Local authorities have no statutory duties in relation to monitoring the quality of homeeducation on a routine basis. However, they do have duties to make arrangements to identify children not receiving a suitable education, and to intervene if it appears that they are not. Intervention could, for example, take the form of issuing a school attendance order, although Government guidance on homeeducation encourages authorities to address the issue informally before serving such a notice. As part of their safeguarding duties local authorities have powers to insist on seeing a child to enquire about their welfare where there are grounds for concern, but this does not extend to seeing and questioning children for the purpose of establishing whether they are receiving a suitable education.
Education Act 1996 they do have a duty to make arrangements to identify children in their area who are not receiving a suitable education. 21
The DfE’s guidance for local authorities explains that, while the law does not assume that a child is not being suitably educated if they are not attending school full-time, it does require local authorities to enquire what education is being provided. 22 There are no detailed requirements as to how a system of oversight should work, and it is for each local authority to decide its approach. However, the guidance emphasises that a proportional approach needs to be taken and local authorities should not exert more oversight than is actually needed when parents are providing a suitable education. It recommends that an authority should ordinarily make contact with home educating parents on at least an annual basis so that it can reasonably inform itself of the suitability of the education provided. 23
As regards children with statements of SEN which name schools as the appropriate placement for a child but parents decide to educate such a child at home, it remains the local authority’s duty to ensure that the child’s needs are met through the provision made by the parents. The local authority can support parents financially in these circumstances under section 319 or section 19 of the Education Act 1996 (this would fall under either paragraph 18 or paragraph 20 of Schedule 2 to the School and Early Years Finance (England) Regulations 2012). In deciding how much support is needed, the local authority should be aware that, unlike schools, parents do not receive base funding from the public purse in support of SEN, and should not therefore be expected to pay £10,000 before they receive any support.
The findings of this study have also highlighted challenges for the future of PE and sport in primary schools. To sustain the impact of the premium, schools have used it to invest in training for existing staff. However, a question remains over how to maintain this investment in CPD for new teachers entering the profession, once premium funding ends. Schools also raised issues related to sourcing good quality provision in their local area, and may need further support to robustly assess the quality of the provision available. The survey also found that monitoring and evaluation of the premium was not consistent and schools may require further advice and guidance to support them to first assess impacts and then put in place strategies for continuing quality improvement. 23
programmes and judged that much of the content was in fact not new. 21
Other commentators welcomed the changes. An article in The Times of 13 June 2012 argued that Gove had been ‘unfairly derided’ for the new primary school curriculum, which in fact should be praised for its level of ambition. 22 Similarly, in an article for the Financial Times, commentator Stephen Robinson hailed the reforms for putting “proper content ...back into the curriculum”. 23
first six opportunity areas (Blackpool, Derby, Norwich, Oldham, Scarborough, and West Somerset). 23
Under the Leadership Development Programme, trainees receive five weeks of training at a summer institute before teaching in a school in a low-income community for two years, first as an unqualified teacher and then as a NQT during the second year. Trainees are paid a full-time salary and gain a Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE). They are also given the opportunity to work towards a Masters qualification after they have achieved QTS and the PGDE.
languages also fell despite the increase in exam entries.
The rates of language teachers without a ‘relevant’ post-A Level qualification in their subject, are higher than the secondary teachers in state schools average (around 34% compared to an average of around 25%). However, this average masks varying rates within the different languages. 23% of French teachers did not have a relevant post-A level qualification in the subject compared to 28% of German, 48% of Spanish, and 53% of other modern language teachers. These high rates are in very large part due to teachers who are native speakers in their subjects but do not hold a formal ‘relevant’ qualification in it.
2015-16, with the addition of funding for 24+ Advanced Learner Loans and the Employer Ownership pilots from 2013-14 onwards. 14
Box 3: Advanced Learner Loans
From 2013-14, grant funding for leaners aged 24 and over studying at levels 3 and 4 (e.g. A-levels) was removed and replaced with Advanced Learner Loans. Initially, loans also replaced grants for apprentices aged 24 and over studying at level 3 and above. However, loans for apprentices were dropped from February 2014 onwards, in part due to low take-up, and higher level apprenticeships were instead made eligible for grant funding from the ASB. 15 Following an announcement at the Spending Review 2015 Advanced Learner Loans were additionally made available for 19-23 year olds studying at levels 3 and 4, and to learners aged 19 and over studying at levels 5 and 6. 16 The availability of loans does not replace the entitlement to full grant funding for learners aged 19-23 undertaking their first level 3 qualification. 17
£1.82 billion in 2015-16 – a reduction of 26% in cash terms and 31%
in real terms. 23
The other major components of the adult FE teaching and learning budget saw little change in cash terms over the period. Funding for community learning was held at £211 million per year until 2014-15, before increasing slightly to £216 million in 2015-16 in order to provide an additional £5 million for pilot courses to help adults recover from mild to moderate mental illness. 24 Funding for the Offender Learning and Skills Service decreased slightly from the 2010-11 baseline of
Department for Education advice on the Registration of independent schools provides more information. In particular, on the registration process, it states:
The Secretary of State must decide whether the independent school standards are likely to be met before a school can be registered. Once an application for registration has been received, the Secretary of State must notify Ofsted of it and Ofsted must then inspect the institution and make a report to the Secretary of State on the extent to which the school is likely to meet the independent school standards upon registration. […] The Secretary of State will consider the report from Ofsted and any other evidence relating to the independent school standards which is available in coming to a decision. If the Secretary of State decides that the standards are likely to be met once the institution becomes registered as an independent school then it must be registered as such. 2
achieved solely by increasing the PAN in line with the School Admissions Code. 14
In the case of community, foundation and voluntary schools, local authorities can also propose that a school’s premises be enlarged by following a streamlined statutory process set out in regulations. 15 Academies wishing to enlarge their premises need to seek approval from the Secretary of State, through the Education Funding Agency (EFA). They are not required to submit a formal business case to the EFA unless the expansion is very large scale or increases pupil numbers to 2,000 or more. Further information is contained in advice published by the Department for Education in March 2016, Making significant changes to an open academy. 16
Neither of the first two falls changed the overall upward trends, they were dips linked to changes in fees. Applicant numbers recovered more quickly after the introduction of variable fees in 2006.
