Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

The Government gradually introduced new arrangements for students starting in autumn 1998 (academic year 1998/99). In the first year new entrants received support through loans and grants. The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 6 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2000. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 will be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 7
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 59 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2005. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 would be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 60 Further changes in the student finance system were introduced in 2006/07 when new students attending institutions in England and Northern Ireland could be charged variable fees of up to £3,000.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

1. Background 1.1 Pre-2012 Student loans first became part of the student support package in 1990/91. In that year students could take out a maximum 3 of £420 or around one sixth of the maximum amount of public support. Over the following years their value was increased at the expense of grants and stood at just under 50% of the maximum support level in 1996/97. 4 Student loan interest rates for those loans and all those to pre-2012 students are set in line with inflation and hence have a zero real interest rate. Repayments of loans taken out before the late 1990s were made on a ‘mortgage-style’ system. They became repayable from the April after the student finished higher education when their gross income exceeded the threshold of 85% of national average earnings. If their income stayed above the threshold then repayments were made over 5 years in 60 equal monthly instalments; 5 hence ‘mortgage-style’.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

At the time the changes were introduced the main focus of debate was on the increased level of tuition fees – very little was said about the new interest rate system. Under the new system the interest charged on loans varies over the life of the loan – while studying the interest rate added is RPI + 3%, when a student graduates and is earning under the income threshold the interest rate falls to RPI and when a student is earning over the threshold the interest rate starts at RPI and rises to RPI + 3% when a graduate is earning over £41,000 per year. The intention of the scheme was to make repayments more progressive so that graduates earning more would repay more. The system was criticised by the Institute for Fiscal Studies for being complicated.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

15% 32% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Keep house warm Keep up to date with bills Money to decorate home Replace broken electrical goods Home contents insurance Replace worn out furniture Money to spend on self each week Make savings of 10 pounds a month or more One week's holiday away from home not with relatives Have a warm winter coat Celebrations on special occasions Eat fresh fruit and/or vegetables every day Go to a playgroup at least once a week Go on school trip at least once a term Leisure equipment, e.g. sports equipment or a bicycle Hobby or leisure activity Have friends round for tea or a snack once a fortnight Outdoor space / facilities to play safely Attend organised activity once a week Bedrooms for every child aged 10+ of different gender One week's holiday away from home with family
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6836, 8 June 2018: School Sport in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6836, 8 June 2018: School Sport in England

Single and small academy trusts and sixth form colleges were able to bid for funding through the Condition Improvement Fund, with guidance published by the Education and Skills Funding Agency stating that the HPCF “is intended to improve children’s and young people’s physical and mental health by enhancing access to facilities for physical activity, healthy eating, mental health and wellbeing and medical conditions, such as kitchens, dining facilities, changing rooms, playgrounds and sports facilities.” 33 In March 2018 the Education and Skills Funding Agency published the list of schools who had successfully bid for funding from the Condition Improvement Fund. £38 million will be provided for specific projects supported by the HPCF in 2018-19. 34 Local authorities, large multi-academy trusts and other bodies are not eligible to bid for the Condition Improvement Fund and instead receive School Condition Allocations (SCA). They will receive a direct allocation from the HPCF in addition to their normal SCA for 2018-19. 35 School
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8023, 5 June 2018: Safeguarding in English schools

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8023, 5 June 2018: Safeguarding in English schools

agencies, and that everyone who comes into contact with children has a role to play in “identifying concerns, sharing information and taking prompt action.” 4 In line with this, a range of local agencies, including the police and health services, have a duty under section 11 of the Children Act 2004, to ensure that they consider the need to safeguard and promote the welfare of children when carrying out their functions. 5 This briefing sets out the role of schools within this wider safeguarding system, which is described in more detail in statutory guidance

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

The governing bodies of higher and further education institutions are public authorities for the purposes of the PSED. Universities and colleges must therefore have due regard to the need to eliminate discrimination and harassment and the need to foster good relationships between different groups when they formulate policies and practices in areas such as: sexual harassment, governance of student societies and sports teams, campus security, housing, bars and social spaces. The duty applies to decisions on individual cases, as well as to policy decisions.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07091, 18 April 2018: School inspections in England: Ofsted

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07091, 18 April 2018: School inspections in England: Ofsted

Ofsted, How Ofsted will select new schools for inspection, June 2017 2.4 How much notice do schools get before an inspection? Schools are usually notified the working day prior to the start of a school inspection. However, Ofsted has powers to undertake inspections without notice in certain circumstance – for example, in response to receiving qualifying complaints or other evidence about standards or safety at a school.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

Expenditure here is used as a proxy for the (financial) size of the sector. Total spending is clearly constrained by income. The increase in total expenditure for the whole period was greater than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers. In the mid- to late-1990s real spending increased at a slower rate, but this pattern was reversed over the following decade. The gap closed somewhat over the three years to 2011/12 as student numbers continued to grow, while spending was broadly flat. Since then expenditure has increased in real terms, but student numbers fell for three years and are still below 2010/11 levels. 17 18 The costs associated with students can vary greatly by level and subject. This note does not look at all these factors.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 4 June 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 4 June 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

