Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

The sale of the final tranche of mortgage style loans in November 2013 meant that all publicly owned debt at the end of 2013-14 was in income-contingent loans. These are financial year data so only include part of academic year 2012/13 when new students could take out much larger fee loans. Despite this just over one-third of tuition fee loans made in 2012-13 were to post-2012 students. The Government has projected that the outstanding cash value of publicly owned student debt in England will increase to around £500 billion in the mid-2030s and £1,000 billion (£1 trillion) in the late 2040s. The real (2014-15) value is expected to exceed £100 billion around 2018, £200 billion in the late 2020s and stabilize around £300 billion by the middle of this century. These figures assume that fee increase in line with inflation from 2016 and take no account of loan sell offs. 71 They were made
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

There is a shift over time from those repaying to those who have repaid as we might expect. The cohort data shows, a relatively rapid increase in the number repaying within a cohort over the first few years of potential repayment followed by much less variation and a gradual decline in numbers as more repay their loans in full. The average value of repayments continues to increase in each year and hence totals also increase. This suggests that it is only in the first few years after leaving higher education that large numbers of borrowers start repaying. Relatively few only start earning above the repayment threshold three, four, or more years later and even then their numbers are balanced by those who stop repaying for one reason or another. It may be some time before any longer term patterns become clear, particularly shifts from non-payment to payment.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

Tuition fee loans are excluded from the chart above. In 2006/07 234,000 new students were awarded tuition fee loans with an average value of £2,740 and a total value of £639 million. A further 153,000 existing students were awarded tuition fee loans for regulated fees, these totalled £156 million at an average of £1,010. The number awarded and their total value has increased in subsequent years as each year brings a new cohort liable to pay them. The first year of new students under the post-2012 funding regime with its higher fees (and fee loans) caused the total value of Tuition Fee loans to exceed that of maintenance loans for the first time. This gap has since grown and the value of Fee loans was more than double maintenance loans for the first time in 2014/15. This gap continued to grow in 2015/16, but fell from 2016/17 due to the loss of grants for new students.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

The increase in total expenditure for the whole period was greater than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers. In the mid- to late-1990s real spending increased at a slower rate, but this pattern was reversed over the following decade. The gap closed somewhat over the three years to 2011/12 as student numbers continued to grow, while spending was broadly flat. Since then expenditure has increased in real terms, but student numbers fell for three years and are still below 2010/11 levels. 17 18 The costs associated with students can vary greatly by
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

The NUS and many providers have taken a close interest, both in the UK and overseas, in sexual harassment on campus. Student and national media carry frequent stories about what is euphemistically termed ‘laddish’ behaviour, often from sports clubs and other student societies. There are disturbing reports of what one student newspaper called the ‘rape culture’. One student committed suicide in 2014, following allegations of persistent sexual harassment.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07059: 18 June 2019: FAQs: Academies and free schools

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07059: 18 June 2019: FAQs: Academies and free schools

On 11 May 2018 The Secretary of State for Education made a statement about the Government response to the consultation. The Government decided to retain the 50% cap for faith free schools, but also created a capital scheme to support the creation of new voluntary aided schools (where for qualifying projects 90% of the capital cost of a new school is to be paid by the state and 10% sourced by the proposers). Faith schools created through this mechanism may have 100% faith-based oversubscription criteria in their admissions. For further detail on the capital scheme (now closed to new applications) please see the Guidance and Criteria.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number SN05871, 16 August 2017: Youth unemployment statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number SN05871, 16 August 2017: Youth unemployment statistics

The unemployment rate for people aged 18-24 was 10.8% in April-June 2017, down from 11.8% a year ago. 434,000 18-24 year olds were unemployed, while 1.68 million were economically inactive (not in work and not looking or available for work). 3.58 million were in work.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 6 June 2018: Initial teacher training in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 6 June 2018: Initial teacher training in England

There are also now a limited number of undergraduate degrees that allow the student to incorporate teacher training partway through the degree course, after an experience of classroom teaching. Successful students graduate with both a degree in their chosen subject and a recommendation for QTS. The length of the degree course is unaffected as the school placements are incorporated within the original course length. Degrees with QTS opt-in all focus on secondary school teaching and BA, BSc and Integrated Masters courses are available. A list of universities offering these courses is available on the Get Into Teaching website.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2016 only 2.5% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 9.5% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2016. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to seven points in 2016.
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House of Commmons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commmons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

The interest rate issue received more attention in 2017 when it was announced that the rate applied to student loans in 2017/18 would be 6.1% - this was a large increase from the 2016/17 level of 4.6%. A report by the Institute for Fiscal Studies, Higher Education funding in England: past, present and options for the future July 2017 stated that under the 2012 system students from the poorest 40% of families would accrue around £6,500 in interest during study. The report also said that the interest rate had virtually no impact on the repayments of the lowest earning graduates because very few would earn enough to repay the interest accrued. The interest rate would however have a significant impact on top earners.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8023, 5 June 2018: Safeguarding in English schools

