Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

In the most ambitious study of its kind yet attempted, we will aim to understand inequality not just of income, but of health, wealth, political participation, and opportunity; and not just between rich and poor but by gender, ethnicity, geography, age and education. We will cover the full breadth of the population – not just what is happening at the very top and very bottom. We will examine what concerns people about inequality, what aspects of it are perceived to be fair and unfair, and how those concerns relate to the actual levels of inequality and the processes by which they are created. We will examine the big forces that drive inequalities – from technological change, globalisation, labour markets and corporate behaviour to family structures and education systems. Crucially, we will examine the role of policies, from taxes and benefits through to trade policy, education policies, the labour market, regional development, competition policy and regulation. This will give the UK government, and those in other developed countries, a far clearer and more holistic view of the effectiveness of available policy options, how they can best work alongside each other and the trade-offs between them.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

The Secretary of State writes to the funding councils around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent funding letters for the Office for Students and Research England were published in February and March 2018 respectively. Funding for teaching 2018-19, research was for 2018-19 and indicative totals for 2019-20. Earlier funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises this
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7708, 20 March 2019 : Adult further education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7708, 20 March 2019 : Adult further education funding in England since 2010

Teaching and learning funding The funding letter set out a 2015-16 baseline for the AEB of £1.49 billion and stated that this will be maintained in cash terms in 2016-17. The indicative AEB for 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20 will be held constant at £1.5 billion. Funding for apprenticeships is initially planned to increase from a 2015-16 baseline of £0.74 billion to £0.93 billion in 2016-17, before increasing further to £1.42 billion by 2019-20. It should be noted that from 2017-18 onwards apprenticeship funding has, in part, been provided via the apprenticeship levy, a charge set at 0.5% of any UK employer’s pay bill in excess of
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

Previously, the proportion of people in relative low income fell between 2009/10 and 2010/11, both on a BHC and AHC basis. This was because there was a larger decrease in real incomes for households at the middle of the income distribution than for households at the bottom, and the relative low income threshold moves in line with median income. This decrease in median income between 2009/10 and 2010/11 reflected a decrease in real median earnings. Benefit and tax credit income, on the other hand, fell only slightly in real terms meaning that poor households in receipt of benefits and tax credits saw a smaller fall in their real incomes than was the case for middle-income households. One group which did not experience a reduction in relative low income following the 2008 economic downturn was working-age adults without children. However, this group is less likely to be in receipt of benefits than pensioners or families with children. 5
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049, 29 January 2019: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049, 29 January 2019: Postgraduate loans in England

One assumption to which our findings are sensitive is that of repayment compliance. In 2012/13, 13.5% of new postgraduate students in the UK were EU domiciled. If the same proportion of EU students took out loans, but the government were unable to collect any repayments from these students, we estimate that the RAB charge would increase to 12.6%. This is another important consideration for the policy consultation.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

In the UK prospective students apply for university places through the UCAS administrative system. Students applying for university places through UCAS must submit various types of information including the grades that their school predicts they will achieve in their exams. Universities assess the information provided by candidates and offer students places based on a holistic assessment of all the data provided. Various aspects of the university admission system such as the use of predicted grades have been questioned for a number of years and reforms to the system, such as moving to a post qualification application (PQA) scheme, have been suggested.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

contingent loans means that graduates with low income in any one year are ‘protected’ from high repayments because they only repay 9% of their income over £15,000 per year. These are normally graduates at the start of their career. Where graduates have a low income for their entire career –either through low annual earnings or periods out of the labour market- they make little or no repayments. Their ‘protection’ comes from the 25 year write off. If they make any repayments they are small and unlikely to cover more than interest payments, so it does not matter what the interest rate is. It is their income that determines repayments, not the interest rate. The interest rate is completely irrelevant for the lowest paid graduates. It could be set at commercial levels, zero, or even a negative rate. It would have no impact on the amount they repay. The interest rate affects the duration of repayments for those who do repay. If it were higher then it would take longer to repay and total
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

Outcomes in a child’s later life are affected by a huge range of factors, and therefore the inclusion of a randomised control trial (RCT) in an evaluation can be important in determining whether the outcomes can be attributed to the programme, or whether they would have occurred anyway. However there can be difficulties in carrying out successful RCTs (such as differing drop-out rates for control groups and non- control groups). The process of attributing outcomes to a specific programme can be further complicated by the fact that programmes will generate different outcomes in different contexts. ‘What works’ can be a more complicated issue than simply whether something is or is not effective. For example, the longitudinal analysis of Head Start in the USA, a programme to boost the school readiness of low-income children, posed a broader version of the question of ‘what works’:
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) publishes data on the participation of under-represented groups. The latest results for Oxford and Cambridge are shown in the following table. To help comparison between institutions benchmark figures have been calculated. These estimate the score that the whole UK sector would have achieved if it had the same subject and entry qualification profile as the institution. These are further adjusted for the location of the institution. Results that are significantly different from the benchmark are marked (*) in the table.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) publishes data on the participation of under-represented groups. The latest results for Oxford and Cambridge are shown in the following table. To help comparison between institutions benchmark figures have been calculated. These estimate the score that the whole UK sector would have achieved if it had the same subject and entry qualification profile as the institution. These are further adjusted for the location of the institution. Results that are significantly different from the benchmark are marked (*) in the table.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8577: 30 May 2019: The Post-18 Education Review (the Augar Review)
recommendations

