Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

The proportion of people in absolute low income, on the other hand, has greatly reduced over the past fifty years because over most of this period growth in incomes outstripped inflation. These overall trends mask important differences between groups. The proportion of pensioners in poverty is much lower now than during the 1960s, but poverty rates for children and working-age adults are higher than they were 50 years ago. Poverty rates for children, pensioners and working-age adults converged after the economic downturn in 2008 and are currently much closer than has historically been the case.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in- depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 38 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This suggests that even if someone is not counted as being in relative low income, their income may still be too low for them to have what is considered a minimum acceptable standard of living:
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in-depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 39 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in- depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 36 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This suggests that even if someone is not counted as being in relative low income, their income may still be too low for them to have what is considered a minimum acceptable standard of living:
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8110, 17th October 2017: 2017 UK Youth Parliament

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8110, 17th October 2017: 2017 UK Youth Parliament

The regulated fare increase in England for 2017 is 1.9% (based on an RPI +/-0 formula); the total fare increase was 2.3%. This disguises variations across different routes. Almost without exception, when the annual fare increases are announced every year passenger groups express concerns that significant increases could ‘price people off the railways’ and put a strain on those who use the railways to commute to work, particularly into and out of London. However, it has been the policy of successive governments to rebalance the funding of the railways between passengers and taxpayers: reducing the relative contribution of the latter. A consequence of this is higher fares. The train companies themselves are keen to rebut claims that they are ‘profiteering’ off higher fares, noting that fares income is spent on upgrades and
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number SN05871, 16 August 2017: Youth unemployment statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number SN05871, 16 August 2017: Youth unemployment statistics

Not adjusting for seasonal effects, 157,100 people aged 18-24 were claiming Jobseeker’s Allowance or were claiming Universal Credit and required to seek work in July 2017. This is 2,200 fewer than a year ago. These numbers are, however, highly seasonal and are impacted by the ongoing rollout of Universal Credit. Under Universal Credit, a broader span of claimants are required to look for work than under Jobseeker's Allowance. This has the effect of increasing the number of unemployed claimants compared to the previous system. Additionally, Universal Credit appears to follow a different seasonal pattern to Jobseeker’s Allowance.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

2.1 Income breakdown Table 2 at the end of this note gives a breakdown of income by broad category. This is illustrated opposite. There were only very gradual changes in the make-up of the sector’s income in the decade from the mid- 1990s. Since then there has been a clear shift in funding from funding body grants to fees. Funding body grants 24 have gradually made up a smaller share of income over time; down from over 40% in the mid-1990s to 15% in 2015/16. 25 The share of income from tuition fees and education contracts was in the 23-24%

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

If you have any general questions about the work of the House of Commons you can email hcinfo@parliament.uk. Disclaimer - This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

universities to increase fees in line with inflation from 2017 and a review of the discount rate applied to the accounting treatment of loans. In its response to the consultation the Government said it would implement its preferred option –freeze the repayment threshold for all post-2012 borrowers at £21,000 until at least April 2021. 1 These are the biggest changes to student finance since 2012. When fully implemented they will mean more money is loaned, both per student and overall, and increase the amount that is repaid by middle and lower earning graduates. Average debt for those finishing university is expected to be more than £40,000 and, because of the decision to end grants, highest for students from the poorest families at around £53,000
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7033, 2 December 2016: Free schools statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7033, 2 December 2016: Free schools statistics

If you have any general questions about the work of the House of Commons you can email hcinfo@parliament.uk. Disclaimer - This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

If you have any general questions about the work of the House of Commons you can email hcinfo@parliament.uk. Disclaimer - This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7946, 11 April 2017: Millennials

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7946, 11 April 2017: Millennials

What is more, the cost of defined benefit pensions currently in payment ultimately falls to younger workers, as firms spend money keeping schemes solvent: At the same time, the cost of servicing rapidly increasing DB scheme deficits—exacerbated by low investment returns—is placing an ever greater burden on UK firms. The Office for National Statistics estimates that in 2015 companies made special deficit repair contributions to DB schemes of £11 billion in addition to ordinary employer contributions of £20 billion. This may constrain their ability to increase employment or engage in productive investment. Today’s younger workers are therefore faced with supporting the inadequately-funded DB schemes of their older colleagues and retired predecessors, while being denied the opportunity to accrue pension entitlements on the same basis. Paul Johnson, Director of the IFS, told us that this was tantamount to a “very clear redistribution” between
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7436, 2 February 2017: Reform of support for healthcare students in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7436, 2 February 2017: Reform of support for healthcare students in England

