It has been observed that majority of the people are living in poor housing quality or totally homeless in urban center despite all governmental policies to provide housing to the public. On the supply side, various government policies in the past have been formulated towards overcoming the huge shortage through several Housing Reform Programmes. Despite these past efforts, housing continues to be a mirage to ordinary Nigerian. Currently, there are various mass housingdelivery Programmes such as the affordable housing scheme that utilize the Public Private Partnership effort and several Private Finance Initiative models could only provide for about 3% of the required stock. This suggests the need for a holistic solution in approaching the problem. The aim of this research is to find out the problems hindering the delivery of housing in Nigeria, its effects on housing affordability. The specific objectives are; to identify the causes of housingdelivery problems, to examine different housing policies over years and to suggest way out for sustainablehousingdelivery. This paper also reviews the past and current housingdelivery Programmes in Nigeria and analyses the demand and supply side issues. It identifies the various housingdelivery mechanisms in current practice The objective of this paper therefore is to give you an insight into the delivery option for the sustainability of housing in Nigeria, given the existing delivery structures and the framework specified in the New National Housing Policy.
Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (FMLHUD, 2012), stated that Nigeria’s housing deficit is estimated at about 17 million units. This, as Ashkin (2013) puts it, required an investment of about $600 billion, based on an average house price of five million naira. This is approximately equal to the value of all the oil Nigeria has pumped since independence. Similarly, Ayedun and Oluwatobi (2011) noted that only 10 per cent of Nigerians can afford to own a house either by purchase or personal construction, as compared to the 72 percent in the United States, 78 percent in the United Kingdom, 60 percent in China, 54 percent in Korea and 92 percent in Singapore. This is against the fact that the right to housing embedded in the universal declaration of human rights and major international human rights treaties such as the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights. With this deficit however, Abuja, Nigeria’s Federal Capital City, is spotted by many unoccupied houses. This is attributed to the fact that many of these houses are not affordable to majority of residents in the city. The most vulnerable in terms of lack of access to decent and affordable housing are the low-income group. To further compound the challenge, the population of this group has been on the increase due to rapid urbanization. Gilkinson and Sexton (2007) emphasized the importance of affordability as a key requirement of sustainablehousing. Jiboye (2011) noted that to achieve sustainabledevelopment, housing policy should be in agreement with the existing national and socio-cultural realities of the country. According to Newton (1999), the real concern is the search for and the encouragement of methods and materials to achieve safe and durable houses that people can go on using with the skills and resources locally available to them. It is in this light that this paper examines the role of building materials and technology in the search for sustainablehousing in Nigeria.
The government has major challenges as the millennium development goals set and accepted by the present government has highlighted some other key issues which are yet to be tackled by them. For example in the area of education it is affected by corruption, gross inefficiency, wastefulness and duplication of projects in the same areas by the Federal government and donor agencies. (Okeshola, 2012) Millennium goal 7 focuses on integrating the principles of sustainabledevelopment into country policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources. The prospect of meeting environmental sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa is under serious threat as most countries have fared poorly on environmental issues. Yet environmental sustainability must be seen in the context of the complex links between the environment, development and poverty. (Mabugu, 2008) Nigeria has become increasingly urbanised in the past five decades. The proportion of the population living in urban areas rose from 15% in 1950 to 23.4% in 1975 and to 43.3 % in 2000 and projections indicated that more than 60% will live in the urban area by 2025. A sizeable proportion is likely to live in slums if care is not taken. (Millennium development report 2010) The issue of primary education, which, if properly implemented, would go a long way in helping to educate the masses about the dangers of indiscriminate energy consumption and the advantages of recycling. Although the economic situation has created a country of forced recyclers, there are still other issues of primary healthcare, gender equality, water, sanitation and Aids. The government can be made to realize that by creating a good housing infrastructure it would alleviate some of these issues especially water provision, sanitation and better healthcare. It would also reduce the transference of disease as less people crammed into a room or house and reduction in urban slums always minimizes transference of illnesses. In line with the MDG targets, financing focuses on developing city wide infrastructure and upgrading slums to improve living conditions and enhance economically productive activities. (Millennium development report 2010)
Sustainabledevelopment on the other hand has been defined by several authors but the meaning remain the same irrespective of the circumstances under which the concept is used. According to the National Affordable Housing Agency (NAHA) of Britain, sustainabledevelopment is described as a means of ensuring a better life for all categories of people both young and old, for present and future generations (NAHA, 2006). However, in terms of housingdelivery systems, Jiboye (2011) defines sustainability as the development that is all inclusive in terms of social, economic and environment through the provision of adequate social services including housing, functional and livable environment for both the present and future occupant of the environment. Several housingdelivery policies by the Nigerian government have failed to yield the desired result hence the housing deficit in Nigeria is put at over 17millions. Previous report has shown that over eighty-five percent of the urban population lives in rented accommodation and spend close to 50% of their income on rents. Of these rented apartments, more than 90% are privately owned which is mainly due to inadequate mortgage financing (Fin-Mark Trust, 2010).
