Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

But the expansion of higher education relies on funding being put onto a sustainable footing. The government must therefore ask graduates to meet more of the cost of their degrees once they are earning. From the 2016-17 academic year, maintenance grants will be replaced with maintenance loans for new students from England, paid back only when their earnings exceed £21,000 a year, saving £2.5 billion by 2020-21. To ensure that the long term costs of the student loan book remain affordable and transparent, the government will consult on freezing the loan repayment threshold for five years and review the discount rate applied to student loans and other transactions to bring it into line with the government’s long-term cost of borrowing.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

There is a shift over time from those repaying to those who have repaid as we might expect. The cohort data shows, a relatively rapid increase in the number repaying within a cohort over the first few years of potential repayment followed by much less variation and a gradual decline in numbers as more repay their loans in full. The average value of repayments continues to increase in each year and hence totals also increase. This suggests that it is only in the first few years after leaving higher education that large numbers of borrowers start repaying. Relatively few only start earning above the repayment threshold three, four, or more years later and even then their numbers are balanced by those who stop repaying for one reason or another. It may be some time before any longer term patterns become clear, particularly shifts from non-payment to payment.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

Some limited historical data are available on bankruptcies and Individual Voluntary Arrangements (IVAs). These only cover students who notified the Student Loans Company of this while they were studying and hence exclude anyone with a student loan who became bankrupt or had an IVA after they graduated. The total number bankrupt or with IVAs in England increased from 10-20 a year in the late 1990s to 110 in 2004. The Higher Education Act 2004 included provisions to prevent student loans being written off by bankruptcy. There were 30 IVAs amongst this group in 2005 and 20 in 2006. Over this period there were large
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

The increase in total expenditure for the whole period was greater than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers. In the mid- to late-1990s real spending increased at a slower rate, but this pattern was reversed over the following decade. The gap closed somewhat over the three years to 2011/12 as student numbers continued to grow, while spending was broadly flat. Since then expenditure has increased in real terms, but student numbers fell for three years and are still below 2010/11 levels. 17 18 The costs associated with students can vary greatly by

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

Figures are based on a survey so some of the reported changes may arise from survey error rather than ‘real’ changes in the levels. The unemployment rate (the proportion of the economically active population who are unemployed) for 16-24 year olds was 11.3% in December 2018 to February 2019. This is down from 11.7% in the previous quarter and 12.1% a year before.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 08444, 20 February 2019: Off-rolling in English schools

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 08444, 20 February 2019: Off-rolling in English schools

four local authorities reported significant increases in the number of children being educated at home and, in particular, concerns that this was not always in the children’s interests. There were disturbing references to children being removed from schools to be educated at home with the encouragement of the school as an alternative to exclusion. One local authority described it thus: “schools off rolling learners to [elective home education] when the families have no means to educate in order to protect their results records and school performance.” One local authority with nearly 2,000 children registered to be home educated said, “the majority have had some form of local authority intervention with a large proportion known to social services.” 6
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7049, 27 February 2018: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7049, 27 February 2018: Postgraduate loans in England

1.101 From 2018-19, loans of up to £25,000 will be available to any English student without a Research Council living allowance who can win a place for doctoral study at a UK university. They will be added to any outstanding master’s loan and repaid on the same terms, but with the intention of setting a repayment rate of 9% for doctoral loans and a combined 9% repayment rate if people take out a doctoral and master’s loan. The government will launch a technical consultation on the detail. Those who take out only a master’s loan will still repay at 6%, as announced at Autumn Statement 2015. 40
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

Including this spending with the earlier figures gives a more complete picture of the amount of national income that we have devoted to education. A series that only looks at public spending will be affected by shifts in the liability for costs from the public to private sections (tuition fees) and vice versa (free early years education). So a total private and public series more accurately reflects overall spending at any one point in time and is not affected by shifts from one sector to another. It is not perfect though. Data on private spending on education start in the 1960s, there is a break in the series in 1997 due to revised data and the figures cover fees for education only. This means that private spending on books and other education resources for school pupils is excluded, as is student maintenance and loan repayments. Excluding student
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

The interest rate issue received more attention in 2017 when it was announced that the rate applied to student loans in 2017/18 would be 6.1% - this was a large increase from the 2016/17 level of 4.6%. A report by the Institute for Fiscal Studies, Higher Education funding in England: past, present and options for the future July 2017 stated that under the 2012 system students from the poorest 40% of families would accrue around £6,500 in interest during study. The report also said that the interest rate had virtually no impact on the repayments of the lowest earning graduates because very few would earn enough to repay the interest accrued. The interest rate would however have a significant impact on top earners.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07020, 8 February 2019: Special Educational Needs: support in
England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07020, 8 February 2019: Special Educational Needs: support in England

