Top PDF House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

at UK schools and colleges, particularly at independent schools. In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2018; 61.3% at Cambridge and 58.9% at Oxford.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

at UK schools and colleges, particularly at independent schools. In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2017; 60.5% at Cambridge and 56.1% at Oxford.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

Systems. These systems bring together the NHS, local authorities and other local partners with the aim of ensuring women and their families receive seamless care, including when moving between maternity or neonatal services or to other services such as primary care or health visiting. By spring 2019, every trust in England with a maternity and neonatal service will be part of the National Maternal and Neonatal Health Safety Collaborative. Every national, regional and local NHS organisation involved in providing safe maternity and neonatal care has a named Maternity Safety Champion. Through the Collaborative and Maternity Safety Champions, the NHS is supporting a culture of multidisciplinary team working and learning, vital for safe, high-quality maternity care. Twenty Community Hubs have been established, focusing on areas with greatest need, and acting as ‘one stop shops’ for women and their families. These hubs work closely with local authorities, bringing together antenatal care, birth facilities, postnatal care, mental health services, specialist services and health visiting services.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

17% 30% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Keep house warm Keep up to date with bills Money to decorate home Replace broken electrical goods Home contents insurance Replace worn out furniture Money to spend on self each week Make savings of 10 pounds a month or more One week's holiday away from home not with relatives Have a warm winter coat Celebrations on special occasions Eat fresh fruit and/or vegetables every day Go to a playgroup at least once a week Go on school trip at least once a term Have friends round for tea or a snack once a fortnight Leisure equipment, e.g. sports equipment or a bicycle Hobby or leisure activity Attend organised activity once a week Outdoor space / facilities to play safely Bedrooms for every child aged 10+ of different gender One week's holiday away from home with family
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

Loans therefore are treated very differently in the fiscal deficit and national debt. The difference is really one of timing with the costs being recorded upfront in the debt and only after they are written off (after 30 years for most) in the deficit. Overall costs for a cohort of loans will eventually be the same under each method. In July 2018 the Office for Budget Responsibility published a paper that looked at the ‘fiscal illusions’ resulting from the different accounting treatment of loans in government accounts and made suggestions for alternative

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

The reasoning behind this is that people in full-time education, including those with caring responsibilities, are already supported through the educational maintenance system, via its range of loans and grants. 55 The rule has however been criticised as a barrier to carers wishing to expand their skills with a view to entering or returning to the labour market. In 2008 the House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee said that carers faced a “stark choice between engaging in education and training without any financial support or living on benefits”, and recommended that the Government consider lifting the 21 hour rule and reducing education and training fees for Carer’s Allowance recipients. 56 In its response, the Labour Government said that rather than make piecemeal changes to Carer’s Allowance, it intended to look specifically at the support offered to carers through the benefits system as part of its wider plans to develop a single benefit for people of working age. 57 No detailed plans were set out before the 2010 General Election; and subsequent administrations have not
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 06103, 11 July 2019 : Relationships and Sex Education in Schools
(England)

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 06103, 11 July 2019 : Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural] standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07714, 1 April 2019: The Family Test

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07714, 1 April 2019: The Family Test

While the guidance encourages publication, there is no requirement to do so. 27 Many of the responses to PQs describe briefly what the Family Test is and refer to guidance issued by DWP but provide little additional information. During the March 2019 debate on the Application of the Family Test, several Members expressed frustration at the Departmental responses to their Parliamentary Questions. Fiona Bruce said that the answers were inadequate and did not explain the actions taken by Departments to apply the Family Test. She also contested the argument, made in several Departmental responses, that the Family Test did not apply to the Department’s policy brief. 28
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8389, 5 April 2019: Returns to a degree

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8389, 5 April 2019: Returns to a degree

Home region… North East North West Yorkshire & the Humber East Midlands West Midlands East of England London South East South West Scotland, Wales & N.I.. Residence… Living at ho[r]

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

The fourth area that my hon. Friend raised was planning policy. He described the imbalance between the number of sites in some areas compared with others, particularly in his county. The Government’s planning policy for Traveller sites confirms that our aims include that local planning authorities should make their own assessment of need for the purposes of planning and, working together with neighbouring authorities, identify land for sites. Local planning authorities should consider the production of joint development plans that set targets on a cross-authority basis to provide more flexibility in identifying sites. The policy is clear that local planning authorities should ensure that sites in rural areas respect the scale of, and do not dominate, the nearest settled community. In exceptional cases when a local planning authority is burdened by a large-scale unauthorised site that has significantly increased its need, and where the area is subject to strict and special planning constraints, there is no assumption that the authority has to plan to meet its Traveller site needs in full. 83 More recently, in answer to a PQ in April 2019, the junior housing minister, Heather Wheeler, reiterated that “all local planning authorities should identify the need for traveller sites and ensure that appropriate provision is made for the travelling community. 84
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

