16 November2016. On 18 November2016, the Supreme Court confirmed that permission to intervene in the case had been granted to the following parties: the Lord Advocate, Scottish Government; the Counsel General for Wales, Welsh Government; the ‘Expat Interveners’, George Birnie and Others; and the Independent Workers Union of Great Britain. In addition, the Attorney General for Northern Ireland has made a reference to the Court regarding devolution issues (Supreme Court, R (on the application of Miller and Dos Santos) v Secretary of State for Exiting the EuropeanUnion, 5–8 December 2016, 18 November2016). For a discussion of the “difficult and delicate issues about the constitutional relationship between Government and Parliament” arising from the case see: Supreme Court, The Supreme Court: Guardian of the Constitution? Sultan Azlan Shah Lecture 2016, Kuala Lumpur, by Lady Hale, Deputy President of the Supreme Court, 9 November2016.
Development—2014’, 18 March 2016. It should be noted that the ONS uses the OECD definition of research and development taken from the Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development (2002). That is, “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications”. This does not include education, training, bibliographic and referencing work, routine technological development and the management of existing knowledge and data (House of Commons Library, Spending on Research and Development in the UK, 21 July 2015, p 4).
The consequences and opportunities for science and research of wider decisions relating to the UK’s new relationships with the EU need to be fully fed into Government at the highest levels. The Government is meeting with stakeholders and assembling a high level forum on science and research, but we are not convinced that the needs of science and research are at the heart of the Department for Exiting the European Union’s (DExEU) thinking and planning for Brexit. Science should have a strong voice as part of the negotiations. DExEU needs a Chief Scientific Adviser urgently. The Government should also involve the interim Chair of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) as a bridge between the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and DExEU. Planning for exit negotiations is still underway, and there remains uncertainty about the future model of the relationship we will have with the EU. Nevertheless, the Government should now act to reduce uncertainty by setting out a vision for science. This should include commitments to raise science expenditure as a percentage of GDP (as we have previously urged).
From its inception, the research agenda of EU studies has been dominated by numerous issues starting from the obsession of integration and grand bargaining, continuing with the preoccupation with the day-to-day policy-making processes within the governance turn, followed by reorientation towards ideas, norms, and identities introduced with the constructivist turn (Rosamond, 2000). Each stream of research has contributed immensely towards the mapping out of social relations that underpin the EU phenomenon. Nonetheless, it was not until the critical outlook of the Gramscian formulations that the focus truly shifted towards the implications of the EU economic order for society. Owning its revival in International Relations to the works of Cox (1987; 1996) grounded in the critical historico-dialectic theory, the recent Gramscian debates within the EU scholarship attempt to shift the focus from the causes of integration to its consequences. 2 Inspired by the Gill’s (1995; 1998; 2003; 2012) theory of new-constitutionalism that provides a bold analysis of the current global socio-economic transformations driven by the restructuring of the global financial architecture, a number of scholars adopted a similar reading of the transformations unfolding in the EU, most vocal of whom are Harmes (2006), van Apeldoorn, Drahokoupil and Horn (2008), Höpner and Schäfer (2010a; 2010b), Horn (2012), Bieling (2011), Overbeek and van Apeldoorn (2012), Overbeek (2012), Bohle and Greskovits (2007). They seek to explain the asymmetric governance structure of the EU in terms of the current predicament of capitalism and its neoliberal agenda.
