Advergames by food companies already have to stick to strict rules and we’ve banned those that promoted overeating. For example, we upheld a complaint from the Children’s Food Campaign (CFC) that a ‘Cola Capers’ game on a confectionary manufacturer’s website irresponsibly encouraged poor nutritional habits and an unhealthy lifestyle in children. We also found that the use of cartoon characters popular with and targeted at primary-school children, to promote foods other than fresh fruit and vegetables was in breach of the rules. We will not hesitate to ban any others that take this approach.
launched from September 2018. All ITT courses include time spent teaching in at least two schools and lead to an award of qualified teacher status (QTS).
All trainees, regardless of route, are required to meet a number of minimum standards.
They must, for example, hold GCSEs in English and Maths (and science for enrolment on primary ITT) at grade C / grade 4 or higher. In addition, since September 2013 trainees have had to sit and pass professional skills tests in literacy and numeracy before beginning their course. Prior to 2013, the passing of the tests was an exit requirement of training.
• substantial academic or applied and technical qualifications;
• non-qualification activity, such as work experience; and
• the study of English and maths where they do not hold a GCSE 9- 4 (reformed grading) or A*-C (legacy grading) in these subjects. 2 Under the 16-19 funding formula introduced in 2013-14, a single basic funding rate per full-time student, currently £4,000 for 16 and 17 year olds, is intended to fund a study programme of around 600 guided learning hours, regardless of where and what the student studies. 3 The formula also provides a number of funding uplifts, including for large programmes and disadvantaged learners, and an area costs adjustment.
63 Education Secretary announces 6 new opportunity areas, Department for Education, 18 January 2017.
Box 6: Opportunity Areas
On 4 October 2016, the then Education Secretary, Justine Greening, announced £60 million of funding for six ‘Opportunity Areas’ to help them “address the biggest challenges they face”. The six areas were Blackpool, Derby, Norwich, Oldham, Scarborough, and West Somerset. It was stated that the areas would be given prioritised access to a wider support package, including a £75 million teaching and leadership innovation fund “focused on supporting teachers and school leaders in challenging areas to develop.” 61 £10 million of the funding is available for teachers in opportunity areas and category 5 and 6 areas to take the new National Professional Qualification for Middle Leadership. 62
would release £420 million, £315 million of which would come from the money originally committed for the HPCF:
Efficiencies and savings across our main capital budget can, I believe, release £420 million. The majority of this will be from healthy pupils capital funding, from which we can make savings of £315 million. This reflects reductions in forecast revenue from the soft drinks industry levy. I will be able to channel the planned budget, which remains in place, to frontline schools, while meeting our commitment that every single pound of England’s share of spending from the levy will continue to be invested in improving children’s health; that includes £100 million in 2018-19 for healthy pupils capital. 34
Recent years, however, have seen concerns being raised that children are leaving school rolls in rising numbers, in particular as they approach GCSE level, because of pressures within the school system.
It has been suggested that increased ‘off-rolling’ is taking place because of the impact of pupils who are likely to perform relatively poorly in their examinations on school performance measures, and because schools may be struggling to support children who need high levels of support, for example pupils with special educational needs. Off-rolling of this kind might involve children being excluded for reasons that are not legitimate, or parents being encouraged to home educate a child where they would not otherwise have chosen to do so.
12 From lowest lifetime income to highest
13 The data are from the latest public version of the Government’s Student loan repayment model. This was published in before the Summer Budget 2015 changes to student finance were announced. The model has been adapted where possible to reflect these changes and the higher repayment thresholds from 2018-19, but its underlying assumptions about earnings and employment have not been changed and it takes no account of variations in loan amount by income caused by the ending of grants.
I have consistently heard calls from both employers and schools and colleges to help them navigate this complex landscape and to spread the good practice that is happening in some parts of the country to all. Today I am answering those calls. I am pleased to tell the House that Christine Hodgson, chair of Capgemini UK and someone with a strong track record of developing young talent, will chair a new careers and enterprise company for schools. This will transform the provision of careers education and advice for young people and inspire them to take control of and shape their own futures.
support to raise the standard of attainment for the eligible pupils. 11
Looked after children
Virtual school heads are responsible for managing Pupil Premium funding for children currently looked after by the local authority and for allocating it to schools and alternative provision settings. They can pass on the full funding received in respect of a child to the relevant school or alternative provider, but are not required to do so. For example, some funding can be pooled to pay for activities that will benefit a group of or all of an
Stephen Hammond, who secured the debate, praised the existing guidelines but raised concerns with how they were being applied in practice:
First, although there is no statutory barrier to a child being admitted outside their normal age cohort, there is no right to insist or to appeal. Although the guidelines state that the rationale must be set out, they do not confer any extra rights. Secondly, some authorities allow delayed entry into education but then insist that the child begins in year 1, rather than in reception, thus removing all the hoped for benefit of starting a year later. Thirdly, some authorities, as I pointed out when describing the case in my constituency, allow a child to defer entry at primary level but give no guarantee that the child will remain in that cohort post- primary school. Finally, there are any number of similar problems for the parents of premature and pre-term babies. Some local authorities take no account of prematurity or the due date. 19
If these findings are put alongside the data in the table at the end of this paper and the earlier chart we can conclude that ‘state school pupils’ improved their representation at Oxford and Cambridge between the end of the 1930s and end of the 1940s; there appears to have been relatively little change in the late 1950s, but further increases in the 1960s and late 1970s which saw state school pupil numbers draw roughly equal with independent schools at the start of the 1980s. State school participation was higher at Oxford, on the measures given here, up to the mid-1960s. However, given there are large gaps this may not necessarily have been the case in each and every year.