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8023, 5 June 2018: Safeguarding in English schools

If a staff member has concerns about a child (as opposed to a child being in immediate danger) then they need to decide what action to take. Where possible this should be discussed with the designated safeguarding lead but any staff member can make a referral to children’s social care; other options could include referral to specialist services or early help services. The local authority should make a decision regarding the action to be taken within one working day of a referral and this should be communicated to the person who made the referral. If the child’s situation does not improve, then the designated safeguarding lead or the person who made the referral should press for re-consideration. Further information on the referral process is provided by paragraphs 21 to 27, and a flow chart on page 10, of guidance. If a child is in immediate danger or is at risk of harm then a referral should be made to children’s social care and/or the police immediately. Similarly, if a teacher discovers that an act of female genital mutilation appears to have been carried out on a girl under the age of 18, this must be reported to the police. 25
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

We have always taken the view that RPI is more appropriate than the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for student loans as it takes account of, amongst other things, changes in mortgage interest payments and council tax (typical expenses for graduates which are not included in calculation of the CPI). Historically, RPI has always been used for calculating interest on student loans. This means that over the period of years, the rate of interest on student loans has been consistently linked to a widely recognised and adopted measure of inflation.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7049, 27 February 2018: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7049, 27 February 2018: Postgraduate loans in England

1.101 From 2018-19, loans of up to £25,000 will be available to any English student without a Research Council living allowance who can win a place for doctoral study at a UK university. They will be added to any outstanding master’s loan and repaid on the same terms, but with the intention of setting a repayment rate of 9% for doctoral loans and a combined 9% repayment rate if people take out a doctoral and master’s loan. The government will launch a technical consultation on the detail. Those who take out only a master’s loan will still repay at 6%, as announced at Autumn Statement 2015. 40
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

299,000 men aged 16-24 were unemployed in December 2018 to February 2019, a small increase on a year ago. The unemployment rate for men of this age was 13.1%, up slightly from 12.9% a year before. 194,000 women aged 16-24 were unemployed, down 40,000 from a year before. The unemployment rate for women aged 16-24 was 9.3%, compared to 11.1% a year before.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

An individual is in absolute low income if their household income is below 60% of the median in some base year, adjusted for inflation. DWP’s Households below average income (HBAI) publication uses 2010/11 as the base year in order to measure absolute low income. This briefing paper follows HBAI and also uses 2010/11 as its base year. The number and percentage of people in absolute low income depends on how you adjust for inflation. The official poverty statistics presented in the HBAI report for 2015/16 use an absolute low income threshold which is uprated based on the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) measure of inflation.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7033, 2 December 2016: Free schools statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7033, 2 December 2016: Free schools statistics

The House of Commons Library research service provides MPs and their staff with the impartial briefing and evidence base they need to do their work in scrutinising Government, proposing legislation, and supporting constituents. As well as providing MPs with a confidential service we publish open briefing papers, which are available on the Parliament website.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

The number and percentage of people in absolute low income depends on how you adjust for inflation. The official poverty statistics presented in the HBAI report for 2016/17 use an absolute low income threshold uprated based on the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) measure of inflation. Editions of HBAI before 2014/15 used the Retail Prices Index (RPI) measure, which tends to show a higher rate of inflation than the CPI. This affected the estimated number and proportion of people counted as being in absolute low income. Annex 4 of the HBAI Quality and Methodology Information Report for 2014/15 compares the trend in absolute low income under both CPI and RPI.
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House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

There are two different types of apprenticeship schemes, frameworks and standards. Apprenticeship frameworks are being progressively phased out and replaced by the newer apprenticeship standards, which were introduced in 2014. For further information see the Commons Briefing Paper, Apprenticeships Policy in England.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

Neither of the first two falls changed the overall upward trends, they were dips linked to changes in fees. Applicant numbers recovered more quickly after the introduction of variable fees in 2006. There is no way to assign a set proportion of these changes to tuition fees. Variations in applicants and acceptances across the home countries since 2006 can help focus on the impact of higher fees to some extent. The number of applicants who lived in Scotland (and hence were not liable for variable fees at institutions in Scotland) increased by 2% in 2006, compared to a 4% fall among those living in England. However, after then the increase in applicants has been larger in England and the total increase between 2004 and 2011 was 28% in England compared with 15% in Scotland. 44
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7951, 8 January 2018: Technical education reforms

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7951, 8 January 2018: Technical education reforms

Two-year college-based programmes would be created at the start of each route, with nationally recognised certificates at levels 2 and 3 (the certificates at level 3 are now referred to as T levels). Certificates achieved through college-based study would, the Skills Plan said, likely include a technical qualification. Programmes would be suitable for 16-18 year olds, but could also be accessed by learners aged 19 and over. Each programme would be “closely aligned” to the apprenticeship at the start of each route and it would be possible to move from one to the other. 22
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