[…] an undoubted force for good, both academically and economically. Recent research by the London School of Economics shows that doubling the number of universities per capita could mean a 4 percent rise in future GDP per capita too. However, the current system for creating universities can feel highly restrictive, with new providers requiring the backing of an incumbent institution to become eligible to award its own degrees. This Bill levels the playing field by laying the foundations for a new system where it will be simpler and quicker to establish high-quality new providers. I am pleased that in May the hon Member for Wallasey (Ms Eagle) confirmed that the Opposition do not object to broadening choice for students by expanding the higher education sector. 11
Only two other EU member states—the Republic of Ireland and Malta—also use English as an official national language. The official national languages of the Republic of Ireland and Malta are English and Irish, and English and Maltese, respectively. When the Republic of Ireland joined the EC, on the same date as the UK in 1973, English was already due to become an official EC language because of the UK’s language nomination. Consequently, the Republic of Ireland nominated Irish as its official language, pursuant to an agreement with the EC which stipulated that the Community would only be obligated to translate primary legislation into the Irish language. 84 Irish
relocation. Indeed, the UK government seems to have been in denial about the matter until relatively recently. 55 The larger market of the EU, for which marketing authorisations are granted by the EMA is likely to mean that pharmaceuticals reach the UK market later than at present. The relocation of 700 regulatory specialist jobs means that the pharmaceutical industry may move at least some of its operations to the new home of the EMA, for ease of interaction with the regulator. 56 The UK will lose its seat (through the EU) in the ICH. 57 There are also some very specific elements of the relocation which may be settled in the withdrawal agreement. One is the question of liability for the building rental, reportedly
Government’s childcare policy strands; the early years pupil premium (implemented in April 2015 for disadvantaged 3- and 4-year olds); the free early education entitlement (for all 3- and 4-year olds and for some disadvantaged 2-year olds) and the additional 15 hour free entitlement of childcare, announced in 2016. The briefing focuses mainly on issues raised surrounding the funding and quality of provision. It does not provide detailed information on the provisions of Universal Credit (which the childcare element of working tax credits is transitioning to), or on
The EAGF consists of direct payments (annual payments to farmers to help stabilise farm revenues in the face of volatile market prices and weather conditions) and market measures (to tackle specific market situations and to support trade promotion). In the EU, more than 7.3 million farmers are CAP direct payment beneficiaries and they manage more than 170 million hectares of agricultural land. The EAGF is the largest single component of EU funding, amounting to €309 billion in 2014-20 or roughly 28% of the total EU Budget. In recent years the EAGF (and the equivalent funds in previous MFFs) have
crises attracting little or no interest from political/public opinion and where few other donors are present or other donors are reluctant to get involved because of the high risks entailed. DG ECHO’s analysis and methodology for identifying forgotten crises is based on both quantitative data (lack of media coverage or low donor support combined with high needs) and qualitative factors (field assessment by DG ECHO experts and desk officers). In 2004 the most forgotten crises and needs were identified as being in: Algeria (Western Sahara), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Haiti, India, Myanmar/Burma, Nepal, Northern Caucasus (Chechnya), Thailand (Burmese refugees), Somalia, Sudan, Uganda and Yemen. In the course of the year support totalling €239 million was allocated to these most forgotten crises, i.e. 42% of the €570 million committed from chapter 23 02 of the budget and the EDF. DG ECHO, together with humanitarian agencies and organisations, places the highest value on the ability to gain safe, unimpeded and sustained access to the humanitarian space. The DG remained vigilant and active throughout 2004 to make sure that the humanitarian principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence remain high on the agenda both within the EU institutions and in international fora. Thanks largely to this approach, a specific provision has been inserted in the draft Constitutional Treaty to safeguard humanitarian principles.
18 Viking concerned a ship, the Rosella, that sailed between Estonia and Finland. Operating under the Finnish flag, the vessel’s operator, Viking, was obliged, pursuant to Finnish law and the terms of collective bargaining agreements with Finnish trade unions, to pay the crew Finnish wages. The Rosella was running at a loss as a result of the competition presented by Estonian ships, plying the same route, who were able to pay their crews lower wages. Accordingly, Viking decided to re-flag the Rosella to Estonia and enter into new collective agreements with trade unions operating there. The ITF, an international federation of transport workers’ unions, pursuant to its ‘flags of convenience policy’ which required vessels to be flagged to the State of beneficial ownership, issued a circular requesting its affiliate trade unions not to enter into negotiations with Viking. The Finnish Seamen’s Union (FSU) also gave notice of strike action against Viking. In previous discussions, FSU had said it would not enter into a collective agreement with Viking without guarantees that, regardless of the re- flagging, the ship would continue to be covered by Finnish law and Finnish collective agreements; that a change of flag would not result in job losses for Viking employees, or change terms and conditions of employment. FSU was aware that its demands rendered re- flagging the Rosella pointless. Viking had stated that a change of flag would not result in redundancies. It brought an action for a court declaration that the activities of ITF and FSU were contrary to Article 49 TFEU, on the freedom of establishment. The ITF and FSU argued that they were exercising the fundamental right to take collective action. Consequently, a reference was made to the CJEU for a preliminary ruling. The referring court asked: first, whether collective action to induce an undertaking to enter into a collective agreement, the terms of which are liable to deter it from exercising freedom of establishment, falls within the scope of Article 49 TFEU; second, whether that provision could be relied on against trade unions, in other words, whether Article 49 had horizontal direct effect; and third, whether the collective action of the kind threatened by the ITF and FSU could constitute a restriction on the freedom of establishment and, if so, whether it could be justified.
