For academies, we collect cumulative budgetary surplus data at trust level – in 2015/16 the total number of single academy trusts (SATs) in cumulative surplus was 1,735 and the total number of multi academy trusts (MATs) in cumulative surplus was 1,084. The median cumulative surplus for academy trusts (of which a higher proportion are secondary schools than is the case for maintained schools) was £364,000 for SATs and £664,000 for MATs. The total number of schools in England with an in year deficit in each of the last five years can be found in the table attached (Annex A). It is important to note that an in year deficit is not in itself a cause for concern unless it is symptomatic of a trend towards a cumulative deficit. Many schools will draw on their reserves for a range of planned reasons – for example to spend on capital projects.
For 2018-19 only, £100 million of funding from the soft drinks industry levy has also been allocated alongside the school condition allocation (Healthy Pupils Capital Fund). It was originally announced that £415 million of funding would be available in 2018-19 but this was reduced in order to part-fund the additional £1.3 billion for the core schools budget announced by the Secretary of State in July 2017. Further information on the Healthy Pupils Capital Fund is available in section 2.2 of Library Briefing 6836, School Sport in England.
Separate consultations were conducted on high needs funding. The national funding formula for schools and high needs, published by the Department for Education in September 2017, described how the Government intended to proceed following those consultations. Local authorities would receive high needs funding through a national formula derived from, among other factors, a basic unit of per-pupil funding for pupils in specialist SEN provision, historic spend, and also proxy measures such as population, school attainment, and numbers of children in bad health. More detail is provided in chapter 4 of the Policy Document.
The Government is planning to introduce a national funding formula (NFF) to calculate the amount of core revenue funding that mainstream schools in England will attract in respect of primary and secondary (but not sixth form) pupils. There will be separate formulas to calculate early years funding and high need funding (largely this is for high-cost provision for children with special educational needs and disabilities), as well as for some services still centrally provided by local authorities. The NFF is due to be introduced in as a 'soft' format in 2018-19 and a 'hard' format from 2019-20. The Government has consulted on the weightings in the NFF, and its phased introduction. The second round of consultations closed on 22 March2017.
therefore publish the government’s full response to the first stage of the schools and high needs consultations and set out my proposals for the second stage once Parliament returns in the autumn. We will run a full consultation, and make final decisions early in the new year. Given the importance of consulting widely and fully with the sector and getting implementation right, the new system will apply from 2018-19. I will set out our full plans for a national funding formula for early years shortly. In the meantime, I understand the need for local authorities to have sufficient information to begin to plan their schools and high needs funding arrangements for 2017 to 2018. Many of those who responded to the first stage national funding formula consultations emphasised that schools and local authorities need stability, and where there are changes need early notice, as well as a fair system.
There were differing views on the universal base rate from some types of providers. In particular, maintained nursery school (MNS) respondents noted that as a result of being constituted as schools, they had additional specific statutory responsibilities such as delivering teacher-led provision. The government recognises that MNS bear costs over and above other providers. For this reason, the government will provide supplementary funding of £55 million a year to local authorities for the duration of this Parliament. This will enable local authorities to maintain their current funding levels for MNS during the wider changes in early years funding, and ensure that the important contribution these schools make to the social mobility of young children in
Commenting on these announcements, Emma Boggis, Chief Executive of the Sport and Recreation Alliance, said: “The Budget 2016 has a lot of positive outcomes for sport and recreation. The funding for sport in both primary and secondary schools from the reinvestment of the sugar levy will deliver more opportunities to get children of a young age active, which is crucial if they are to stay active in later life. There is a great opportunity for our members to engage with the education sector to deliver high quality sport and physical activity so that that the
Government’s approach. They failed to promote integration, and where they did promote it, they did so through the narrow prism of counter- terrorism. So we will do more than any Government before us to promote integration, including through teaching our history and values in our schools, through the national citizen service, and through other policies, but we will do so separately and differently from Prevent. The combined effect of this work and of the new Prevent strategy will be an unyielding fight against extremism, violent extremism and radicalisation. It is critical that agencies, Departments and local authorities work to a common set of Prevent objectives to deliver the outcomes that we want. Public funding for Prevent must be rigorously prioritised and comprehensively audited. The previous Government were far too lax in spending in this area, as they were in so many others. Let me reiterate that under this Government, public money will not be provided to extremist organisations. If organisations do not support the values of democracy, human rights, equality before the law, participation in society—if they do not accept these fundamental and universal values— we will not work with them and we will not fund them.
All schools are required by law to have a behaviour policy with measures to tackle bullying among pupils. Schools are free to develop their own anti-bullying strategies but they are held clearly to account for their effectiveness through Ofsted. We trust schools to decide for themselves what training their staff need in order to be able to do this effectively. However, we know that individuals who are, or perceived to be, homosexual, bisexual or transgender are disproportionately affected by bullying. In 2015, research by the UCL Institute of Education identified that 56% of young LGB people aged 14-16 were bullied compared to 45% of their heterosexual peers. To help schools to tackle bullying and support victims, in September 2016 the Department for Education and the Government Equalities Office announced £4.4m of funding for 10 projects to tackle bullying, including £2.8 million for projects tackling specifically homophobic, transphobic and biphobic bullying. This
Sustainability and accountability are also addressed through the broader elements of the strategy: it is vitally important that the money committed is spent well. Through the conditions of grant, schools are required to publish online for parents the details of their full PE and sport offer and the impact upon pupil attainment. This will strengthen the ability of parents to hold their children’s schools to account for the funding. The additional investment in primary school sport has also been ring-fenced, a unique position in school funding and one which demonstrates the importance we place on PE and sport in schools. 77
BIS estimates of the RAB cost of student loans are calculated using a student loan repayment model. This makes long term forecasts of repayments for individual borrowers and is highly complex. There is a substantial amount of uncertainty about future repayment levels which are connected in large part to earnings growth forecasts. The paper HE in England from 2012: Funding and finance looks in depth at changes/improvements to the loan model over time.
