Over the last decade a number of universities have opened branch campuses. A very well known example for the UK has been the University of Nottingham campus in Ningbo, China and in Semenyih. Malaysia. Manchester Business School and Middlesex University are other notable players, as well as Lancaster and Strathclyde universities that signed agreements in May 2009 to establish campuses in Pakistan. Aberystwyth University followed Middlesex University in opening a campus in Mauritius in 2014. The University of Liverpool and Xi’an Jiaotong University in China formed a partnership for setting up Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU), an independent university based in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China. The UK’s existing and currently planned branch campuses are concentrated quite heavily in the UAE, China, Malaysia and Singapore, though single campuses have been established in less well known locations such as Uzbekistan (Westminster). 8
As set out in a previous statement dated June 2016, EU nationals or their family members, currently in higher or further education, and who are eligible to receive loans and/or grants from SFE will continue to remain eligible for these loans and grants until they finish their course. This applies to all student finance provided to eligible EUstudents by SFE. This includes loans to cover tuition fees (for those resident in the EEA for at least three years), loans and grants for maintenance (for those resident in the UK for at least three years if they started a course before 1st August 2016, and at least five years if they started or will start a course after 1st August 2016, or who are EEA migrant workers), and some other grants and allowances. These students are also entitled to home fee status. This also applies to students who have not yet started their course, but who will do so before the end of the 16/17 Academic Year.
The HigherEducation and Research Act 2017 contains a provision to make universities provide more information specifically for internationalstudents. Section 65 of the Act places a duty on highereducation providers to publish highereducation information and s65(8) states that when the Office for Students (OfS) determines what information is covered by this duty it must include information which would be helpful to internationalstudents. Under s65(9) the OfS may also consider it appropriate to ask providers to supply information on numbers of internationalstudents on HE courses.
UCAS uses a number of different classifications of disadvantage among 18 year olds for its entry rates. These include where people live (POLAR3 classification of levels of young HE participation) and proxy measures for family income -whether the student was eligible for free school meals (FSM) or their family received a means-tested benefit while they were at school. According to UCAS:
Local authorities have a duty to ensure that there are sufficient school places in their area, and parents can make representations about the supply of school places. Local authorities must respond to such representations under Section 14A of the Education Act 1996 , which was inserted by Section 3 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 . Nick Gibb, the Schools Minister, set out local authority responsibilities in response to a Parliamentary Question in 2011:
‘protected characteristics’ such as age, sex, disability and ethnicity. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015 made some headline announcements about funding paid through the funding council, the extension of maintenance loans to part-time students and new loans for Master’s degrees. It also announced that the discount rate applied to loans would be reduced to 0.7% and set the spending totals for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills which will eventually feedthrough to annual funding allocations for highereducation.
The responsibility for funding teaching in England has been shifted further away from the public sector towards the individual (graduate). The financial impact on the sector as a whole need not be negative if they can raise enough through additional tuition fees (backed by publicly subsidised loans). The impact on individual institutions is much more open to question and it depends on what fee levels they charge and changes in student numbers. These in turn depend on the types of courses they offer, the ‘value’ placed on a degree from that institution by potential students and the extent and type of student choice and competition introduced into the sector. Changes to highereducation funding and student support from 2012/13 gives some background to the freeing up of places from 2012 and more recent detail is given in HE in England from 2012: Student numbers and HigherEducation Student Numbers.
Under the new welfare powers devolved by the Scotland Act 2016 , the Scottish Government is to introduce a new “Young Carer Grant” – worth £300 a year – from autumn 2019. This will be payable to young people aged 16-18 who provide at least 16 hours of care a week to a person receiving a qualifying disability benefit, but do not qualify for Carer’s Allowance. This is part of a broader planned package of support which will also include free bus travel from 2020/2021, “subject to successful piloting.” 83 The Scottish Government states that the Young Carer Grant
As set out above, following the transfer of functions, it will be for the devolved authorities to secure appropriate adult education provision for their area. The Association of Colleges has argued that the devolved authorities will wish to align their adult education funding towards meeting the needs of their wider economic strategies. It adds that all devolved areas are also “likely to want to reduce the number of organisations they contract with.” 17
The EAGF consists of direct payments (annual payments to farmers to help stabilise farm revenues in the face of volatile market prices and weather conditions) and market measures (to tackle specific market situations and to support trade promotion). In the EU, more than 7.3 million farmers are CAP direct payment beneficiaries and they manage more than 170 million hectares of agricultural land. The EAGF is the largest single component of EU funding, amounting to €309 billion in 2014-20 or roughly 28% of the total EU Budget. In recent years the EAGF (and the equivalent funds in previous MFFs) have
It is no surprise, therefore, that there is low take-up in these subjects at GCSE. Some pupils told inspectors that they were not taking these [English Baccalaureate] EBacc subjects at Key Stage 4 because they did not enjoy them or had found them difficult at Key Stage 3, particularly MFL. A small number made an explicit link between their choices and the quality of teaching that they had received at Key Stage 3. This is a serious concern given the government’s ambition for all pupils starting Year 7 in September 2015 to take the EBacc subjects when they reach their GCSEs in 2020. Improving the Key Stage 3 provision in these subjects will be crucial to raising the EBacc success rate in the coming years. 7
In that light, a whole host of questions have been put to Departments. They ask the Minister how many of his or her Department’s policies have been assessed against the family test and what steps have been taken to publish the outcome of such an assessment. I regret to say that the answers to those questions have been rather limited. In many instances, the response was that the guidance urges only a consideration of publication, and therefore no publication had followed. There have been good examples of the assessment in relation to the Childcare Bill and the Education and Adoption Bill. However, the potential within the family test is as yet unrealised. 14
If these findings are put alongside the data in the table at the end of this paper and the earlier chart we can conclude that ‘state school pupils’ improved their representation at Oxford and Cambridge between the end of the 1930s and end of the 1940s; there appears to have been relatively little change in the late 1950s, but further increases in the 1960s and late 1970s which saw state school pupil numbers draw roughly equal with independent schools at the start of the 1980s. State school participation was higher at Oxford, on the measures given here, up to the mid-1960s. However, given there are large gaps this may not necessarily have been the case in each and every year.