However, new approaches and areas of interest was explored by Oladapo (2006), Howley (2010) and Leaveman, Steven & Bordess (2010) where occupants’ satisfaction was analysed in relation to intangible factor such as maintenance, safety and security. In addition, studies of Husin et al. (2011), Ibem & Amole (2011), Jay & Bowen (2011) and Hashim et al. (2012) indicated a shift in focus of post occupancy studies to public low income residential housing evaluation with particular interest in identifying factors that influence occupants’ satisfaction emphasising safety, quality and design. Most recent studies on post occupancy evaluation, whether empirical or exploratory, focused on the impacts of physical attributes of building such as number and size of rooms, toilets, kitchen and their impact on occupants’ satisfaction (Ibem, 2012; Jiboye, 2012; Mohit & Azim, 2012). This study went a little further to evaluate both the tangible and intangible building features of the public housing based on conditions of the features, occupants satisfaction with the features and the occupants experience with the performance of the features. This is to identify the building features that influence overall performance of public housing in developing countries.
The infusion of ICT into public administration enhances efficiency in the delivery of services to the people. Heber (1990) in his own view maintains that ICT helps in taking high quality decisions and at the same time saves time. It is in line with the laudable roles that the federal government of Nigeria in order to ensure the full exploitation of the potentials of ICTs in sustainable democracy laid foundation for e-government in Nigeria (Aragba-Akpore, 2004).
The Nigerian economy was previously almost entirely dependent on agriculture for many years before oil was discovered in 1956. In other words, prior to the discovery of petroleum in Nigeria, agriculture was the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. Agricultural enterprise such as cocoa, groundnut, oil palm and cotton production accounted for a large chunk of foreign exchange earnings for Nigerian, thereby showing the important role agriculture has played and continues to play in the history and development of Nigeria. Global agricultural activities have become sophisticated and knowledge management according to UNDP Ethiopia (2012) can play a pivotal role in enhancing agricultural productivity and addressing the problem of food insecurity. If properly managed, it enables appropriate knowledge and information to reach knowledge intermediaries and smallholder farmers timely. Such delivery of knowledge and information undoubtedly minimizes the risk and uncertainty smallholder farmers face from production to marketing of their produce. But, to effectively engage in agricultural knowledge management, adequate mechanisms are needed for generating, capturing, and disseminating knowledge and information through the use of effective processes and institutional arrangements. After the creation, sourcing or accumulation of knowledge, the knowledge has to be disseminated to users to support the innovation process. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can play a critical role in facilitating rapid, efficient, and cost effective knowledge management. Accordingly, it has been widely documented that since Nigeria’s telecommunication industry was liberalized in the year 2000, there has been an overwhelming increase in the rate of penetration of mobile phones from virtually zero to as high as 49% in 2009 (Pyramid, 2010). Such increase in access and use of mobile phones included rural areas, despite the low-income status of many rural households.
Reforms in the Civil Service in Nigeria especially after independence are necessitated due to so many reasons. As Anazodo et al (2012), observed ‘the situation of grand corruption among the Civil Servants was facilitated by the long rule of the military and its attendant practices of impunity, lack of probity and accountability among others’. World Bank (2002) also advocated for reforms in developing nations ‘there is a strong consensus in the international development community on the need for Civil Service reform in developing nations’. Some of the reforms witnessed by the civil service in Nigeria include Morgan (1963), Adebo (1971), Udoji (1974), Dotun (1988) and Ayida (1995). All the reforms were carryout to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, transparency and service delivery.
This need for effective communication can be illustrated by comparing the ap- proaches, needs and motivations of different stakeholders in their approaches to sustainabledevelopment. A research and technical approach to this problem is the development of international standards relating to sustainability and buildings. ISO 21929-1 defines a framework for the improvement of buildings’ sustainability indicators to assist the minimum functionality and performance of buildings with minimum environmental impact while improving economic and social aspects at local and global levels (ISO, 2011). Individual buildings are believed to impact on seven core protection areas of sustainabledevelopment: cultural heritage, econom- ic capital, economic prosperity, ecosystem, natural resources, health and well- being and social equity. The purpose is the protection of the areas of sustainability development, and the scope is the building life cycle.
