Top PDF House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

This paper retains the distinction between the terms for two reasons. First the education and training series only goes back to the late 1980s, while the education series goes back much further, even with some breaks in the series the concept remains the same. Second the education and training series is more consistent over the period it is available for. The spending data are regularly revised. These revisions can change the total figure, or move items of expenditure from one sub-function to another. The detailed breakdown by sub-function is only revised back five years. This presents a problem with consistency when trying to compile long-term series based on sub-functions and the authors warn against simply splicing one set of data with another pre and post-revision. The education and training series in this paper is therefore consistent for its entire length, other than the break in 2011-12 detailed below. The education series is not and although revisions are generally quite small, readers should be careful when drawing conclusions from this data, especially those based on small differences.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in-depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 39 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

Westminster Academy. 3 Further details were set out in the schools white paper, The Importance of Teaching, published in November 2010: 4.21 In most European countries school students are expected to pursue a broad and rounded range of academic subjects until the age of 16. Even in those countries such as the Netherlands where students divide between academic and vocational routes all young people are expected, whatever their ultimate destiny, to study a wide range of traditional subjects. So we will introduce a new award – the English Baccalaureate – for any student who secures good GCSE or iGCSE passes in English, mathematics, the sciences, a modern or ancient foreign language and a humanity such as history or geography. This combination of GCSEs at grades A*-C will entitle the student to a certificate recording their
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

of local, statutory Health and Wellbeing Boards with dedicated sub- groups for children and young people: This allows for a specific focus on this group and prevents other issues or population groups from overshadowing their needs. It also enables membership from a wider range of partners involved in the children’s agenda, while maintaining strong governance arrangements to a senior partnership group. Many LAs have some form of children’s partnership sub-group that gives specific attention to Early Intervention from conception to age five. 128 Local authorities, as well as implementing national early intervention schemes, often pilot programmes of their own, targeting social problems that are more prevalent in their local area. For example, Luton’s Flying Start Strategy for under-fives included specific plans to target low birth weights, of which Luton had the second highest prevalence in UK. It also sought to work with the diverse population of the area:
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number CBP 7976, 26 September 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number CBP 7976, 26 September 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

The Department for Education and Her Majesty's Treasury have regular discussions on preparations for leaving the EU in a no deal scenario, including on this issue. The updated Technical Notice states the current position on no deal preparations for Erasmus+. In the event of a no deal, the government guarantee will cover the payment of awards to UK applicants for all successful Erasmus+ bids agreed by the National Agency and EU Commission. We have noted the information released by the European Commission on 30 January 2019 with regards to contingency planning for Erasmus+ and we are seeking to hold discussions with the Commission as soon as possible to discuss this.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 06103, 11 July 2019 : Relationships and Sex Education in Schools
(England)

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 06103, 11 July 2019 : Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural] standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 06103, 11 February 2019: Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 06103, 11 February 2019: Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural] standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in- depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 38 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This suggests that even if someone is not counted as being in relative low income, their income may still be too low for them to have what is considered a minimum acceptable standard of living:
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

To expenditure we can also add benefits derived from goods bought previously that are still being ‘consumed’ (for example, housing or cars). This gives a more positive picture of living standards for households who may be on low incomes but own their own home. Nevertheless, an expenditure approach is not perfect. As with income-based measures, it does not take into account improvements in living standards arising from investment in public services. The accurate measurement of household expenditure brings its own problems and the survey used to collect data on household spending, the Living Costs and Food Survey, has fewer respondents than the Family
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in the year to May-July 2019 it decreased by 86,000. The number of young people in employment decreased by 54,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 31,000.

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House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

The Apprenticeship Grant for Employers of 16 to 24 year olds (AGE 16- 24) was introduced in February 2012, and provided £1,500 to small businesses hiring young apprentices. In 2013/14 advanced learner loans were introduced, and individuals aged 24 and over were required to take these loans to pay half of the cost of advanced level apprenticeships. This was the first time that apprentices were expected to contribute to the costs of their learning, and led to an 88% fall in the number of people aged 25+ starting an advanced or higher apprenticeship. In February 2014 the Skills Funding
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

Education Act 1996 they do have a duty to make arrangements to identify children in their area who are not receiving a suitable education. 21 The DfE’s guidance for local authorities explains that, while the law does not assume that a child is not being suitably educated if they are not attending school full-time, it does require local authorities to enquire what education is being provided. 22 There are no detailed requirements as to how a system of oversight should work, and it is for each local authority to decide its approach. However, the guidance emphasises that a proportional approach needs to be taken and local authorities should not exert more oversight than is actually needed when parents are providing a suitable education. It recommends that an authority should ordinarily make contact with home educating parents on at least an annual basis so that it can reasonably inform itself of the suitability of the education provided. 23
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