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8577: 30 May 2019: The Post-18 Education Review (the Augar Review) recommendations

The report recommends among other things: bringing back maintenance grants of at least £3,000 for disadvantaged students, making the parental contribution clear and introducing support for level 4-6 qualifications. It said the actual level of the grant “…would be for government to determine in the context of public spending.” It did not recommend specific household income levels that would qualify for a full grant. The maximum level of maintenance support (loan plus and grant and parental contributions) should be set in line with the National Minimum Wage for 21-24 year olds which is slightly lower than the current maximum.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

funding for research via the funding council in England remained broadly flat in cash terms up to 2015-16 and is expected to be increased in line with inflation up to 2019-20. Total capital funding was cut by 44% in 2011-12 and further (‘indicative’) cuts would have taken the overall reduction by 2013-14 to 70% compared to 2010-11 levels. Additional capital funding was provided for 2012-13 to 2015-16 which meant that the cash value increased to 2015-16 when it was above the 2010-11 level in real terms. Capital funding was cut by more than 40% (£250 million) up to 2017-18. 13
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

• Institutions with a greater share of income from fees and contracts were generally ‘new’ universities with lower research income along with some which have a large number of non-EU students. All were English institutions. They include South Bank, Bedfordshire, Birmingham City, Sunderland, Bath Spa, West London, Liverpool John Moores and De Montford, all of which received more than 70% of their total income from such fees in 2013/14.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8076, 3 April 2019: Children: surrogacy, single people and parental orders (UK)

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8076, 3 April 2019: Children: surrogacy, single people and parental orders (UK)

In regard to the JCHR’s concerns about the urgency of remedying declarations of incompatibility, the DHSC noted that under section 4 of the Human Rights Act 1998, “a declaration of incompatibility (DoI) does not affect the validity, continuing operation or enforcement of the provision in respect of which it is given”, and that “there is no legal obligation on the Government to take remedial action following a declaration of incompatibility or on Parliament to accept any remedial measures the Government may propose”. But it added:

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

The chart shows that the largest annual increases occurred in the 2000s. The fastest rate of increase was in the 1950s and early 60s; spending doubled in real terms in the 11 years between 1952/53 and 1963/64. The real increase in the 11 years to 2009-10 was just over two-thirds. The next chart gives spending as a proportion of GDP. This produces a slightly more erratic trend, although again the main period of increase was in the two decades from the mid-1950s. The increases since the late 1990s were much smaller in comparison and did not take spending to a greater share of national income than the 1975-76 peak of 5.8%. The fall from this peak to 4.5% in 1979-80 was the fastest rate of change in the whole period
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

there was a larger decrease in real incomes for households at the middle of the income distribution than for households at the bottom, and the relative low income threshold moves in line with median income. This decrease in median income between 2009/10 and 2010/11 reflected a decrease in real median earnings. Benefit and tax credit income, on the other hand, fell only slightly in real terms meaning that poor households in receipt of benefits and tax credits saw a smaller fall in their real incomes than was the case for middle-income households. One group which did not experience a reduction in relative low income following the 2008 economic downturn was working-age adults without children. However, this group is less likely to be in receipt of benefits than pensioners or families with children. 6
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

The proportion of people in absolute low income is expected to remain broadly flat between 2015/16 and 2021/22, but again falling levels of absolute low income for pensioners and working-age adults without children contrast with a worsening picture for families with children. The IFS analysis concentrates on changes in poverty based on incomes after housing costs (AHC), suggesting this is more informative than looking at incomes before housing costs (BHC) as discussed on pages 26-7 of their report. However, the projections for relative and absolute low income for different groups are broadly similar whether we look at incomes BHC or incomes AHC.
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House of Commons: Briefing Paper: Income inequality in the UK: Number 7484: 24 November 2016

House of Commons: Briefing Paper: Income inequality in the UK: Number 7484: 24 November 2016

However, since the IFS prepared its projections, the Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR) and other forecasters have revised down their forecasts for average earnings growth between 2015/16 and 2020/21. This could mean that earnings growth has less impact on inequality over the period than indicated by the projections. Of course, other factors could also mean income inequality evolves differently to the projected path, for example if there are further changes to taxes and benefits or changes in the composition and level of employment.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

designated as particularly vulnerable. Male Irish travellers in Ireland have a suicide rate 6.6 times higher than the general population; Gypsy Travellers in the Thames Valley have a 100-fold excess risk of measles arising from low immunisation. The report of the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the UK, 1997-99, found that Travellers have ‘possibly the highest maternal death rate among all ethnic groups’. These population health findings based on robust data are stark and require urgent public health focus, including targeted suicide prevention services, a robust system of reporting of infectious diseases in the Gypsy/Traveller population and of levels of immunisation (both currently absent), and a robust system for monitoring maternal mortality (also absent) . 157
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

designated as particularly vulnerable. Male Irish travellers in Ireland have a suicide rate 6.6 times higher than the general population; Gypsy Travellers in the Thames Valley have a 100-fold excess risk of measles arising from low immunisation. The report of the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the UK, 1997-99, found that Travellers have ‘possibly the highest maternal death rate among all ethnic groups’. These population health findings based on robust data are stark and require urgent public health focus, including targeted suicide prevention services, a robust system of reporting of infectious diseases in the Gypsy/Traveller population and of levels of immunisation (both currently absent), and a robust system for monitoring maternal mortality (also absent) . 157
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