offer of income contingent loans for those under 30 years old wishing to undertake a postgraduate taught masters in any subject. These loans, of up to £10,000, are planned to be available from 2016- 17 and will be repaid concurrently with undergraduate loans. The loans are designed so that, on average, individuals will repay in full, in recognition of the high private return to individuals, but they will beat commercial rates. The government will consult on the detail and will confirm the delivery plan. This is expected to benefit around 40,000 students, and enable around 10,000 more individuals to take advantage of the opportunity to undertake postgraduate study each year.
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7845, 22 December 2016 : Work and Health Programme

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7845, 22 December 2016 : Work and Health Programme

… For me, coming in fresh to this Department, rather than rushing towards a White Paper, I think there is a need to take a step back and I think that’s consistent with what I told the House on that first Monday after I was appointed, about wanting to restart the conversation with disability organisations and disabled people themselves about how best we—as a Government—can work with them to close the disability employment gap, and support people who have sicknesses and other conditions into employment. So I won’t be rushing towards a White Paper with firm legislative proposals; I want to take a step back and have a much more discursive Green Paper that starts to reframe the issue and points the way towards more meaningful, long-term reform. 9
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

17% 30% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Keep house warm Keep up to date with bills Money to decorate home Replace broken electrical goods Home contents insurance Replace worn out furniture Money to spend on self each week Make savings of 10 pounds a month or more One week's holiday away from home not with relatives Have a warm winter coat Celebrations on special occasions Eat fresh fruit and/or vegetables every day Go to a playgroup at least once a week Go on school trip at least once a term Have friends round for tea or a snack once a fortnight Leisure equipment, e.g. sports equipment or a bicycle Hobby or leisure activity Attend organised activity once a week Outdoor space / facilities to play safely Bedrooms for every child aged 10+ of different gender One week's holiday away from home with family
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

Research funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and conducted by the Institute for Fiscal Studies found that low-income households experienced a higher average annual rate of inflation than richer households over the period 2002/03 to 2013/14. The research estimates that the proportion of people in absolute low income would have been 0.5% points higher in 2013/14 if the threshold was uprated based on inflation rates that vary with household income. 2 However, analysis by the Resolution Foundation suggests that during the recent period of very low inflation in 2015 and 2016, the pattern was reversed and poorer households experienced a lower rate of inflation than households with higher incomes. 3
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7847, 29 December 2016 : UK Funding from the EU

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7847, 29 December 2016 : UK Funding from the EU

EIB, The EIB in the United Kingdom (accessed on 14 November 2016) The EIB has played a role in various large scale infrastructure projects in the UK, including the Channel tunnel, the second Severn crossing, the Jubilee Line extension to the London Underground network, the Heathrow Express and London to Dover fast rail links. Brian Unwin, a British former President of the EIB, has suggested that: “There is no alternative multilateral institution with the EIB’s lending capacity and expertise in infrastructure investment, and proposals to establish a UK equivalent have come to nothing.”
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

At the time the changes were introduced the main focus of debate was on the increased level of tuition fees – very little was said about the new interest rate system. Under the new system the interest charged on loans varies over the life of the loan – while studying the interest rate added is RPI + 3%, when a student graduates and is earning under the income threshold the interest rate falls to RPI and when a student is earning over the threshold the interest rate starts at RPI and rises to RPI + 3% when a graduate is earning over £41,000 per year. The intention of the scheme was to make repayments more progressive so that graduates earning more would repay more. The system was criticised by the Institute for Fiscal Studies for being complicated.
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7834, 13 December 2016 : The impact of leaving the EU on higher education

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7834, 13 December 2016 : The impact of leaving the EU on higher education

infrastructure. The summary to the report said that the Committee was not convinced that the needs of science and research were at the heart of Brexit negotiations: The science and research community is understandably concerned about the implications and opportunities of the UK leaving the European Union. The Government has provided some helpful and welcome short-term reassurances in relation to underwriting EU funding for research and maintaining access to student loans, but the Government’s strategy for communicating these recent announcements is insufficient. Speeches and high-level meetings with stakeholder representatives will not be enough to ensure that messages are received at all levels and by audiences around the world.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in-depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 39 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 07846, 22 December 2016 : Changes to school accountability and 'league tables' in England in 2016

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 07846, 22 December 2016 : Changes to school accountability and 'league tables' in England in 2016

In a Statement to Parliament on 19 October 2016, Education Secretary Justine Greening gave assurances that 2016 primary data would not be used in isolation in to make decisions about school intervention: Because of the changes to primary assessment, I want to be clear that no decisions on intervention will be made on the basis of the 2016 data alone. Regional Schools Commissioners and local authorities will work together with the current leaders of the small minority of primary schools below the floor or coasting to help and support the schools to move forward in a positive direction. 5
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in the year to May-July 2019 it decreased by 86,000. The number of young people in employment decreased by 54,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 31,000.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in April to June it was 87,000 less than a year before. The number of young people in employment decreased by 25,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 74,000.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; it was 22,000 lower than the previous quarter and 89,000 less than a year before. The number of young people in employment increased by 42,000 over the past year. The number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 101,000.

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