Top PDF House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2018; 61.3% at Cambridge and 58.9% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages in 2017 and 2018 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2018. 23
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8386, 17 April 2019: Cost of university courses in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8386, 17 April 2019: Cost of university courses in England

The level of tuition fees in England is the subject of much debate. In July 2017 the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) published a briefing Higher Education funding in England: past, present and options for the future, which stated that English graduates have the “highest student debts in the developed world” due to the combination of high fees and large maintenance loans. Much of the recent debate around the cost of higher education has been on whether students are receiving value for money and on whether the reforms have achieved a market in higher education.

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

Inspectors observed MFL, history and geography lessons at Key Stage 3 in 51 routine inspections carried out during June and July 2015. Inspectors reported significant weaknesses in all three subjects. Too often, inspectors found teaching that failed to challenge and engage pupils. Additionally, low-level disruption in some of these lessons, particularly in MFL, had a detrimental impact on the pupils’ learning. Achievement was not good enough in just under half of the MFL classes observed, two- fifths of the history classes and one third of the geography classes.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

Although at that point the Green Paper was due to be published before the end of July 2018 (since postponed further, see below), it would only have been a consultation paper – even if it had been published then, it would have been expected that several months would pass following publication to allow responses to be submitted, and then for the Government to consider them and devise its own response. Therefore, to bridge this gap, the Government also published in June 2018 the Carers Action Plan 2018–20 which “set out a cross-government programme of work to improve support for carers over the next two years”. 127
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 06103, 11 July 2019 : Relationships and Sex Education in Schools
(England)

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 06103, 11 July 2019 : Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

8.2 In relation to equality legislation, the proposals are that schools should encourage pupils to respect other people, even if they do not agree with them. This does not extend equality requirements or discriminate against Christianity or religious freedoms. The amended standard would not require a school to do anything that they are not currently required to do by the Equality Act 2010 (which applies to independent schools). 8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural] standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

“Whilst we are concerned that the increased use of unconditional offers can prevent students from making the right choices for them, it is important to remember that the solutions to this problem exist beyond the admissions process. In particular, universities need to ensure that disadvantaged students have access to suitable support once they start at university. “At a national policy level, we need a sustainable HE funding system which doesn’t require universities to compete and take drastic steps to recruit vast student numbers in order to stay afloat. We hope to see that these crucial changes are recommended through the upcoming Augar review.” 31
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049, 29 January 2019: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049, 29 January 2019: Postgraduate loans in England

An additional concern with the introduction of the government’s illustrative example is the high marginal tax rate that individuals would face under the new system. Since repayments on the postgraduate loan would be made “concurrently” with undergraduate repayments, individuals earning between the lower loan repayment threshold (of £21,000 in 2016 prices) and the higher income tax-rate threshold would face marginal tax and employee NICs rates of 50%, while those earning above the higher rate tax threshold would face marginal rates of 60%. This could potentially affect the labour supply decisions of young postgraduates and hence may have wider consequences for growth and productivity. 31
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

not be repaid as public spending as this is the true long term costs of loans. The section on the subsidy element has not yet been updated in light of the ONS announcement. It describes the previous accounting treatment of loans, but it, and the section on overall public spending, give the best current estimate of spending under what will be the new classification. They will both be updated when the ONS publishes guidance on the changes and provisional estimate in Summer 2019.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

Both the HMRC and End Child Poverty figures attempt to measure the proportion of children falling under an income threshold that is broadly analogous to the “relative low income” threshold in HBAI, although income is defined slightly differently. Both sets of estimates are derived from benefits data, although this approach is problematic in that it gives results inconsistent with the official statistics in HBAI. The End Child Poverty methodology makes some adjustment for this so that figures at least reconcile at the national level, before a further adjustment is made to reflect trends in numbers of working and workless households. The latest End Child Poverty estimates have a reference date of July- September 2017 while the latest HMRC figures are for August 2015. HMRC presents estimates on a before housing costs (BHC) basis only, but End Child Poverty also reports estimates based on income after housing costs (AHC).
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

Loans therefore are treated very differently in the fiscal deficit and national debt. The difference is really one of timing with the costs being recorded upfront in the debt and only after they are written off (after 30 years for most) in the deficit. Overall costs for a cohort of loans will eventually be the same under each method. In July 2018 the Office for Budget Responsibility published a paper that looked at the ‘fiscal illusions’ resulting from the different accounting treatment of loans in government accounts and made suggestions for alternative

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in the year to May-July 2019 it decreased by 86,000. The number of young people in employment decreased by 54,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 31,000.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

