In addition to this economic rationale, the report outlined a social need for change: that individuals should have access to a national system of technical qualifications that is easy to understand, has credibility with employers and remains stable over time. The current system, it argued, failed on all three counts, comprising “a confusing and ever-changing multitude of qualifications”, many of which “hold little value in the eyes of individuals and are not understood or sought by employers.” The report added that learners, teachers and the public have “long regarded technicaleducation qualifications as inferior to academic qualifications”, and higher level technical qualifications “have too often become
We will establish new institutes of technology, backed by leading employers and linked to leading universities, in every major city in England. They will provide courses at degree level and above, specialising in technical disciplines, such as STEM, whilst also providing higher-level apprenticeships and bespoke courses for employers. They will enjoy the freedoms that make our universities great, including eligibility for public funding for productivity and skills research, and access to loans and grants for their students. They will be able to gain royal charter status and regius professorships in technicaleducation. Above all, they will become anchor institutions for local, regional and national industry, providing sought-after skills to support the economy, and developing their own local identity to make sure they can meet the skills needs of local employers. 74
However, if we truly want a world class system our colleges will need the additional funding to provide world class resources. The plan’s provision for everyone to have work experience alone would cost hundreds of millions of pounds and require much input from employers nationwide to be a success. We therefore welcome the Government's acceptance of the need to review the level of funding for college-based technicaleducation and the Sainsbury Panel's specific suggestion that the intended work placements should receive additional funding. 52
The technical option will be delivered by a combination of college-based education and apprenticeships, with four of the 15 routes delivered primarily through apprenticeships. New level 3 study programmes – TLevels – will be created to sit at the start of technical routes (apart from the four apprenticeship only routes), with a T Level for each pathway (i.e. some routes will have more than one T Level). They will be primarily aimed at 16 year olds. The Government intends to develop a ‘transition year’ for those students who are not ready to start a T Level at age 16, but who could achieve one by age 19.
The underpinning knowledge of the core component will be assessed through external examination, with core employability skills assessed through employer-set projects. For occupational specialisms, students will demonstrate that they have competence through practical assignments. Rather than having an overall grade for a technical qualification, students will receive separate grades for the core component (graded A*-E) and for the specialism (graded Pass, Merit or Distinction), with each recognised separately on the T Level certificate. In order to achieve a T Level, students will have to attain an E or above in the core content component and a pass or above in each relevant specialism.
designated as particularly vulnerable. Male Irish travellers in Ireland have a suicide rate 6.6 times higher than the general population; Gypsy Travellers in the Thames Valley have a 100-fold excess risk of measles arising from low immunisation. The report of the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the UK, 1997-99, found that Travellers have ‘possibly the highest maternal death rate among all ethnic groups’. These population health findings based on robust data are stark and require urgent public health focus, including targeted suicide prevention services, a robust system of reporting of infectious diseases in the Gypsy/Traveller population and of levels of immunisation (both currently absent), and a robust system for monitoring maternal mortality (also absent) . 157
Systems. These systems bring together the NHS, local authorities and other local partners with the aim of ensuring women and their families receive seamless care, including when moving between maternity or neonatal services or to other services such as primary care or health visiting. By spring 2019, every trust in England with a maternity and neonatal service will be part of the National Maternal and Neonatal Health Safety Collaborative. Every national, regional and local NHS organisation involved in providing safe maternity and neonatal care has a named Maternity Safety Champion. Through the Collaborative and Maternity Safety Champions, the NHS is supporting a culture of multidisciplinary team working and learning, vital for safe, high-quality maternity care. Twenty Community Hubs have been established, focusing on areas with greatest need, and acting as ‘one stop shops’ for women and their families. These hubs work closely with local authorities, bringing together antenatal care, birth facilities, postnatal care, mental health services, specialist services and health visiting services.