Housing industry is one of the main drivers in any country’s development. Housing industry contributes to the economic and social development but lacking in terms of environmental protection. In contrast, sustainablehousing should reflects the sustainability delivery and contribute to ecological protection and resource- efficient.Green housing is defined as a home that is space and energy efficient, at the same time it provides healthy environment to the resident stage (Alias, Sin & Aziz, 2010). As Malaysia is a developing country, the growing of communities give a huge impact to the environment. Therefore, by adopting this green technology in construction industry, it could bring a lot of benefits in economy, social and most important is the environment. Green homes in Malaysia is still very new to consumers.
A number of issues stand out as pressing challenges militating against quantitative and qualitative housingdelivery in Onitsha. Apart from the lack of easy access to land, high cost of building materials, limited access to finance, bureaucratic procedures and high cost of land registration and titling, peculiar to Anambra State is the Anambra Property and Land Use Charge (APLUC), high personal income tax and astronomical high fees for services rendered by the lands department which has led to capital flight as potential investors have shifted their interest to neighbouring states like Delta, Enugu, Ebonyi, Imo and Abia. Onitsha which borders Delta State is worst hit as most young investors regularly develop or lease properties in Asaba for residential purposes. Bureaucratic procedures coupled with high cost of land registration and titling makes access to finance which is the engine of real estate investment limited because of lack of clean title with which to access loan capital. In view of the commercial nature of Onitsha, the preferred form of investment is real estate, provided there is easy access to credit facility to replace working capital used in real estate development. However, this has not been possible because of lack of clean title as it takes between 3-5 years to process certificate of occupancy in Anambra State. Of course no bank advances mortgage/loan facility without an acceptable title document which is difficult to procure within a reasonable time and cost in the state. To overcome this problem, most of the young generation of real estate investors has tended to invest in Asaba where it appears they can easily and cheaply purchase land, process the title document and pledge same for mortgage purposes. This has given rise to reduction in the level of housingdevelopment, scarcity of housing accommodation and ever increasing rental values of existing housing stock in Onitsha.
The provision of housing has for long has been seen as a government concern and the Federal Government has tried in different ways to tackle the nation‟s housing problems. The synthesis of government activities reveals that recent years, a series of constructive programme and far reaching actions were taken by the government to combat the housing problem. However, it is a fact that the housing problem is far from being solved, and this can be attributed to challenges of poor housing stock record keeping by the authorities concerned. The consideration of developing a potential annual or biennial housing database is therefore recommended to help achieve a sustainablehousingdelivery in Nigeria. This data base as earlier discussed in this study will be vital in future housing policies and plans. A good knowledge of the housing needs, preference, demand rate by the citizenry will be useful guide for effective housing supply or delivery by the stakeholders concerned.
Social housing provision is important in the development and growth of urban areas because it houses the most vulnerable population in need of accommodation. The study focuses on the challenges of providing social housing in urban areas in Nigeria using Port Harcourt municipality as the case study. The main aim of the study is to assess and evaluate the challenges confronting government and low-income earners in the social housingdelivery in Port Harcourt municipality. The objectives of the study are: to identify existing social housing schemes and policies in the municipality; identify and examine the challenges and suggest workable and efficient solution to the delivery of social housing in Port Harcourt municipality. The study adopted purposive sample technique and key informant method for collection of both primary and secondary data. The study identified and listed five (5) locations where social housing projects have been developed in the study area and purposely selected six (6) housing estates namely; Aggrey Housing Estate, Ndoki Housing Estate (PH Township), Khana Street Housing Estate (D/Line), Benin-Uyo Street Housing Estate (Mile 1 Diobu), Elekahia Housing Estate (Elekahia) and Abuloma Housing Estate Phase 1 (Abuloma) for sampling and 85 respondents (household heads) were randomly selected for sampling. Empirically, the study found that a total of 865 housing units have been provided between 1988-2018 and most of the occupants are not within the low-income earners category as defined by the National Housing Policy (2012) which has further compounded the housing problems of the aforementioned group. The study also found that government is the sole provider of social housing in the study area and funding has become a
its residents needs, is a fundament human right, thus, livable housing. Then, livable housing is a place or housing to be, one that is attractive, affordable, safe, environmentally sustainable, culturally inclusive, socially cohesive and diverse housing connected to local shops, education, employment, public open space and leisure, health facilities, community services, and cultural opportunities; through walking, cycling infrastructure and convenient public transport (Lowe et al., 2013). Accordingly, housing livability shows the wellbeing of an area and entails characteristics that make an area or a place where individuals want to reside and stay now and possibly in the future (Competition, 2008). Therefore, concept of livable housing needs an understanding to synergistically and effectively deal with pressing issues such as climate change, slums prevention, human and economic development.