The disappointing evolution of productivity is reflected in wages. Mean wages in Figure 5 are higher than median wages, indicating a right-skewed pay distribution, but the cyclical pattern of all series for earnings is relatively similar. According to all four measures, there has been a very substantial reduction in real pay since the 2008 recession. Although wages did not respond much initially when the recession hit, until very recently they have fallen continuously. Pay is still well below pre-recession levels as of 2016. There is also some indication that the 2008 recession led to a reduction in hours worked, as weekly pay is lagging even more than hourly pay.
A lack of understanding, reinforcement of negative stereotypes and fear of the unknown can all contribute to prejudice. Children and young people in particular learn their behaviours and form their views from their peers and the adults around them. In that context, we need to stand up and challenge discrimination and bigotry, to send a clear message that we do not tolerate such views or behaviour before they have a chance to take root. By staying silent we not only risk being seen to condone such views, we also risk leaving those who are victims isolated.
Most IDPs settle in shanty towns, building precarious shelters out of plastic, wood and cardboard. The illegal status of many of these settlements is a major impediment to the provision of basic services such as water supply and sanitation. IDPs tend to be displaced from a rural environment, where they were able to eke out an existence through subsistence farming, to towns or cities where they have great difficulty coping with the urban lifestyle. Very quickly their food security situation deteriorates and their household economy collapses. Asylum seekers and refugees often need emergency help in terms of food and sanitation immediately after arrival in their country of exile. Later they need assistance with knowing their rights and finding their way through the process of registering as a refugee and help in integrating socially and economically in their new country. Colombia is also vulnerable to natural disasters, particularly earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and floods. In November 2004 particularly serious floods affected a substantial part of the country.
There was also a decline in the number of students in both England and across the UK as a whole enrolling, and enrolled, on full-time ‘other undergraduate’ courses between 2012/13 and 2016/17, though this is masked in the overall full-time enrolment figures for the UK as a whole due to an overall rise attributable to increases in the numbers of research postgraduate, taught postgraduate and first degree undergraduate enrolments over the same period. 12 The overall rise in full-time enrolments
[The Digital Strategy] will boost our world-leading digital sectors and overcome barriers to growth and innovation, creating more of the high-skilled, high-paid jobs of the future. It will deliver the first-class digital infrastructure and advanced skills base that businesses across the country need to be able to take advantage of digital tools. And it will close the digital divide—to ensure that everyone is able to access and use the digital services
The paper also set out how the Government intended to amend the Adoption and Children Act 2002. The Act requires courts and adoption agencies, when making decisions relating to the adoption of a child, to have regard to the relationship the child has with a specific set of categories of people. The paper stated that the legislation would be amended to “explicitly add” prospective adopters to the list of people, “to ensure that the child’s relationship with them is also considered in all cases where the child has been placed with them”. 81 The paper also stated
In recent years, a number of measures have been introduced to improve digital skills in the UK. In September 2014, a new computing programme of study for the national curriculum was introduced. In March 2017, the Government published its UK Digital Strategy 2017, which suggested that 90 percent of all jobs within the next 20 years “will require some element of digital skills”. The Strategy included measures to reduce digital exclusion and improve core digital skills. It also proposed taking forward the recommendations of the Shadbolt Review to “ensure computer science students have the real-world, up to date skills needed in the digital economy”. However, Baroness Lane-Fox of Soho has suggested that the UK should celebrate not just digital skills but “digital
the withdrawal agreement being concluded, this debate has acquired greater clarity and urgency. Future scenarios can be organized into two broad categories, depending on whether the agreed documents survive ratification in the House of Commons and in the European Parliament. In both cases, however, important questions on the futurerelationship remain to be addressed later on. Preparing for Brexit must therefore proceed from a position of prudence, that is aiming for a UK-EUrelationship that is as close as possible, while not discounting the risk of political disruption leading to a ‘no deal’ outcome. The latter is also reflected in the so-called Contingency Action Plan drawn up by the European Commission. 6