These figures provide no evidence that variable fees caused a major ongoing decline or downward shift in overall numbers of applicants or entrants to higher education in England. Similarly there is no evidence that those from ‘lower’ socio-economic groups or (deprived) areas with historically low levels of participation have been adversely affected by tuition fees. The proportion of students from these groups has increased over this period. A report from the funding council concluded that there have been substantial and sustained increases in participation among
8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural]
standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.
The Controlling Migration Fund includes a local services fund worth
£100 million (£25 million in each of the four years from 2016-17 to 2019-20), which councils in England can bid for funding from.
The prospectus explaining how local authorities can access the fund makes clear that proposals for funding should demonstrate how they will benefit the resident community in the first instance. It also notes, however, that “legitimate migrants may be the focus of some projects, for example English language support.” 35 In response to a parliamentary question, the Minister, Robert Goodwill, additionally stated that local authorities had been encouraged to consider whether the fund could be used to “help with any short-term pressures as a result of recent arrivals of unaccompanied asylum seeking children.” 36
1.101 From 2018-19, loans of up to £25,000 will be available to any English student without a Research Council living allowance who can win a place for doctoral study at a UK university. They will be added to any outstanding master’s loan and repaid on the same terms, but with the intention of setting a repayment rate of 9% for doctoral loans and a combined 9% repayment rate if people take out a doctoral and master’s loan. The government will launch a technical consultation on the detail. Those who take out only a master’s loan will still repay at 6%, as announced at Autumn Statement 2015. 40
classrooms, including whether the money could be more effectively spent in other ways, such as on retention measures.” 45 This call for more evidence on the effectiveness of bursaries was echoed by the Institute for Fiscal Studies in its 2016 report on the costs and benefits of ITT routes. 46
More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 47
3.7 Returners Engagement Programme Pilot
In November 2016, the NCTL launched a second pilot scheme to recruit returning teachers. Under the pilot, a package of support, including a bursary of £600 and a 2-4 week training course, was provided to returning teachers in maths, physics, and languages. Schools Direct lead schools, multi-academy trusts, and higher education institutions, among others, in the north-west and south-east were invited to become lead schools for the pilot. Lead schools were to be provided with grant funding and were responsible for coordinating the programme of support. They will receive a further payment upon employment of the returning teacher. The application round for the second cohort of the pilot closed on 20 February 2017.
A further teacher supply analysis, intended to build on some of the areas covered previously, was published in February 2018.
The first two sections of the report looked at post-ITT employment rates and the mobility of NQTs. The analysis found that post-ITT employment rates rose in the six years up to 2014-15, at which point 85% of trainees achieving QTS secured a teaching role within a state-funded school. Employment rates amongst graduates of school-led training routes were typically 5 percentage points higher than those on HEI- based routes. There were also significant variations by secondary subject. Regarding the mobility of NQTs, the analysis found that NQTs do not tend to move far to take up their first post, with around half taking up a post within 25km of their ITT provider.
There are also a number of specialist competitive scholarships available to recruits in certain shortage subjects. Scholarships are jointly awarded by the Government and professional bodies, and selection is through an additional application and assessment process. Each scholarship also comes with a package of non-financial benefits, such as early career support and membership of the appropriate professional body. 48 A table on the Get Into Teaching Website provides an overview of bursary and scholarship levels for the 2018-19 academic year. The level of bursary ranges from £26,000 for physics trainees with a 2:2 class degree or higher, to £4,000 for history trainees with a 2:1 or Master’s degree. Scholarships of £28,000 are also available in physics, chemistry, languages, computing, and geography. Scholarships of £22,000 are available in maths, in addition to the early career payments. 49
2.5 The government wants to ensure that families get the best value for school uniforms. A 2015 Department for Education survey found that nearly one-fifth of parents and carers reported that they had suffered financial hardship as a result of purchasing their child’s school uniform. The survey found that parents and carers are significantly less likely to report that they have experienced hardship if schools allow them to purchase uniforms from a variety of suppliers. The government wants to ensure that effective competition is used to drive better value for money and will therefore put existing best practice guidance for school uniform supply in England on a statutory footing. This will ensure that schools deliver the best value for parents by avoiding exclusivity arrangements unless regular competitions for suppliers are run. (pg 11)