Despite the fundamental importance of housing, adequate supply has remained a major problem. According to Ademiluyi (2010), in spite of the fundamental roles of housing in the life of every individual and nation, and in spite of the United Nation‟s realization of the need to globally attain adequate shelter for all, the housing crises remain among the global problems and a grave and rising challenges facing urban and some rural residents, particularly in most developing countries. Successive governments of Nigeria have proffered various housingdelivery policies and strategies for improving housingdelivery in Nigeria. Various government interventions and huge investments in housing provision have been on since even before Nigeria gained political independence in 1960. Despite all the interventions and investments in the housingdevelopment, housing problem in Nigeria still remain incurable as majority of Nigerians still lack access to housing. It becomes imperative therefore to check the various policies of government over the years once again so as to identify why the policies have not been able to achieve its goal of housing provision. This will enable suggestion of corrective measures which are needed towards ensuring endurable practical solutions to the housing problems.
The respondents revealed that, politics in public housing significantly affect the output level in housingdelivery. A lot of promises were made one of which is housing for all but, the delivery process is not efficient enough to bring a significant change in public housing, due to misplaced priorities, mismanagement of public fund. The housing deficit was about 12 million as at 2006 (Yar’aduwa, 2007). High population growth is responsible for the high number of housing needs coupled with unsatisfactory performance in housingdelivery. While, in 2012 the housing needs is about 18 million (Adedeji and Olotuah, 2012). The political office holders are not usually tried in the court of law; this affects performance in public housing. Since, provision of housing is always deficient.Figure 3.3 depicts the effects of poor governance on housing, which contributesto public housing issues development in Nigeria.
Having recognized the vital role that housing and associated infrastructure play in the socio-economic development of societies, most governments traditionally entrust their delivery to state-owned monopolies (Njoh, 2006). However, rapid population and poor finances throughout the world is seriously outstripping the capacity of most governments to provide housing efficiently. The growth of cities, particularly in the developing countries is increasing at an alarming rate. In the past decades, the percentage of people living in the cities of the developing world has tripled (Bennett et al., 1999). This unprecedented urban growth has created an enormous challenge to the provision of housing and associated infrastructure. While the population and urban growth keep increasing, public sectors are characterized by inefficiency (Harris, 2003; Nsasira et al., 2013) and limited resources (Jin, 2010).
The process of development control involves the regulation of the detailed aspects of physical development. There are two levels of development control: the macro and the micro. At the macro level, the objective is to control the subdivision of land. The subdivision plan should be drawn at the appropriate scale and details. At the micro level, the objective is to control the development of the individual plot and structure within the sub-division. At the level of individual, development control essentially involves the designing of building plan to satisfy specified standards and ensuring that the actual development conforms to the approved plan. Physically and environmentally, Anambra State today shows no signs of an effective development control or regulation. Structures are built anyhow anywhere. High rising buildings are constructed with hardly any road access to them. At the macro level indiscriminate sub- division of plots is taking place daily in low density layouts in the state. At the micro level it takes between 6 – 12 months or more for a plan to be approved. A lot of relevant and irrelevant documents are required for plan approval by the town planning authorities in the state like (Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIA), Undertaken of a Structural Engineer to supervise the construction and unreceipted approval/processing fee. The foregoing identified administrative corruption, bureaucratic bottlenecks pushes up the cost of approval thereby negatively impacting housingdelivery by the private sector.
Housing, despite being one of the essential elements in the sustainability of human existence, remains a challenge particularly in the global south. Nigeria, the most populous country in west Africa has a gross housing deficit of seventeen million houses. This deficit keeps increasing due to high rate of urbanization and population growth thereby resulting in high rent, overcrowding and poor living conditions. Numerous research studies predominantly focused on investigating the challenges of housingdelivery on the basis of quantity and quality perspectives. However, there is a dearth of evidence-based studies regarding the challenges militating against sustainablehousing provision. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting an overview of the housing provision and the challenges militating against sustainablehousing provision in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. The article indicated that despite concerted efforts involving the adoption of both public sector “provider” and “enabler” approaches, challenges still exit towards sustainablehousingdelivery particularly to the low-income group. The paper recommends that housing policies and programs in the country should be designed to address the multi benefit objectives of social, economic and environmental dimensions of housing so as to achieve sustainablehousingdelivery in the country.
The study employed exploratory research design through the utilization of focus group discussions and expert survey. This method is appropriate in gaining insights about a research problem with few studies of reference, in a bid to generate new ideas through the development of tentative theories, hypotheses, or models (Kothari, 2004). This method was used to measure all 3 hypotheses of the study. The study analysed data from primary sources obtained through questionnaire and oral interview schedule. The population of the study is 160 Estate Surveyors and Valuers cutting across the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Physical Planning Units of Local Governments within the study area; Estate Surveying and Valuation firms, Real Estate Developers Association of Nigeria, the Academia, Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria and Securities and Exchange Commission in the selected South East States in Nigeria. This wa s obtained from the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers’ (NIESV’s) Directory of Registered Members and Firms (2017).