A report published by the National Foundation for Education Research (NFER) in November 2016 examined how the RSC regions had changed in terms of the number and proportion of free schools and academies since RSCs were introduced in 2014. The report also included eight individual ‘region profiles’. Among other things, the report found that the rate of academisation remains highly variable between RSC regions, but also that differences within regions are greater than between regions. 33
Measures to legislate for these proposals were included in the Children, Schools and Families Bill before Parliament shortly before the 2010 General Election. For background see Library research paper 09/95 on the Children, Schools and Families Bill, Session 2009-10 (pages 23-27). Many of the Bill’s provisions, including the introduction of compulsory PSHE education and the provision that all children receive at least one year of sex and relationship education were removed during the consideration of Lords Amendments on 8 April 2010 immediately before the dissolution of Parliament for the General Election. The provisions in the Bill that did survive are now contained in the Children, Schools and Families Act 2010.
The focus that there has been on exams in every one of those final four years of school education can lead to young people failing to deliver and develop that deep understanding of their subject, and to their failing to make connections between topics. Re-sits have also led to too much teaching time being sacrificed for assessment preparation. Research—hon. Members have said that they are keen on it—from Durham university and Cambridge Assessment suggests that repeated opportunities for students to re-sit exams have also risked a form of grade inflation. This is why our reforms to A-levels are so important. Ofqual announced the first stage of the reforms last autumn by removing the January exam window, which will reduce the number of re-sits, as the hon. Member for Feltham and Heston said.
The first is the principle that admission should be at the age of 14. The originator of the UTC idea, Kenneth Baker, has argued that all students should be divided at 14 and given the option of either a technical, or artistic and creative, or academic education. He saw UTCs as the vanguard of this revolution. But other schools have seen them as destinations for underperforming children. Students whose poor academic prospects might hamper league table performance have been directed towards UTCs and higher- performing contemporaries have been warned off. On top of that, many parents and students themselves have felt that 14 is too young to opt for a narrowly specialist path. 17
is that most grammars existed already and could be filled soon after the 1944 Act came into force. Expansion of the rest of the publicly funded secondary sector (effectively secondary moderns at first) took longer. The comprehensive school emerged as an experiment in a few areas in the early 1950s. This alternative to the ‘tripartite’ system increased modestly at first to just over 100 schools in 1959. More rapid expansion in the number of comprehensives and a very clear decline in the number of grammar schools came from 1965 when circular 10/65 was issued by the Ministry of Education encouraging local education authorities to move to non-selective education. The number of grammar schools went from 1,298 in 1964 to 675 in 1974 and 261 in 1979. The fastest period of decline was the 1970s. Between 1971 and 1978 650 grammar schools closed, an average of more than 90 per year.
It is this Government’s policy that all good and outstanding schools should be able to expand to offer excellent places to local students. The Weald of Kent Grammar School is one of the top performing schools in the country, with 99% of its students achieving five A*-C grades in GCSE exams in 2014, and 98% of sixth form students achieving at least 3 A-Levels at grades A*-E. The Weald of Kent Grammar School submitted a proposal for expansion in 2013. At that stage the then Secretary of State could not approve the proposal as an expansion because the proposal at that time was for a mixed sex annexe when the existing school was single sex. The school submitted a revised proposal in September 2015 under which girls will be educated on both sites alongside a mixed sex sixth form. I am satisfied that this proposal represents a genuine expansion of the existing school, and that there will be integration between the two sites in terms of leadership, management, governance, admissions and curriculum. I am also satisfied that the excellent quality of learning currently delivered will be replicated across the newly expanded school. I welcome the fact that the newly expanded school will better meet the needs of parents in the local area, with 41% of existing pupils at the Weald of Kent Grammar School already travelling from the Sevenoaks area.
3.26 It is not recommended that governing bodies have an appeals committee that a complainant could go to… Should there be evidence that a complaint has not been considered properly at [governing body level] and therefore that standards of governance are not good enough, then a local authority may consider using its powers of intervention. This power provides sufficient safeguard against bad practice in schools. 19
The responsibility for funding teaching in England has been shifted further away from the public sector towards the individual (graduate). The financial impact on the sector as a whole need not be negative if they can raise enough through additional tuition fees (backed by publicly subsidised loans). The impact on individual institutions is much more open to question and it depends on what fee levels they charge and changes in student numbers. These in turn depend on the types of courses they offer, the ‘value’ placed on a degree from that institution by potential students and the extent and type of student choice and competition introduced into the sector. Changes to higher education funding and student support from 2012/13 gives some background to the freeing up of places from 2012 and more recent detail is given in HE in England from 2012: Student numbers and Higher Education Student Numbers.