Top PDF House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

This paper retains the distinction between the terms for two reasons. First the education and training series only goes back to the late 1980s, while the education series goes back much further, even with some breaks in the series the concept remains the same. Second the education and training series is more consistent over the period it is available for. The spending data are regularly revised. These revisions can change the total figure, or move items of expenditure from one sub-function to another. The detailed breakdown by sub-function is only revised back five years. This presents a problem with consistency when trying to compile long-term series based on sub-functions and the authors warn against simply splicing one set of data with another pre and post-revision. The education and training series in this paper is therefore consistent for its entire length, other than the break in 2011-12 detailed below. The education series is not and although revisions are generally quite small, readers should be careful when drawing conclusions from this data, especially those based on small differences.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number CBP 7976, 12 March 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number CBP 7976, 12 March 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

As set out in a previous statement dated June 2016, EU nationals or their family members, currently in higher or further education, and who are eligible to receive loans and/or grants from SFE will continue to remain eligible for these loans and grants until they finish their course. This applies to all student finance provided to eligible EU students by SFE. This includes loans to cover tuition fees (for those resident in the EEA for at least three years), loans and grants for maintenance (for those resident in the UK for at least three years if they started a course before 1st August 2016, and at least five years if they started or will start a course after 1st August 2016, or who are EEA migrant workers), and some other grants and allowances. These students are also entitled to home fee status. This also applies to students who have not yet started their course, but who will do so before the end of the 16/17 Academic Year.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 08444, 11 April 2019 : Off-rolling in English schools

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 08444, 11 April 2019 : Off-rolling in English schools

29. Pupils count towards the Progress 8 scores of schools if they are registered on the school’s census in the January in which they are in Year 11. While Progress 8 tracks the academic ‘distance’ travelled by a student and takes into account prior attainment, pupils who fall behind in secondary school, for example for medical reasons or because a pupil’s additional needs which were met in their smaller primary school but then become unmet in larger secondary settings, can negatively affect a school’s results. Off-rolling— the process by which pupils are removed from the school’s register by moving them to alternative provision, to home education or other schools—was raised by many witnesses, and we were told that the accountability system and Progress 8 was a major factor. […]
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

Nick Gibb: The Department for Education is currently in discussion with awarding organisations, Ofqual and others, including foreign embassies, to consider how best to maintain as wide a range of languages as possible at GCSE and A level. We are continuing to develop proposals to achieve this and will hold a more formal, public consultation in due course. I announced on 22 July 2015 that to avoid any gap in provision in certain languages we will, where necessary, extend the timetable for awarding organisations to continue with existing qualifications until September 2018. 46
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8655, 12 September 2019: Funding for healthcare students in England

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8655, 12 September 2019: Funding for healthcare students in England

Students following a different training route may be eligible to receive funding through the Local Education and Training Boards (LETBS which is former Strategic Health Authority) or Local Ambulance Service Trusts. Students funded through this route may in some cases also be eligible for SFE funded student support, this is explained in an SFE document NHS Guidance Higher Education Student Finance in England 2019/20 Version 2.0 August 2019 :

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 2967, 11 September 2019: Financial support for family and friends carers (kinship carers)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 2967, 11 September 2019: Financial support for family and friends carers (kinship carers)

There are a number of different types of arrangement for family and friends care, including: private arrangements (both statutory and non-statutory), family and friends local authority foster care, child arrangement orders and special guardianship orders. Financial help may be available for family and friends carers from local authorities and/or the social security/tax credits systems. Eligibility for assistance may depend upon the legal basis of the care arrangement and financial assistance may be means-tested.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8526, 11 April 2019 : Update on vice-chancellors pay in higher education institutions in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8526, 11 April 2019 : Update on vice-chancellors pay in higher education institutions in England

I welcome the recent publication of senior staff remuneration data and analysis. Transparency is key to ensuring justification and accountability. However, high pay must be justified by high performance, and expenses and severance payments should, in all cases, be reasonable and justifiable. Where issues with senior staff pay lead to concerns over governance, the OfS should consider carrying out independent reviews of the adequacy and effectiveness of management and governance at providers and to require improvements, where necessary, to ensure that these arrangements are fit for purpose. 11
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

‘protected characteristics’ such as age, sex, disability and ethnicity. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015 made some headline announcements about funding paid through the funding council, the extension of maintenance loans to part-time students and new loans for Master’s degrees. It also announced that the discount rate applied to loans would be reduced to 0.7% and set the spending totals for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills which will eventually feedthrough to annual funding allocations for higher education.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

Home students make up the large majority of part-timers and as such their numbers have fallen since the end of the last decade (see opposite). Overseas student numbers increased to 2010/11and dipped in 2012/13. There was some recovery up to 2016/17 before a larger increase in 2017/18 taking entrants to a new record level. The table below/opposite gives the latest data on where these students come from. China clearly dominates with almost as many students in the UK as the rest of the top ten combined. Some of the key recent trends were:

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

For most of the last two decades both Oxford and Cambridge have taken more than half of their entrants from state schools. The latest rates are 56% for Oxford and 60% for Cambridge, or somewhat higher if overseas students at UK schools are excluded. These rates have generally increased over the past few decades, but the historical data shows that progress has been slow. At the end of the 1930s 24% of entrants to Oxford and 19% to Cambridge started their education at a state school. By the early 19050s these rates had increased to 43% and 34% respectively. In the early 1960s 34% of students at Oxford and 27% at Cambridge came from state secondary schools
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number SN04223, 21 December 2018: Research & Development spending

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number SN04223, 21 December 2018: Research & Development spending

These two ways of measuring R&D spending are different ways of analysing the same overall total for R&D, known as Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD). GERD is the preferred way of measuring R&D spending in the UK, and for comparing R&D spending in different countries. R&D is performed and funded by the following sectors: business, higher education, government (including the research councils in the UK) and private non-profit. Some funding for R&D in the UK also comes from overseas sources.

