We will establish new institutes of technology, backed by leading employers and linked to leading universities, in every major city in England. They will provide courses at degree level and above, specialising in technical disciplines, such as STEM, whilst also providing higher-level apprenticeships and bespoke courses for employers. They will enjoy the freedoms that make our universities great, including eligibility for public funding for productivity and skills research, and access to loans and grants for their students. They will be able to gain royal charter status and regius professorships in technicaleducation. Above all, they will become anchor institutions for local, regional and national industry, providing sought-after skills to support the economy,
We will establish new institutes of technology, backed by leading employers and linked to leading universities, in every major city in England. They will provide courses at degree level and above, specialising in technical disciplines, such as STEM, whilst also providing higher-level apprenticeships and bespoke courses for employers. They will enjoy the freedoms that make our universities great, including eligibility for public funding for productivity and skills research, and access to loans and grants for their students. They will be able to gain royal charter status and regius professorships in technicaleducation. Above all, they will become anchor institutions for local, regional and national industry, providing sought-after skills to support the economy, and developing their own local identity to make sure they can meet the skills needs of local employers. 74
The technical option will be delivered by a combination of college-based education and apprenticeships, with four of the 15 routes delivered primarily through apprenticeships. New level 3 study programmes – T Levels – will be created to sit at the start of technical routes (apart from the four apprenticeship only routes), with a T Level for each pathway (i.e. some routes will have more than one T Level). They will be primarily aimed at 16 year olds. The Government intends to develop a ‘transition year’ for those students who are not ready to start a T Level at age 16, but who could achieve one by age 19.
The initial rollout timetable for T Levels, as set out in the Skills Plan, was for a small number of ‘pathfinder’ routes to be available for first delivery from September 2019, with additional routes becoming available in phases between 2020 and 2022. Some commentators questioned this proposed timescale; the UK Managing Director of City and Guilds, for example, highlighted “the totally unrealistic timing set out in the Skills Plan” as probably their biggest concern with the proposals. 76
The underpinning knowledge of the core component will be assessed through external examination, with core employability skills assessed through employer-set projects. For occupational specialisms, students will demonstrate that they have competence through practical assignments. Rather than having an overall grade for a technical qualification, students will receive separate grades for the core component (graded A*-E) and for the specialism (graded Pass, Merit or Distinction), with each recognised separately on the T Level certificate. In order to achieve a T Level, students will have to attain an E or above in the core content component and a pass or above in each relevant specialism.
Research carried out in 2004 by the then Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the Food Standards Agency showed that while schools and caterers responded positively to the standards, in practice, children and young people continued to make unhealthy choices. Statistics from the Annual Health Survey for England 2004 showed that the levels of obesity for children had risen over the previous 10 years. Ongoing concerns led to the publication in 2004 of the DfES’s guidance, Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools , and the Government’s white paper,
On 16 June 2015, the then Education Secretary Nicky Morgan made a speech outlining the Government’s plans; a compulsory EBacc would ensure pupils “study the core academic subjects at GCSE, the subjects that keep your options open, and allow you to enter the widest ranges of careers and university courses.” The Secretary of State set out the Government’s view that a compulsory EBacc would enhance the chances of disadvantaged pupils, highlighting that capable pupils are currently less likely to take history, geography, a language or triple science at GCSE than their peers if they are eligible for free school meals. 19
Around 30,000 individuals enter one of several ITT routes each year. Although they vary in other ways too, the main distinctions between the different ITT routes are whether they are ‘school-centred’ (for example, the School Direct programme and Teach First) or ‘higher education- centred’ (for example, a university-based PGCE course), and whether the trainee pays tuition fees or receives a salary. All courses include time spent teaching in at least two schools and lead to QTS. They can also all (except undergraduate) include a postgraduate qualification, usually a Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE).
The initial teaching and learning funding allocations for adult further education (FE) and skills in England fell from a 2010-11 baseline of £3.18 billion to £2.94 billion in 2015-16, a reduction of 8% in cash terms or 14% in real terms. The allocation for 2015-16 fell further as a result of the 2015 Summer Budget, which reduced the non-apprenticeship part of the Adult Skills Budget (ASB) by an additional 3.9%. While funding for community learning and offender learning stayed fairly constant over the period, ASB funding declined by 29% in cash terms between 2010-11 and 2015-16 – this in part connected to the replacement of grant funding with loan funding for some learners from 2013-14 onwards. The minimum annual funding allocated to adult apprenticeships increased by 113% between 2010-11 and 2015-16, meaning that non-apprenticeship funding comprised a smaller proportion of the reduced ASB.