Westminster Academy. 3 Further details were set out in the schools white paper, The Importance of Teaching, published in November 2010:
4.21 In most European countries school students are expected to pursue a broad and rounded range of academic subjects until the age of 16. Even in those countries such as the Netherlands where students divide between academic and vocational routes all young people are expected, whatever their ultimate destiny, to study a wide range of traditional subjects. So we will introduce a new award – the English Baccalaureate – for any student who secures good GCSE or iGCSE passes in English, mathematics, the sciences, a modern or ancient foreign language and a humanity such as history or geography. This combination of GCSEs at grades A*-C will entitle the student to a certificate recording their
Local authorities have no statutory duties in relation to monitoring the quality of home education on a routine basis. However, they do have duties to make arrangements to identify children not receiving a suitable education, and to intervene if it appears that they are not. Intervention could, for example, take the form of issuing a school attendance order, although Government guidance on home education encourages authorities to address the issue informally before serving such a notice. As part of their safeguarding duties local authorities have powers to insist on seeing a child to enquire about their welfare where there are grounds for concern, but this does not extend to seeing and questioning children for the purpose of establishing whether they are receiving a suitable education.
Single and small academy trusts and sixth form colleges were able to bid for funding through the Condition Improvement Fund, with guidance published by the Education and Skills Funding Agency stating that the HPCF “is intended to improve children’s and young people’s physical and mental health by enhancing access to facilities for physical activity, healthy eating, mental health and wellbeing and medical conditions, such as kitchens, dining facilities, changing rooms, playgrounds and sports facilities.” 33 In March 2018 the Education and Skills Funding Agency published the list of schools who had successfully bid for funding from the Condition Improvement Fund. £38 million will be provided for specific projects supported by the HPCF in 2018-19. 34 Local authorities, large multi-academy trusts and other bodies are not eligible to bid for the Condition Improvement Fund and instead receive School Condition Allocations (SCA). They will receive a direct allocation from the HPCF in addition to their normal SCA for 2018-19. 35 School
• More general information on how the TRA regulates teacher misconduct: Teacher misconduct:
regulating the teaching profession.
It is a legal requirement for employers to make a referral to DBS where they think the individual has engaged in conduct that harmed or is likely to harm a child, or where they think the person otherwise poses a risk to children. DBS will consider whether to bar the person. 62 Schools must also have procedures to make a referral to DBS if a person in regulated activity has been dismissed or removed due to safeguarding concerns or if they would have been had they not resigned. Failure to make a referral to DBS when the criteria is met is a criminal offence. 63 In substantiated cases, the designated officer should also review the circumstances with the case manager to determine if improvements to the school’s procedures could be made in order to prevent a similar event occurring again and to see if any lessons can be learned. 64
While local authorities play the lead role, Government guidance stresses that effective safeguarding requires collaboration between local
agencies, and that everyone who comes into contact with children has a role to play in “identifying concerns, sharing information and taking prompt action.” 4 In line with this, a range of local agencies, including the police and health services, have a duty under section 11 of the Children Act 2004, to ensure that they consider the need to safeguard and promote the welfare of children when carrying out their functions. 5 This briefing sets out the role of schools within this wider safeguarding system, which is described in more detail the statutory guidance, Working together to safeguard children. It provides information on the safeguarding responsibilities of governing bodies, head teachers and individual staff; the inspection of safeguarding arrangements in schools;
The Controlling Migration Fund includes a local services fund worth
£100 million (£25 million in each of the four years from 2016-17 to 2019-20), which councils in England can bid for funding from.
The prospectus explaining how local authorities can access the fund makes clear that proposals for funding should demonstrate how they will benefit the resident community in the first instance. It also notes, however, that “legitimate migrants may be the focus of some projects, for example English language support.” 35 In response to a parliamentary question, the Minister, Robert Goodwill, additionally stated that local authorities had been encouraged to consider whether the fund could be used to “help with any short-term pressures as a result of recent arrivals of unaccompanied asylum seeking children.” 36
Generally speaking, the parents of children with SEN are responsible for funding their children’s education if they choose to send them to fee- paying schools.
Parents may request a particular school is ‘named’ for their child to attend as part of an Education, Health and Care Plan. Local authorities must agree that request unless the school is unsuitable, or the
For pensioners, the material deprivation measure includes items lacking for non-financial reasons (for example, because of ill health).
21 indicators are used to assess material deprivation among families with children, covering access to different goods and services. The indicators were selected using various analytical techniques to determine the best discriminators between those families that are deprived and those that are not. The Family Resources Survey asks respondents whether they have each item and, if not, whether this is because they do not want them or cannot afford them. The questions are reviewed regularly to ensure they remain relevant.
5.2 April 2016 Education Committee report
In April 2016, the Education Committee published a report on the mental health and well-being of looked after children. 70 In addition to finding that looked after children face significant challenges in getting access to mental health support, the Committee also reported concerns about the transition out of care. The report noted that leaving the care system can be a time of significant upheaval and disruption, and that this is likely to be more acute for care leavers with mental health concerns. The Committee noted that current support is based too heavily on inflexible age restrictions and recommended that Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) should be made available for care-leavers up to the age of 25: