Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2017; 60.5% at Cambridge and 56.1% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages between 2010 and 2012 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2017. 23
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2018; 61.3% at Cambridge and 58.9% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages in 2017 and 2018 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2018. 23
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07236, 9 January 2018: Careers guidance in schools, colleges and universities

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07236, 9 January 2018: Careers guidance in schools, colleges and universities

39. When we returned to this issue a year after the publication of our report, it was clear to us that careers advice in schools was not improving, so we followed up our inquiry with a one-off session with the Secretary of State in January 2015. Drawing on this session, we recommended in our report on apprenticeships that the Government urgently review the incentives for schools to provide good quality careers advice and recognise that the mantra of “trusting schools” does not work when the interests of schools and young people are not aligned. This remains a work in

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

The total number of applicants at this point for the 2019 cycle was 561,400, up by around 2,400 or 0.4% on the same point in the 2018 cycle. The 2018 figure was the lowest January number since 2013. The increase in 2019 was the first for three years, but the total was still below equivalent numbers from six of the previous nine years. There was a drop in home applicants (0.7%), a small increase in applicants from the EU (0.9%) and a much larger increase in overseas applicants from outside the EU (9.0%). The number of non-EU overseas applicants reached its fourth consecutive record level.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06045, 6 January 2017: English Baccalaureate

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06045, 6 January 2017: English Baccalaureate

In October 2012, the Department for Education published a report on The Effects of the English Baccalaureate , carried out by Ipsos MORI; a revised edition of the findings was published in February 2013. The report found that there had been “no significant change” in the proportion of Year 9 pupils who had chosen to take either the EBacc combination of subjects, or each of the individual EBacc subjects, since 2011, and that few schools had made changes in response to the EBacc, with still fewer planning to do so. The report noted that “virtually all schools offer all EBacc subjects,” and that “most schools (89%) say that their option blocks allow pupils who want to study towards the EBacc to do so,” with low pupil attainment being cited as the reason that pupils typically might not be offered the EBacc
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

299,000 men aged 16-24 were unemployed in December 2018 to February 2019, a small increase on a year ago. The unemployment rate for men of this age was 13.1%, up slightly from 12.9% a year before. 194,000 women aged 16-24 were unemployed, down 40,000 from a year before. The unemployment rate for women aged 16-24 was 9.3%, compared to 11.1% a year before.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

In January 2017, the Scottish Government began a three-month pilot in Clackmannanshire and Orkney of a ‘baby box’ programme, gifting a box of essential items, such as clothes, nappies and books, to every new-born baby. Each box is also designed to be a suitable place in which babies can sleep. This new programme is based on the Finnish ‘maternity package’ scheme which has been running since 1938 and which in 2016 had a 95% take-up rate. It is credited by some as helping to reduce the Finnish infant death rate from 10% to 0.2%. In Scotland, where in 2016 the death rate was 0.37%, it is a concept designed to encourage expectant mothers to engage with maternity and antenatal services. 108 First Minister of Scotland, Nicola Sturgeon, remarked upon the beginning of the pilot:
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7966, 18 January 2019: Part-time undergraduate students in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7966, 18 January 2019: Part-time undergraduate students in England

Changes in part-time undergraduate entrants at all levels are given opposite. The number fell from more than 470,000 in 2008/09 to just below 240,000 in 2016/17; a fall of 49%. Again this was driven by the decline in undergraduate study where the fall in entrants since 2008/09 was 62% (chart below/ opposite). There was a drop in part-timers across all broad types of courses, but it was largest in courses other than first degrees. Section 4 looks at types of courses in more detail.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7222, 12 February 2019: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7222, 12 February 2019: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

Alongside the recruitment of new teachers, the retention of existing teachers is a key component in maintaining teacher supply and is a key focus of the DfE’s Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy. 42,830 FTE qualified teachers left the state-funded sector in the 12 months to November 2017, a ‘wastage rate’ of 9.9%. This rate was the same as the previous two years and has increased from 9.2% in 2011. In 2017 the number of teachers leaving the profession was higher than the number entering for the first time on the current series (which goes back to 2011); 400 more FTE teachers left the profession than joined. The number of FTE qualified teachers recorded as leaving the state funded sector for reasons other than retirement was 35,800 in 2017. This has increased year-on-year from 24,750 in 2011 (when the current series starts). 25
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

contingent loans means that graduates with low income in any one year are ‘protected’ from high repayments because they only repay 9% of their income over £15,000 per year. These are normally graduates at the start of their career. Where graduates have a low income for their entire career –either through low annual earnings or periods out of the labour market- they make little or no repayments. Their ‘protection’ comes from the 25 year write off. If they make any repayments they are small and unlikely to cover more than interest payments, so it does not matter what the interest rate is. It is their income that determines repayments, not the interest rate. The interest rate is completely irrelevant for the lowest paid graduates. It could be set at commercial levels, zero, or even a negative rate. It would have no impact on the amount they repay. The interest rate affects the duration of repayments for those who do repay. If it were higher then it would take longer to repay and total
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