“positive” that the Education Secretary recognises that “we need better answers to the question of how to fairly measure primary schools and assess children’s development.” However, they criticised the fact that children would still “be learning inappropriate grammar”. It remained a “deep concern that many children will, once again, wrongly be told that they haven’t reached an ‘expected’ standard.” 17
The overall funding level for the sector in academic year 2012/13 was set by the funding council at £5.3 billion which was £1.2 billion (19%) less than in 2011/12. Further cuts of 16% and 14% followed in 2013/14 and 2014/15 as the 2012 reforms applied to increasing numbers of the student population. This is driven by reductions in teaching grant which fell by smaller amounts in each of the next four years. Overall capital and other non-recurrent funding has not been directly affected by these reforms. 2018/19 funding for teaching will be 70% lower than in 2011/12 in cash terms (73% in real terms) despite the increase in student numbers supported by this funding.
Today’s announcement is perfectly welcome as far as it goes, but, to be frank, even for this Government it is pretty undercooked. What was the bidding process for the new company receiving £1.6 million of taxpayers’ money? What will the company actually do? What are its costs? What is its strategy? How will it stimulate “more and better activity”? What will its relationships with employers be? This is a piecemeal, scattergun approach. Astonishingly—it is very good see the Business Secretary in his place—the statement does not even mention local enterprise partnerships. If we are to have joined-up government on careers advice, I would have thought that at least the Department for Education and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills could talk to each other.
As mentioned, however, devolved areas will have to continue to fund the statutory entitlements for eligible learners, which from 2020-21 will additionally include funding for basic digital skills. This will comprise a substantial part of the funding available to the devolved areas, limiting the funding over which local areas have flexibility. For example, the Mayor of London’s Skills for Londoners Framework estimates that the share of the AEB devoted to the digital entitlement “will fall in the region of seven to nine percent of the overall budget to London.” 22
But the expansion of higher education relies on funding being put onto a sustainable footing. The government must therefore ask graduates to meet more of the cost of their degrees once they are earning. From the 2016-17 academic year, maintenance grants will be replaced with maintenance loans for new students from England, paid back only when their earnings exceed £21,000 a year, saving £2.5 billion by 2020-21. To ensure that the long term costs of the student loan book remain affordable and transparent, the government will consult on freezing the loan repayment threshold for five years and review the discount rate applied to student loans and other transactions to bring it into line with the government’s long-term cost of borrowing.
Parents are, under section 7 of the Education Act 1996 , responsible for ensuring that their children of compulsory school age receive a suitable education. Most often this takes place at school, however parents may home educate their children if they wish. All education must be full-time and suitable to a child’s age, ability and aptitude, and to any special educational needs that they may have. Welsh Government Guidance has been published on elective home education.
programme, to which the Government are firmly committed and which has great support from the main Opposition party, flourishes and creates institutions that are educationally and financially successful, so that they can recruit sufficient numbers of young people and give them a great education. […] I am looking at all the questions about how a UTC works; who it recruits and when it recruits them; what specialisms are involved; what its partnership and sponsorship arrangements are; and how it involves universities and employers, and which ones are getting involved. I am determined to ensure that the programme ends up producing fantastic institutions that offer great opportunities for young people to receive a technicaleducation.
6. This chapter sets out our proposals to increase the number of good school places by lifting the restrictions on selection, but at the same time requiring selective schools to play a greater role in raising standards at other schools. In doing so, we do not propose a re-introduction of the binary or tripartite system of the past or a simple expansion of existing selective institutions. We propose that selective schools should be asked to contribute to non- selective schooling in certain ways, ensuring the expansion of good selective education alongside the creation of new good school places in nonselective schools. We believe that these proposals will make grammar schools engines of academic and social achievement for all pupils, whatever their background, wherever they are from and whatever their ability. 37
The Secretary of State writes to HEFCE around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent full funding letter was published at the end of February 2017. It covered funding in 2017-18 and gave indicative allocations for the following year. All these funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises HEFCE funding
• Both employers and training providers will receive £1,000 from the government for every apprentice they take on who is either aged between 16 and 18, or aged between 19 and 24 and has previously been in care or who have a Local Authority Education, Health and Care plan. This will be paid in two instalments of £500, the first of which will be paid after the first three months and the second will be paid after 12 months. This payment reflects the extra support that these apprentices generally need, and the costs associated with this support. 30
judgement about what constitutes minimum needs. Successive governments have argued there is no single, objective way of determining what constitutes a minimum acceptable income for a particular person or family, although independent researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. The research involves in-depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living – “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 26