The fourth area that my hon. Friend raised was planning policy. He described the imbalance between the number of sites in some areas compared with others, particularly in his county. The Government’s planning policy for Traveller sites confirms that our aims include that local planning authorities should make their own assessment of need for the purposes of planning and, working together with neighbouring authorities, identify land for sites. Local planning authorities should consider the production of joint development plans that set targets on a cross-authority basis to provide more flexibility in identifying sites. The policy is clear that local planning authorities should ensure that sites in rural areas respect the scale of, and do not dominate, the nearest settled community. In exceptional cases when a local planning authority is burdened by a large-scale unauthorised site that has significantly increased its need, and where the area is subject to strict and special planning constraints, there is no assumption that the authority has to plan to meet its Traveller site needs in full. 83 More recently, in answer to a PQ in April 2019, the junior housing minister, Heather Wheeler, reiterated that “all local planning authorities should identify the need for traveller sites and ensure that appropriate provision is made for the travelling community. 84
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

Westminster Academy. 3 Further details were set out in the schools white paper, The Importance of Teaching, published in November 2010: 4.21 In most European countries school students are expected to pursue a broad and rounded range of academic subjects until the age of 16. Even in those countries such as the Netherlands where students divide between academic and vocational routes all young people are expected, whatever their ultimate destiny, to study a wide range of traditional subjects. So we will introduce a new award – the English Baccalaureate – for any student who secures good GCSE or iGCSE passes in English, mathematics, the sciences, a modern or ancient foreign language and a humanity such as history or geography. This combination of GCSEs at grades A*-C will entitle the student to a certificate recording their
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in-depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 39 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

This paper retains the distinction between the terms for two reasons. First the education and training series only goes back to the late 1980s, while the education series goes back much further, even with some breaks in the series the concept remains the same. Second the education and training series is more consistent over the period it is available for. The spending data are regularly revised. These revisions can change the total figure, or move items of expenditure from one sub-function to another. The detailed breakdown by sub-function is only revised back five years. This presents a problem with consistency when trying to compile long-term series based on sub-functions and the authors warn against simply splicing one set of data with another pre and post-revision. The education and training series in this paper is therefore consistent for its entire length, other than the break in 2011-12 detailed below. The education series is not and although revisions are generally quite small, readers should be careful when drawing conclusions from this data, especially those based on small differences.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

during the year. Interest rates were only lower in 1993/94 and 2002/03. 29 30 31 The all-items RPI was -0.4% in the year to March 2009. The (then) current regulations stated that if an interest rate is to apply to these loans then this will be the rate for the year from 1 September 2009. 32 In the past the then Government stated that it had ‘no plans to abandon the consistent use of RPI in calculating interest on student loans’. 33 It subsequently decided that no interest rate (0%) was to apply to income contingent student loans in 2009/10. The small numbers of remaining mortgage-style loans were solely linked to RPI and hence their interest rate was -0.4%. 34 Having no interest on student loans does not affect monthly repayments of those with outstanding income contingent loans. Repayments are based on income, not the interest rate. The cut to 0% would slightly reduce the loan period/total repayments for those who completely paid off their loans in year, but this applies to any cut in interest payments. The impact on other borrowers will depend on how interest rates on student loans and hence RPI vary in future years. If inflation jumps up to above the long-term trend then any advantage they might have gained would be lost. 35 This effect could be reduced by the continued operation of the low interest cap.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in the year to May-July 2019 it decreased by 86,000. The number of young people in employment decreased by 54,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 31,000.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

A detailed summary of the analysis of the responses was set out in an annex to the response document. 51 In its response the Government stated that it had no wish to alter the basic right of parents to educate their children at home and noted that many who take this approach produce very good results. It added however, that it does not believe that recent growth in the number of home educated children is due to any significant growth in people believing in the virtues of home education in its own right. Rather, it said, the factors are often more negative (e.g. disagreements with the school) and that, while parents may try their best, this does not mean that the education provided is suitable in all cases. It also highlighted the use of unregulated settings which, although sometimes legitimate,
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in April to June it was 87,000 less than a year before. The number of young people in employment decreased by 25,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 74,000.

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8538, 14 August 2019: The Review of University Admissions

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8538, 14 August 2019: The Review of University Admissions

Research has shown that external factors such as ‘schooling effects’ and family background have a major influence on the performance of students in exams and on the educational aspirat[r]

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8538, 10 April 2019 : The review of university admissions

Difference in unconditional offers by subject The UCAS End of Cycle Report 2018 showed that the number of unconditional offers made to applicants varied with subjects: The landscape of unconditional offer-making is not uniform across different course types, with patterns varying significantly by the subject applied for. In 2018, 18 per cent of offers made to young people for creative arts and design courses were unconditional, compared to 0.3 per cent for medicine and dentistry courses. This reflects that an audition or portfolio review is normally a core part of the assessment for a creative arts and design course. The demonstration of potential via this form of assessment often carries more weight in reaching an admissions decision than examination results. 8
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