Provisions on deferring school entry are in place for the children who would be at the younger end of their school year, and whose parents believe it would be better for their entry into school to be deferred to the following year from their ‘normal’ entry year group. Parents whose children are born between September and December may request a deferral; parents whose children are born in January or February will have their requests automatically approved.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

In response to parliamentary questions in January 2018, Lord Agnew highlighted evidence that 80-90% of home educated children had previously been in school and so were known to local authorities (see box 2). He added that legal advice received by the Government since November 2017 indicated that “local authorities’ powers in relation to home education often go further than is appreciated.” The Government would, he said, reflect this in the updated guidance on home education, the drafts of which he expected to be produced for consultation “in the next few weeks.” 47

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

Working-age non-parents were the only major demographic group not to see a fall in relative poverty between 2007–08 and 2012–13 (although there was a fall when looking just at the change between 2011–12 and 2012–13; however, this was not significant). This is a group who are, on average, more reliant on earnings and less reliant on benefits than children and pensioners, even when focusing only on low income groups. In 2012–13, benefits made up 88% of household income for the poorest 30% of pensioners, 62% for the poorest 30% of children and 38% for the poorest 30% of working-age non-parents. This helps to explain why they benefited less from the rise in benefits relative to earnings during the recession. In addition, working-age adults without dependent children are relatively likely to be young adults, and […] adults aged under 30 saw the largest falls in wages and employment rates during the recession. 9
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

The minority of university offers are unconditional, but the share of all offers made that were recorded as unconditional has increased significantly, from 9.2 per cent in 2013, to 15.1 per cent in 2018. Most unconditional offers are made to older students, but the unconditional offer rate for 18 year olds has driven the overall increase in unconditional offers; up from less than 1% of offers to this age group in 2013, to 7.1% in 2018. 23% of 18 year olds received an unconditional offer in 2018, or 34% if all offers with any unconditional component are included. Unconditional offers are more common at universities with lower entry requirements. In 2013 just 16 universities had unconditional offer rates to 18 year olds of 1% or more. In 2018 this number had increased to 84.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

4.3 Transparency and accountability will also be enhanced by the requirement for CCGs that are benefitting from the health inequalities funding adjustment to set out for the first time how they are targeting that funding to improve the equity of access and outcomes. The Long-Term Plan renews our commitment to commissioning, partnering with and championing local charities, social enterprises and community interest companies providing services and support to vulnerable and at-risk groups, including Gypsy, Roma and Travellers, which we recognize as leading innovators in their field and key partners in helping us achieving our ambitions to promote equality and reduce health inequalities. 4.4 In addition, the inclusion group of health charities within the Health and Wellbeing Alliance, which includes Friends Families and Travellers, have identified a small number of common themes which would help improve experience and outcomes for
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

The Secretary of State writes to the funding councils around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent funding letters for the Office for Students and Research England were published in February and March 2018 respectively. Funding for teaching 2018-19, research was for 2018-19 and indicative totals for 2019-20. Earlier funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises this
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

4.3 Transparency and accountability will also be enhanced by the requirement for CCGs that are benefitting from the health inequalities funding adjustment to set out for the first time how they are targeting that funding to improve the equity of access and outcomes. The Long-Term Plan renews our commitment to commissioning, partnering with and championing local charities, social enterprises and community interest companies providing services and support to vulnerable and at-risk groups, including Gypsy, Roma and Travellers, which we recognize as leading innovators in their field and key partners in helping us achieving our ambitions to promote equality and reduce health inequalities. 4.4 In addition, the inclusion group of health charities within the Health and Wellbeing Alliance, which includes Friends Families and Travellers, have identified a small number of common themes which would help improve experience and outcomes for
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049, 29 January 2019: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049, 29 January 2019: Postgraduate loans in England

In comparison to the scheme consulted upon, the response stated that the eligibility for loans would be extended to include courses of up to eight years in duration compared to the originally proposed six years. The response also rejected introducing a capped number of loan places for higher education institutions and confirmed instead that loans would be introduced on a demand led basis. 45

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

More recently, attention has focused on the problem whereby increases in the National Minimum Wage (now the National Living Wage (NLW)) mean that carers working 16 hours a week (in order to qualify for Working Tax Credit) can find themselves earning above the Carer’s Allowance earnings limit – and are forced to choose between giving up their Carer’s Allowance, or reducing their working hours to stay within the earnings limit and losing their WTC. With the NLW expected to reach around £9 an hour by 2020 48 , there are fears that this could

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

In October 2012, the Department for Education published a report on The Effects of the English Baccalaureate , carried out by Ipsos MORI; a revised edition of the findings was published in February 2013. The report found that there had been “no significant change” in the proportion of Year 9 pupils who had chosen to take either the EBacc combination of subjects, or each of the individual EBacc subjects, since 2011, and that few schools had made changes in response to the EBacc, with still fewer planning to do so. The report noted that “virtually all schools offer all EBacc subjects,” and that “most schools (89%) say that their option blocks allow pupils who want to study towards the EBacc to do so,” with low pupil attainment being cited as the reason that pupils typically might not be offered the EBacc
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