6. The level of demand for local authorities to undertake EHC needs assessments has increased by over 50% since 2015. In 2017, 45,200 children and young people were assessed and a decision taken to whether they need an EHC plan. The number of requests for EHC plans that are either refused or delayed is also increasing. LAs can refuse to carry out an EHC needs assessment if they believe it has not met the required threshold of needs. In 2017, there were around 14,600 refusals to carry out an assessment. This is a third more than in 2015. Once a child has been assessed, they may still struggle to access the services they need. In 2018, 2,060 children with a statement or EHC plan were awaiting provision, which is almost three times more than in 2010. 30
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

In July 2012 The Department for Education released new ‘experimental’ statistics which looked at the destination of A level students the year after they took their qualifications. The data identify those in higher education and within this those in any Russell Group university and those at Oxford or Cambridge. The information is taken from matching National Pupil Database records to those held by the Higher Education Statistics Agency. It only includes young people who studied at state sector schools or colleges in England. Information is broken down by region, local authority, individual (state) school or college and, more recently, student characteristics. The data now covers the period up to 2017 and can be found at can be found at: Destinations of Key Stage 4 and Key Stage 5 pupils.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

Figures are based on a survey so some of the reported changes may arise from survey error rather than ‘real’ changes in the levels. The unemployment rate (the proportion of the economically active population who are unemployed) for 16-24 year olds was 11.6% in April to June 2019. This is up from 10.8% in the previous quarter and up from 11.3% a year before.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

In July 2012 The Department for Education released new ‘experimental’ statistics which looked at the destination of A level students the year after they took their qualifications. The data identify those in higher education and within this those in any Russell Group university and those at Oxford or Cambridge. The information is taken from matching National Pupil Database records to those held by the Higher Education Statistics Agency. It only includes young people who studied at state sector schools or colleges in England. Information is broken down by region, local authority, individual (state) school or college and, more recently, student characteristics. The data now covers the period up to 2017 and can be found at can be found at: Destinations of Key Stage 4 and Key Stage 5 pupils.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

there was a larger decrease in real incomes for households at the middle of the income distribution than for households at the bottom, and the relative low income threshold moves in line with median income. This decrease in median income between 2009/10 and 2010/11 reflected a decrease in real median earnings. Benefit and tax credit income, on the other hand, fell only slightly in real terms meaning that poor households in receipt of benefits and tax credits saw a smaller fall in their real incomes than was the case for middle-income households. One group which did not experience a reduction in relative low income following the 2008 economic downturn was working-age adults without children. However, this group is less likely to be in receipt of benefits than pensioners or families with children. 6
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

Applicants to nursing by mid-January 2019 increased by around 2,200 (5%) after four years where numbers fell. The 2019 number was still 26% below the 2014 peak. The fall since 2014 was even larger in England (33%) where, from 2017, new student nurses were no longer be eligible for bursaries to help with the costs of studying. This was a fall of 13%. Nursing students tend to be somewhat older than the general full-time undergraduate intake. The decline in applications to nursing from older groups was even larger. 1

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House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

In 2013/14 advanced learner loans were introduced, and individuals aged 24 and over were required to take these loans to pay half of the cost of advanced level apprenticeships. This was the first time that apprentices were expected to contribute to the costs of their learning, and led to an 88% fall in the number of people aged 25+ starting an advanced or higher apprenticeship. In February 2014 the Skills Funding

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7033, 2 December 2016: Free schools statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7033, 2 December 2016: Free schools statistics

The first 24 free schools opened in September 2011 and their number reached 425 in September 2016. This includes primary, secondary, 16-19, special and alternative provision free schools. It also covers University Technical Colleges and Studio Schools, both of which are included by the Department for Education under the broader free schools category. These schools have largely opened at the start of each academic year – six waves so far. The second wave of free schools which opened at the start of 2012/13 was more than double the first with 57 new schools. 110 opened (and are still open) at the start of 2013/14, 102 at the start of 2014/15, 67 at the start of 2015/16 and 52 at the start of 2016/17. 1 So far
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

In its response the Government stated that it had no wish to alter the basic right of parents to educate their children at home and noted that many who take this approach produce very good results. It added however, that it does not believe that recent growth in the number of home educated children is due to any significant growth in people believing in the virtues of home education in its own right. Rather, it said, the factors are often more negative (e.g. disagreements with the school) and that, while parents may try their best, this does not mean that the education provided is suitable in all cases. It also highlighted the use of unregulated settings which, although sometimes legitimate,
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8538, 14 August 2019: The Review of University Admissions

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8538, 14 August 2019: The Review of University Admissions

Research has shown that external factors such as ‘schooling effects’ and family background have a major influence on the performance of students in exams and on the educational aspiratio[r]

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

“Whilst we are concerned that the increased use of unconditional offers can prevent students from making the right choices for them, it is important to remember that the solutions to this problem exist beyond the admissions process. In particular, universities need to ensure that disadvantaged students have access to suitable support once they start at university. “At a national policy level, we need a sustainable HE funding system which doesn’t require universities to compete and take drastic steps to recruit vast student numbers in order to stay afloat. We hope to see that these crucial changes are recommended through the upcoming Augar review.” 31
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