The reasoning behind this is that people in full-time education, including those with caring responsibilities, are already supported through the educational maintenance system, via its range of loans and grants. 55 The rule has however been criticised as a barrier to carers wishing to expand their skills with a view to entering or returning to the labour market. In 2008 the House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee said that carers faced a “stark choice between engaging in education and training without any financial support or living on benefits”, and recommended that the Government consider lifting the 21 hour rule and reducing education and training fees for Carer’s Allowance recipients. 56 In its response, the Labour Government said that rather than make piecemeal changes to Carer’s Allowance, it intended to look specifically at the support offered to carers through the benefits system as part of its wider plans to develop a single benefit for people of working age. 57 No detailed plans were set out before the 2010 General Election; and subsequent administrations have not
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8655, 12 September 2019: Funding for healthcare students in England

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8655, 12 September 2019: Funding for healthcare students in England

• Other bursary elements such as extra week’s allowances for courses that run for longer than 30 weeks and 3 days each academic year, and practice placement expenses. Students who qualified for a bursary also had the costs of their tuition paid directly to their higher education institution by the NHS. Healthcare students could also apply for a non-income assessed reduced rate maintenance loan from Student Finance England.

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

Quality of language teaching As noted in section 2.1, the 2011 Ofsted report identified good teaching in two thirds of the lessons observed in primary school, with primary teachers’ subject knowledge and their teaching methods described as predominantly good. Some weaknesses lay in the assessment, and the monitoring and evaluation of provision, often because school leaders did not feel competent enough to judge language provision. The 2011 report stated that in many of the secondary schools visited, opportunities for students to listen to and communicate in the target language were often limited by many teachers’ unpreparedness to use it, and that teaching in Key Stage 4 was focused on achieving good examination results, but this did not always prepare students sufficiently for study at a more advanced level, post-16. However, teaching and learning were good in most of the post-16 providers visited, and the relatively small numbers of students on modern language courses achieved well. 11
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 08444, 11 April 2019 : Off-rolling in English schools

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 08444, 11 April 2019 : Off-rolling in English schools

Following an earlier call for evidence, on 2 April 2019 the Government published a consultation on proposed legislation concerning children not in school. The consultation closes on 24 June 2019. The response to the call for evidence did not cover off-rolling directly, stating that action on this issue “is being taken forward separately.” 28 The consultation however notes that increasing numbers of children are receiving their principal education outside of mainstream schools. Some of these, it said, are being educated very well at home by parents, but others are receiving “such education as they get…mainly or entirely through attendance at unsuitable settings such as unregistered
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 2967, 11 September 2019: Financial support for family and friends carers (kinship carers)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 2967, 11 September 2019: Financial support for family and friends carers (kinship carers)

A person receiving a fostering allowance is not eligible for Child Benefit or Child Tax Credit for that child (see section 3 of this briefing paper). 1.4 Court orders Family and friends carers may apply to the courts for orders which provide legal recognition of a caring arrangement. Depending on the nature of the order, it may also confer parental responsibility for the child on the carer. A decision on whether to apply for a court order, providing legal recognition of a care placement, should be made after careful consideration, as a change in the legal nature of a placement can affect entitlement to financial support.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7946, 11 April 2017: Millennials

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7946, 11 April 2017: Millennials

What is more, the cost of defined benefit pensions currently in payment ultimately falls to younger workers, as firms spend money keeping schemes solvent: At the same time, the cost of servicing rapidly increasing DB scheme deficits—exacerbated by low investment returns—is placing an ever greater burden on UK firms. The Office for National Statistics estimates that in 2015 companies made special deficit repair contributions to DB schemes of £11 billion in addition to ordinary employer contributions of £20 billion. This may constrain their ability to increase employment or engage in productive investment. Today’s younger workers are therefore faced with supporting the inadequately-funded DB schemes of their older colleagues and retired predecessors, while being denied the opportunity to accrue pension entitlements on the same basis. Paul Johnson, Director of the IFS, told us that this was tantamount to a “very clear redistribution” between
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

Pre-2015 reforms The Government made estimates of the percentage RAB rate on new loans from 2012 when it published proposals for changes to funding. These are discussed in some detail in Changes to higher education funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment threshold uprating, lower assumed repayments from the extra students who start higher education because the numbers cap is lifted 30 and improvements to the Governments loan repayment model which is used to forecast repayments and hence calculate the resource costs of
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