We should acknowledge that the curriculum always involves trade-offs: more time on one subject means less time on others. Over the years, I’ve been asked to add scores of subjects - from intellectual property, to Esperanto, to den building - to the national curriculum. Many of these are important and interesting. The question, though, is always whether they are sufficiently important to justify reducing the time available for the existing subjects in the curriculum, and I make no apology for protecting space for the English Baccalaureate subjects wherever possible. That is not to say, of course, that subjects outside the English Baccalaureate have no place in schools. The EBacc is a specific, limited measure consisting of only 5 subject areas and up to 8 GCSEs. Whilst this means that there are several valuable subjects which are not included, it also means that there is time for most pupils to study other subjects in addition to the EBacc, including vocational and technical disciplines which are also vital to future economic growth.
The report included a section written by Sir John Dunford, the National Pupil Premium Champion 2013-2015, setting out what good practice looks like in schools that are closing their progress gap and how that good practice can be spread nationally. This stated that to make the most of the Pupil Premium, schools must “properly assess the barriers to learning faced by their own disadvantaged pupils, identify clear objectives and criteria for success, and follow the evidence on what works provided by the Education Endowment Foundation and the National Foundation for Educational Research, among others.” 41
In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2017; 60.5% at Cambridge and 56.1% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages between 2010 and 2012 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2017. 23
This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.
In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2018; 61.3% at Cambridge and 58.9% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages in 2017 and 2018 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2018. 23
The pay figures are necessarily rather ‘messy’ as they include, in some cases; a wide variety of different one-off payments, backdated pay, data for different reporting years, salaries of acting vice-chancellors etc. There have also been changes to the number of UK universities over this period. Readers should therefore view the data with some caution and not draw firm conclusions from any relatively small annual changes.
The fourth area that my hon. Friend raised was planning policy. He described the imbalance between the number of sites in some areas compared with others, particularly in his county. The Government’s planning policy for Traveller sites confirms that our aims include that local planning authorities should make their own assessment of need for the purposes of planning and, working together with neighbouring authorities, identify land for sites. Local planning authorities should consider the production of joint development plans that set targets on a cross-authority basis to provide more flexibility in identifying sites. The policy is clear that local planning authorities should ensure that sites in rural areas respect the scale of, and do not dominate, the nearest settled community. In exceptional cases when a local planning authority is burdened by a large-scale unauthorised site that has significantly increased its need, and where the area is subject to strict and special planning constraints, there is no assumption that the authority has to plan to meet its Traveller site needs in full. 83
21. A school can teach that its particular faith has teachings relevant to these matters, and explain to pupils what those teachings are. However, this does not mean that a curriculum, including that for religious education, can be planned or teaching provided which advocates or otherwise encourages pupils not to respect other people on the basis of a protected characteristic. In that case the standard will not be met and there may also, depending on the exact facts, be a breach of other standards, for example, paragraph 3(i) or 5(b)(vi). 53
judgement about what constitutes minimum needs. Successive governments have argued there is no single, objective way of determining what constitutes a minimum acceptable income for a particular person or family, although independent researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in- depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 38
Figures are based on a survey so some of the reported changes may arise from survey error rather than ‘real’ changes in the levels. The unemployment rate (the proportion of the economically active population who are unemployed) for 16-24 year olds was 11.4% in May-July 2019. This is up from 11.2% in the previous quarter and up slightly from 11.3% a year before.
For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in April to June it was 87,000 less than a year before. The number of young people in employment decreased by 25,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 74,000.
Some limited historical data are available on bankruptcies and Individual Voluntary Arrangements (IVAs). These only cover students who notified the Student Loans Company of this while they were studying and hence exclude anyone with a student loan who became bankrupt or had an IVA after they graduated. The total number bankrupt or with IVAs in England increased from 10-20 a year in the late 1990s to 110 in 2004. The Higher Education Act 2004 included provisions to prevent student loans being written off by bankruptcy. There were 30 IVAs amongst this group in 2005 and 20 in 2006. Over this period there were large