A further teacher supply analysis, intended to build on some of the areas covered previously, was published in February 2018. The first two sections of the report looked at post-ITT employment rates and the mobility of NQTs. The analysis found that post-ITT employment rates rose in the six years up to 2014-15, at which point 85% of trainees achieving QTS secured a teaching role within a state-funded school. Employment rates amongst graduates of school-led training routes were typically 5 percentage points higher than those on HEI- based routes. There were also significant variations by secondary subject. Regarding the mobility of NQTs, the analysis found that NQTs do not tend to move far to take up their first post, with around half taking up a post within 25km of their ITT provider.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 6 June 2018: Initial teacher training in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 6 June 2018: Initial teacher training in England

There are also a number of specialist competitive scholarships available to recruits in certain shortage subjects. Scholarships are jointly awarded by the Government and professional bodies, and selection is through an additional application and assessment process. Each scholarship also comes with a package of non-financial benefits, such as early career support and membership of the appropriate professional body. 48 A table on the Get Into Teaching Website provides an overview of bursary and scholarship levels for the 2018-19 academic year. The level of bursary ranges from £26,000 for physics trainees with a 2:2 class degree or higher, to £4,000 for history trainees with a 2:1 or Master’s degree. Scholarships of £28,000 are also available in physics, chemistry, languages, computing, and geography. Scholarships of £22,000 are available in maths, in addition to the early career payments. 49
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06972, 6 June 2018: Faith Schools in England: FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06972, 6 June 2018: Faith Schools in England: FAQs

In a Westminster Hall debate on school transport in June 2015, the Schools Minister Nick Gibb expanded on the Government position: We believe that [local authorities] are best placed to determine how resources should be used in the areas that they serve and to balance the demands of a broad range of discretionary travel against their budget priorities. If we were to remove this discretion from local authorities’ responsibilities, it would hugely increase the number of eligible children at a substantial cost to the taxpayer. Therefore, it is much more practical and helpful to allow local authorities to continue to make these important decisions locally, but they still need to make the right decisions locally. 14
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07059: 18 June 2019: FAQs: Academies and free schools

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07059: 18 June 2019: FAQs: Academies and free schools

• CBP 8419, School funding in England: FAQs • CBP 8106, Implementation of the national funding formula for schools in England. In July 2017, Education Secretary Justine Greening announced £1.3 billion additional funding for schools and high needs, across 2018-19 and 2019-20. This, she said, would allow per-pupil funding to be maintained in real terms for the final two years of the Spending Review period. The money, she said, would come from making efficiency savings in the existing DfE budget, including from the free schools programme:

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

substantial in 2017 and the overall MEM gaps increased in absolute and relative terms in 2016 and 2017. UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2016 only 2.5% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 9.5% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2016. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to seven points in 2016.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

The reasoning behind this is that people in full-time education, including those with caring responsibilities, are already supported through the educational maintenance system, via its range of loans and grants. 55 The rule has however been criticised as a barrier to carers wishing to expand their skills with a view to entering or returning to the labour market. In 2008 the House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee said that carers faced a “stark choice between engaging in education and training without any financial support or living on benefits”, and recommended that the Government consider lifting the 21 hour rule and reducing education and training fees for Carer’s Allowance recipients. 56 In its response, the Labour Government said that rather than make piecemeal changes to Carer’s Allowance, it intended to look specifically at the support offered to carers through the benefits system as part of its wider plans to develop a single benefit for people of working age. 57 No detailed plans were set out before the 2010 General Election; and subsequent administrations have not
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in-depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 39 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This
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House of Commmons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commmons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

At the time the changes were introduced the main focus of debate was on the increased level of tuition fees – very little was said about the new interest rate system. Under the new system the interest charged on loans varies over the life of the loan – while studying the interest rate added is RPI + 3%, when a student graduates and is earning under the income threshold the interest rate falls to RPI and when a student is earning over the threshold the interest rate starts at RPI and rises to RPI + 3% when a graduate is earning over £41,000 per year. The intention of the scheme was to make repayments more progressive so that graduates earning more would repay more. The system was criticised by the Institute for Fiscal Studies for being complicated.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

Neither of the first two falls changed the overall upward trends, they were dips linked to changes in fees. Applicant numbers recovered more quickly after the introduction of variable fees in 2006. There is no way to assign a set proportion of these changes to tuition fees. Variations in applicants and acceptances across the home countries since 2006 can help focus on the impact of higher fees to some extent. The number of applicants who lived in Scotland (and hence were not liable for variable fees at institutions in Scotland) increased by 2% in 2006, compared to a 4% fall among those living in England. However, after then the increase in applicants has been larger in England and the total increase between 2004 and 2011 was 28% in England compared with 15% in Scotland. 44 These comparisons are far from perfect as they exclude the impact of underlying demographics and differences in the courses covered by UCAS in each country. They provide no evidence that variable fees caused a major ongoing decline or downward shift in overall numbers of applicants or entrants to higher education in England. Similarly there is no evidence that those from ‘lower’ socio-economic groups or (deprived) areas with historically low levels of participation have been adversely affected by tuition fees. The proportion of students from these groups has increased over this period. The note Higher education and social class looks at this subject in detail. A report from the funding council concluded that there have been substantial and sustained increases in participation among young people from disadvantaged 45 areas in England. More of the increase in participation since the mid-
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in the year to May-July 2019 it decreased by 86,000. The number of young people in employment decreased by 54,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 31,000.

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