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07375, 18 September 2019: School buildings and capital funding (England)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07375, 18 September 2019: School buildings and capital funding (England)

Local authorities have a duty to ensure that there are sufficient school places in their area, and parents can make representations about the supply of school places. Local authorities must respond to such representations under Section 14A of the Education Act 1996 , which was inserted by Section 3 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 . Nick Gibb, the Schools Minister, set out local authority responsibilities in response to a Parliamentary Question in 2011:

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

funding for research via the funding council in England remained broadly flat in cash terms up to 2015-16 and is expected to be increased in line with inflation up to 2019-20. Total capital funding was cut by 44% in 2011-12 and further (‘indicative’) cuts would have taken the overall reduction by 2013-14 to 70% compared to 2010-11 levels. Additional capital funding was provided for 2012-13 to 2015-16 which meant that the cash value increased to 2015-16 when it was above the 2010-11 level in real terms. Capital funding was cut by more than 40% (£250 million) up to 2017-18. 13
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

‘protected characteristics’ such as age, sex, disability and ethnicity. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015 made some headline announcements about funding paid through the funding council, the extension of maintenance loans to part-time students and new loans for Master’s degrees. It also announced that the discount rate applied to loans would be reduced to 0.7% and set the spending totals for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills which will eventually feedthrough to annual funding allocations for higher education.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8389, 19 September 2018: Returns to a degree

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8389, 19 September 2018: Returns to a degree

There is a similar pattern of employment by level of education across the OECD. In 2016 83% of graduates aged 25-34 were in employment compared to 71% of those with ‘upper secondary’ qualifications and 59% of those with qualifications below upper secondary level. These gaps have remained broadly the same since the start of this century. All groups saw a small reduction in employment rates, but the greatest fall was among those with the lowest qualifications. The OECD shows the UK had slightly smaller employment rate differences by education level than the OECD average. The gaps in the US, France and Germany were all above average.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

For most of the last two decades both Oxford and Cambridge have taken more than half of their entrants from state schools. The latest rates are 59% for Oxford and 61% for Cambridge, or somewhat higher if overseas students at UK schools are excluded. These rates have generally increased over the past few decades, but the historical data shows that progress has been slow. At the end of the 1930s 24% of entrants to Oxford and 19% to Cambridge started their education at a state school. By the early 1950s these rates had increased to 43% and 34% respectively. In the early 1960s 34% of students at Oxford and 27% at Cambridge came from state secondary schools
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number CBP 7976, 26 September 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number CBP 7976, 26 September 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

In the event that the UK leaves the EU without a deal, the government’s underwrite guarantee will cover the payment of awards to UK applicants for all successful Erasmus+ and ESC bids. Successful bids are those that are approved directly by the European Commission or by the National Agency and ratified by the European Commission. This includes projects and participants that are only informed of their success, or who sign a grant agreement, after the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, and commits to underwrite funding for the entire lifetime of the projects. The government will need to reach agreement with the EU for UK organisations to continue participating in Erasmus+ and ESC projects and is seeking to hold these discussions with the EU. If discussions with the Commission to secure UK organisations’ continued ability to participate in the programme are
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 06103, 11 July 2019 : Relationships and Sex Education in Schools
(England)

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 06103, 11 July 2019 : Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

relationship with others. We believe that parents should retain the right to withdraw children aged 15 or under because they know their children best, but equally we know that the vast majority of parents would like their children to have access to sex and relationship education. For children whose parents do not talk to them about these issues, this could be critical in keeping them safe, especially given that a third of girls say that they have experienced unwanted touching. We are keen for the Government to support our proposed new clause 20. 27

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 06103, 11 February 2019: Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 06103, 11 February 2019: Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

The report’s recommendation that PSHE be made part of the curriculum was part of the Children, Schools and Families Bill, Session 2009-10. The Library research paper 09/95 on the Bill sets out the proposals of the then Labour Government. The PSHE provisions and sex education generally were discussed during the Public Bill Committee – pp 13 and 14 of the Library research paper 10/12 give an account of the debates. However, many of the key provisions of the Bill were removed during the consideration of Lords Amendments on 8 April 2010 immediately before the dissolution of Parliament for the general election. The provisions removed included the introduction of compulsory PSHE, and the provision that all children receive at least one year of sex and relationship education. Incidentally, the provisions in the Bill that did survive are now contained in the Children, Schools and Families Act 2010 .
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

smoking cessation, drug and alcohol services, and sexual health. In 2015 it also took responsibility for early years support for children such as school nursing and health visitors. These services are funded by central government from the public health grant, and funding and availability of these services over the next five years will be decided in the next Spending Review. Chapter 2 of the NHS Long Term Plan (January 2019) noted that the Government and the NHS will consider whether there is a stronger role for the NHS in commissioning health visitor services and other public health services. On 6 June 2019 the Department of Health and Social Care announced that a Government review had confirmed local authorities will continue to commission public health services, and that the forthcoming prevention Green Paper will consider closer working between local government and the NHS. 40
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