Terms of reference
The terms of reference for the Review stated that it aimed to ensure joined up system that delivers the technical skills needed by the economy:
This review will look further at how we can ensure our post-18 education system is joined up and supported by a funding system that works for students and taxpayers. For example, in recent years the system has encouraged growth in three-year degrees for 18 year- olds, but does not offer a comprehensive range of high quality alternative routes for the many young people who pursue a technical or vocational path at this age. The majority of universities charge the maximum possible fees for at least some of their courses and three- year courses remain the norm. Average levels of graduate debt have increased, but this has not always led to higher wage returns for all graduates. And the system does not comprehensively deliver the advanced technical skills that our economy needs. 64
part of the divergent entry rates across schools. Some schools with very similar results had very different entry rates. The top 30 performing state grammar schools had similar A- level scores to the top 30 independent schools and, based on results alone, expected Oxbridge hit rates would be higher in independent schools by less than half of one percentage point. The actual rate for these independent schools was 13.2% in 2006, well above the 7.5% for the top 30 grammars. Different indicators of A level performance might produce somewhat different outcomes, but the report noted a slightly larger gap when hit rates were compared to average A level points per exam entry. 28
The majority of public funding for non-apprenticeship adult (19+) further education in England is provided by the Education and Skills Funding Agency (ESFA) through its Adult Education Budget (AEB). In particular, the AEB supports the statutory entitlements to full funding for certain adult learners. These entitlements, set out in the Apprenticeships, Skills and Children’s Learning Act 2009 (as amended by the Education Act 2011), enable eligible learners to be fully funded for the following qualifications: • English and maths, up to and including level 2 (see box below), for
The size of the gap between FSM and non-FSM students has fallen in relative but not absolute terms over the past decade. The relative gap itself increased slightly in 2016 and 2017. It fell slightly in 2018, but is still higher than in 2015. The entry rate gap between students from the areas with the highest and lowest levels of historical participation (POLAR groups 5 and 1) has fallen in both relative and absolute terms over time. This was also the case for the most advantaged and
funding for research via the funding council in England remained broadly flat in cash terms up to 2015-16 and is expected to be increased in line with inflation up to 2019-20. Total capital funding was cut by 44% in 2011-12 and further (‘indicative’) cuts would have taken the overall reduction by 2013-14 to 70% compared to 2010-11 levels. Additional capital funding was provided for 2012-13 to 2015-16 which meant that the cash value increased to 2015-16 when it was above the 2010-11 level in real terms. Capital funding was cut by more than 40% (£250 million) up to 2017-18. 13
In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2017; 60.5% at Cambridge and 56.1% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages between 2010 and 2012 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2017. 23
On 4 May 2018, the DfE published a short policy paper, Principles for a clear and simple accountability framework. This acknowledged that currently, schools may feel accountable to many different bodies, including Ofsted, Regional Schools Commissioners, local authorities and multi-academy trusts. It also acknowledged that it was sometimes unclear to schools what would happen to them based on Ofsted’s findings and/ or performance data.
As a result of the Education and Adoption Act 2016, regardless of the terms in an academy’s funding agreement, the RSC (on behalf of the Secretary of State) can terminate the funding agreement of an academy that has been judged inadequate. This is a power rather than a duty, meaning the RSC may decide to implement other measures to improve the school rather than terminate to bring about a change of trust, for example, where a change of academy trust would prevent the consolidation of improvements in a school […]
The Healthy Child Programme was introduced in 2009 and thus may not reflect the most up-to-date developments in evidence, commissioning and integrated delivery, national policy priorities or expectations from the public on accessing information through digital channels. We are therefore working with Public Health England (PHE) on modernisation for the Programme, with an initial focus on the first 1,000 days and early years, to improve a range of childhood outcomes including early development and school readiness. There is also an ambition to ensure a stronger link with pregnancy and preconceptual care, while the refresh of the Healthy Child Programme also provides an opportunity to link with the refresh of the health visitor and school nurse service model (4-5-6) which PHE are undertaking. 47
In setting out the need for reform, the independent panel’s report stated that the UK’s economy was being held back by a “long-term productivity problem” and that years of undertraining had led to “a chronic shortage of people with technician-level skills.” Investment in the development of technical skills was, the report argued, essential to enhancing productivity. In addition to this economic rationale, the report outlined a social need for change: that individuals should have access to a national system of
Official statistics on household incomes are primarily collected through two large household surveys: the Family Resources Survey and the Living Costs and Food Survey. This note uses data from both surveys, although Family Resources Survey data may generally be considered superior. The two surveys use slightly different definitions of income so results are not directly comparable. The Family Resources Survey also has a larger survey sample of over 19,000 households which allows it a greater level of precision. The Living Costs and Food Survey collects information from around 5,500 households.