While there is indeed a strong – and unmet – demand for higher- level sub-degree skills, such as at BTEC or HND level, this does not mean there is a need to reduce the numbers earning a bachelor’s degree or above. Alongside the economic and technological changes of the past decade, we have seen not only a large increase in the proportion of graduate jobs – one that is projected to continue – but also upskilling within specific occupations, where higher-level qualifications become increasingly necessary. Graduate talent seems to spur upskilling, and thus demand for more graduate talent. 9
designated as particularly vulnerable. Male Irish travellers in Ireland have a suicide rate 6.6 times higher than the general population; Gypsy Travellers in the Thames Valley have a 100-fold excess risk of measles arising from low immunisation. The report of the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the UK, 1997-99, found that Travellers have ‘possibly the highest maternal death rate among all ethnic groups’. These population health findings based on robust data are stark and require urgent public health focus, including targeted suicide prevention services, a robust system of reporting of infectious diseases in the Gypsy/Traveller population and of levels of immunisation (both currently absent), and a robust system for monitoring maternal mortality (also absent) . 157
Systems. These systems bring together the NHS, local authorities and other local partners with the aim of ensuring women and their families receive seamless care, including when moving between maternity or neonatal services or to other services such as primary care or health visiting. By spring 2019, every trust in England with a maternity and neonatal service will be part of the National Maternal and Neonatal Health Safety Collaborative. Every national, regional and local NHS organisation involved in providing safe maternity and neonatal care has a named Maternity Safety Champion. Through the Collaborative and Maternity Safety Champions, the NHS is supporting a culture of multidisciplinary team working and learning, vital for safe, high-quality maternity care. Twenty Community Hubs have been established, focusing on areas with greatest need, and acting as ‘one stop shops’ for women and their families. These hubs work closely with local authorities, bringing together antenatal care, birth facilities, postnatal care, mental health services, specialist services and health visiting services.
designated as particularly vulnerable. Male Irish travellers in Ireland have a suicide rate 6.6 times higher than the general population; Gypsy Travellers in the Thames Valley have a 100-fold excess risk of measles arising from low immunisation. The report of the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the UK, 1997-99, found that Travellers have ‘possibly the highest maternal death rate among all ethnic groups’. These population health findings based on robust data are stark and require urgent public health focus, including targeted suicide prevention services, a robust system of reporting of infectious diseases in the Gypsy/Traveller population and of levels of immunisation (both currently absent), and a robust system for monitoring maternal mortality (also absent) . 89
demanding considerable curriculum time, is likely to have negative consequences on the uptake of other subjects. We encourage the Government to examine carefully the evidence presented to us, and suggest that it reconsiders the composition of the EBac on conclusion of the National Curriculum Review. More importantly, future performance measures must be well thought through. 69. We are glad that the Department for Education has recognised the potential impact of the EBac on teacher supply, and is working on solutions to any adverse effect this might have. However, academic subjects are not the only path to a successful future, and all young people, regardless of background, must continue to have opportunities to study the subjects in which they are likely to be most successful, and which pupils, parents and schools think will serve them best.
In July 2012 The Department for Education released new ‘experimental’ statistics which looked at the destination of A level students the year after they took their qualifications. The data identify those in highereducation and within this those in any Russell Group university and those at Oxford or Cambridge. The information is taken from matching National Pupil Database records to those held by the HigherEducation Statistics Agency. It only includes young people who studied at state sector schools or colleges in England. Information is broken down by region, local authority, individual (state) school or college and, more recently, student characteristics. The data now covers the period up to 2017 and can be found at can be found at: Destinations of Key Stage 4 and Key Stage 5 pupils.