Systems. These systems bring together the NHS, local authorities and other local partners with the aim of ensuring women and their families receive seamless care, including when moving between maternity or neonatal services or to other services such as primary care or health visiting. By spring 2019, every trust in England with a maternity and neonatal service will be part of the National Maternal and Neonatal Health Safety Collaborative. Every national, regional and local NHS organisation involved in providing safe maternity and neonatal care has a named Maternity Safety Champion. Through the Collaborative and Maternity Safety Champions, the NHS is supporting a culture of multidisciplinary team working and learning, vital for safe, high-quality maternity care. Twenty Community Hubs have been established, focusing on areas with greatest need, and acting as ‘one stop shops’ for women and their families. These hubs work closely with local authorities, bringing together antenatal care, birth facilities, postnatal care, mental health services, specialist services and health visiting services.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

Interest in the background of students who go to Oxford and Cambridge is nothing new. The 1852 Royal Commissions on both universities identified access by poorer students as an important and longstanding issue. The debate about elitism at Oxford and Cambridge has tended to focus on a single indicator –the proportion of students from state schools- and particularly whether it has gone up or down in the latest year. This gives a limited view. A fuller picture needs more context, including longer term trends in this indicator, rates of entry for other under-represented groups, data on other prestigious universities and a better understanding of the types of state schools that send pupils to Oxbridge. The latest statistics on entry can be viewed at:
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

judgement about what constitutes minimum needs. Successive governments have argued there is no single, objective way of determining what constitutes a minimum acceptable income for a particular person or family, although independent researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in- depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 38
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

Between 1994/95 and 2002/03 the number of full-time academic staff at UK HEIs increased by 18% and the number of part time staff by almost 120%. The total headcount increased by 28% and there were above average increases in the number of academics working in research only (not teaching) and in the number of professors, and (non senior) researchers. However, full-timers and academics involved in teaching at least part of the time were still in the majority in 2002/03. More detail is given in Table 4 at the end of this note. The headcount number can obscure some trends in the balance between full- and part-time staff, but it was all that was published at the time. The increase in academic staff headcount over this period was slightly higher than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers, 29 but much of the growth in staff
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 07585, 8 August 2019 : The Troubled Families Programme (England)

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 07585, 8 August 2019 : The Troubled Families Programme (England)

While Gingerbread welcomes the promise of better relationship support across family types, it questions the emphasis on ‘worklessness’ as an overriding obstacle to financial stability. While two-thirds of single parents work, the risk of working single parent families being in poverty sharply increased over the last year, emphasising that employment alone is not a solution to improving life chances. Today’s policy paper doesn’t address structural obstacles facing single parents out of work, such as lack of access to childcare, flexible work and training. 75

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6962, 31 March 2017: GCSE, AS and A level reform (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6962, 31 March 2017: GCSE, AS and A level reform (England)

The next stage of the reforms was announced on 17 September 2012 when the then Education Secretary, Michael Gove, made an oral statement in the House of Commons. This was made against the background of concern about the grading of GCSEs in English. Mr Gove announced that the Government intended to replace GCSEs with new qualifications, to be called English Baccalaureate Certificates (EBCs), which would cover the core academic subjects that make up the current English Baccalaureate – English, Mathematics, sciences, history, geography and languages. He also proposed a single awarding
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06962, 31 March 2017: GCSE, AS and A level reform (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06962, 31 March 2017: GCSE, AS and A level reform (England)

The next stage of the reforms was announced on 17 September 2012 when the then Education Secretary, Michael Gove, made an oral statement in the House of Commons. This was made against the background of concern about the grading of GCSEs in English. Mr Gove announced that the Government intended to replace GCSEs with new qualifications, to be called English Baccalaureate Certificates (EBCs), which would cover the core academic subjects that make up the current English Baccalaureate – English, Mathematics, sciences, history, geography and languages. He also proposed a single awarding
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7222, 12 February 2019: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7222, 12 February 2019: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

The Department has missed its recruitment targets for the last 4 years and there are signs that teacher shortages are growing. By taking a national view of the number of teachers required, the Department risks paying too little attention to clearly meaningful local patterns of supply and demand. The Department does not yet have the information it needs to understand how different routes into teaching impact on schools’ ability to recruit and retain newly qualified teachers, and cannot yet demonstrate how new arrangements are improving the quality of teaching in classrooms. The Department has plans to analyse existing data further. However, until the Department meets its targets and addresses the remaining information gaps, we cannot conclude that the arrangements for training new teachers are value for money. The Department will also need to show that the arrangements are more cost-effective than alternative expenditure, for instance on improving retention. 185
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