In 2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12 the maximum maintenance loan for a student living away from home outside London was £4,950 (assuming they were not eligible for any maintenance grant). With a maximum tuition fee loan this gave a theoretical maximum in 2011/12 of £8,325, or £10,303 in London. In practice the actual maximum that most students could take out was less as around one quarter of the maintenance loan is income assessed and those in receipt of the Maintenance Grant will have their loan eligibility reduced by between £1,300 and £1,450 depending on the year they started. This maximum was increased to £5,500 for new students in 2012/13, kept at this level in 2013/14 and increased over the following two years to £5,740 in 2014/15.
The funding allocations for Advanced Learner Loans detailed in sections 3 and 5.2 of this briefing refer to the maximum budget available to be paid out in loans during the year. This is not the same as the money subsequently paid out to students. Statistics from the Student Loans Company suggest that the amount paid out in Advanced Learner Loans was less than the maximum budget allocation in all four years where figures for the full year are available:
21. A school can teach that its particular faith has teachings relevant to these matters, and explain to pupils what those teachings are. However, this does not mean that a curriculum, including that for religious education, can be planned or teaching provided which advocates or otherwise encourages pupils not to respect other people on the basis of a protected characteristic. In that case the standard will not be met and there may also, depending on the exact facts, be a breach of other standards, for example, paragraph 3(i) or 5(b)(vi). 53
Speaking at an education conference in London, Mr Gove said: "It is already the case that some of the best schools in the country recognise the need to change the structure of the school term. "It's also the case that some of the best schools in the country recognise that we need to have a longer school day as well." He argued that a longer school day would also be more family- friendly and "consistent with the pressures of a modern society". "I remember half term in October when I was at school in Aberdeen was called the tattie holiday, the period when kids would go to the fields to pick potatoes.
graduates rather than school or college students, and currently most opportunities are quite short in terms of duration, with the majority lasting less than two weeks. This is considerably shorter than the work placements required for the new T-Level routes, and it is clear from this data that most employers would not be able to offer a placement of the length needed to fulfil T-Level requirements, either at all, or without some type of financial incentive. 94
Spending has varied less when expressed as a proportion of GDP (below). It fell for much of the 1980s from 4.8% in 1980-81 to 3.8% in 1988-89. It increased to more than 4.4% again in the early 1990s due to increased spending and falling GDP. The lowest level since the late 1980s was in 1998-99 at 3.9% due to several years little or no real spending increases and a strong economy. The increases since then have been less dramatic than in absolute spending levels. Education spending exceeded 5.0% of GDP in 2008-09 and peaked at 5.5% in 2010-11. These particularly high figures reflect increases in spending during a recession and the accounting adjustments for student loans (2010-11) mentioned earlier.
Medicine & dentistry Veterinary sciences Engineering Economics Nursing Physics and astronomy Pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacy Architecture, building and planning Math. sciences Computing Subjects allied to medicine Chemistry Business and management Combined and general studies Politics Health and social care Geographical and environmental studies Languages, linguistics and classics Education and teaching Physical, material and forensic sciences Philosophy and religious studies Biosciences Technology History and archaeology Humanities and liberal arts Law Agriculture, food and related studies Psychology Sociology, social policy and anthropology English studies Communications and media Sport and exercise sciences Creative arts & design
‘protected characteristics’ such as age, sex, disability and ethnicity. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015 made some headline announcements about funding paid through the funding council, the extension of maintenance loans to part-time students and new loans for Master’s degrees. It also announced that the discount rate applied to loans would be reduced to 0.7% and set the spending totals for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills which will eventually feedthrough to annual funding allocations for higher education.
On 16 June 2015, the then Education Secretary Nicky Morgan made a speech outlining the Government’s plans; a compulsory EBacc would ensure pupils “study the core academic subjects at GCSE, the subjects that keep your options open, and allow you to enter the widest ranges of careers and university courses.” The Secretary of State set out the Government’s view that a compulsory EBacc would enhance the chances of disadvantaged pupils, highlighting that capable pupils are currently less likely to take history, geography, a language or triple science at GCSE than their peers if they are eligible for free school meals. 19