Placing new nursing, midwifery and AHP students on the student support system will, in general, provide more living cost support for students during their studies, as the student support system is substantially more than the combination of means-tested and non-means-tested bursaries. However, these new arrangements would increase the time period of student loan repayments students have upon graduation. Concerns about the impact on participation could be mitigated by evidence that increases in fees in the wider higher education system did not have a detrimental impact on application numbers for university, including among lower income groups. In fact, statistics show that in the wider system students are now more likely to apply to university than they were in 2010. It is important to note that the policy would place nursing, midwifery and AHP students on the same student support system as the general student population. There is a built in protection for the lowest earners whereby loan repayments cease where earnings drop below £21,000.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

This note gives a background to student loans, statistics on their take-up, total value owed, repayment, public expenditure, arguments for reform and factors that affect take- up. It does not look in detail at the repayment system in England for new students from 2012/13 which is included in the note Changes to higher education funding and student support from 2012/13. 2 Student Loans Company data used to cover the UK as a whole, but devolution of student support arrangements caused a change in their geographical coverage. The figures from 2006-07 in this note are for England only. The following Library publications give related information about changes in this sector:
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

responsibility has forecast that the face value of loans made in 2018-19 across the UK will be £17.4 billion. 60 Tuition fee loans are excluded from the chart above. In 2006/07 234,000 new students were awarded tuition fee loans with an average value of £2,740 and a total value of £639 million. A further 153,000 existing students were awarded tuition fee loans for regulated fees, these totalled £156 million at an average of £1,010. The number awarded and their total value has increased in subsequent years as each year brings a new cohort liable to pay them. The first year of new students under the post-2012 funding regime with its higher fees (and fee loans) caused the total value of Tuition Fee loans to exceed that of maintenance loans for the first time. This gap has since grown and the value of Fee loans was more than double maintenance loans for the first
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1398, 10 March 2017: Grammar School Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1398, 10 March 2017: Grammar School Statistics

delegated to the school governing body. For foundation schools (including trust schools), voluntary-aided schools and academies, governing bodies are the admission authority. There are two permitted forms of selection by aptitude. Under section 100 of the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 , where the school used such selection in 1997-98 and has continued to use it since then without significant changes. And under section 102, where schools may select up to 10% of their intake on the basis of aptitude in their specialist area(s) provided that the admission arrangements do not involve any test of ability or any test designed to elicit the pupil’s aptitude for other subjects.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

households. An IFS report explains: …the NLW is projected to have a very small impact on incomes right across the household income distribution, with incomes being affected by less than 1% at almost all percentile points. This is partly because household incomes are larger than individual earnings in most cases, partly because some of the gains from the NLW are captured by the exchequer in higher tax payments and lower benefit entitlements, and partly because gains from the NLW are much more widely spread across the income distribution than across the individual earnings distribution, with similar gains between the 20th and 60th percentiles. This reflects that those who benefit from the NLW have low hourly pay, but not necessarily low household incomes. For example, those paid less than the NLW who have a higher-earning partner may benefit from the NLW but have a household income sufficient to be in the top half of the income distribution. 30
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 07714, 1 February 2017 : The Family Test

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 07714, 1 February 2017 : The Family Test

Disclaimer This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08083, 8 September 2017: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08083, 8 September 2017: Gypsies and Travellers

Negotiated Stopping ‘Negotiated stopping’ is an alternative approach to dealing with unauthorised encampments. Under this approach, rather than taking enforcement action to move Gypsies and Travellers on, the local authority identifies appropriate areas where they may stop temporarily by agreement. Through a process of dialogue and negotiation the local authority aims to reach agreement with travelling families over issues such as where they will stay and for how long, acceptable behaviour and use of waste disposal etc. An evaluation of this approach in Leeds has identified a range of benefits, including: cost savings for the police and local authority, reduced anti-social behaviour, improved community cohesion, and reduced stress and disruption for travelling families. 69
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2017: English Baccalaureate

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2017: English Baccalaureate

Westminster Academy. 3 Further details were set out in the schools white paper, The Importance of Teaching, published in November 2010: 4.21 In most European countries school students are expected to pursue a broad and rounded range of academic subjects until the age of 16. Even in those countries such as the Netherlands where students divide between academic and vocational routes all young people are expected, whatever their ultimate destiny, to study a wide range of traditional subjects. So we will introduce a new award – the English Baccalaureate – for any student who secures good GCSE or iGCSE passes in English, mathematics, the sciences, a modern or ancient foreign language and a humanity such as history or geography. This combination of GCSEs at grades A*-C will entitle the student to a certificate recording their
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