Top PDF Human factors in the design of sustainable built environments

Human factors in the design of sustainable built environments

Human factors in the design of sustainable built environments

The extent of the impact to natural ecosystems, market demands, and legislative requirements, are all contributing to the awareness that the design of human habitats can make substantive responses to contemporary challenges. However, the principal difficulty in engaging with the agenda of sustainability in disciplines of the built environment is how best to interpret this often contentious concept (EDUCATE, 2012). A Google search of the term currently provides over 40 million returns, yet its central meaning remains elusive, defying consensus beyond a relatively shallow one. By far, its most commonly cited characterization originates from the 1987 Brundtland Report, where the UN Commissioners asserted that development was to be considered sustainable if it “meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1997). This is a core departing point, although it is important to scratch beneath the surface of this definition and question the actual relationship between sustainability ‘rhetoric’ in theoretical discourse, and its associated meanings and assumed benefits in practical applications. In the built environment domain, this accentuates the risks of a ‘deterministic’ interpretation of the act of building design, whereas the labelling ‘sustainable design’ – almost as a by-product of design itself – has been often deceptively associated solely with energy ratings, technical features, and CO 2 reductions. Rather than providing a
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Designing geovisual analytics environments and displays with humans in mind

Designing geovisual analytics environments and displays with humans in mind

Jacquinod and Bonaccorsi (2019) [29] also examine 3D geovisualizations, yet in another context. Thanks to sociological theories and from a communication studies’ perspective, this article analyzes the possibilities provided by 3D geovisualizations to risk managers and citizens, in the context of flood mitigation planning. A study has been conducted, based on 8 years (2009–2017) of action-research projects aiming at better understanding social uses of 3D geovisualizations in urban planning based on the co-production of 3D geovisualizations and the evaluation of their uses and benefits in practice regarding the risk. The main result of this study is the variety of roles that a given 3D geovisualization can play in a single situation, that could not be anticipated, but that they can be used to support exchanges of ideas and collaborative thinking, acting as a medium that facilitates the decision making. Nevertheless, a necessary appropriation of 3D geovisualizations by their users is claimed. A set of recommendations for 3D geovisualization design is provided, in particular regarding the balance between schematization and narration. An interesting part of the evaluation concerns the qualification of the level of engagement of the public (resonance, submersion, critical distance, reject). Benefiting from theoretical pluridisciplinary framework can offer the possibility to integrate into the design or evaluation of geovisualizations, human factors depending on the individuals using the devices [30].
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Acrology and Arcosanti : Towards a sustainable built environment

Acrology and Arcosanti : Towards a sustainable built environment

reforming the built environment within a rapidly urbanizing world are now being considered. Within the academic and policy literature emerging around the notion of sustainable cities, a number of different models have been developed which represent different views of how such environments might be realized (Haughton & Hunter, 1994). Some advocate the re-designing the physical fabric of the city in order to improve resource efficiency and bring about more self-reliant settlements. This approach involves the frugal use of energy and natural resources while working within the carrying capacity of the local region. It also implies that the ecological footprint and energy budget for human settlements are vastly reduced. A move towards a smaller, more compact settlement pattern interspersed with productive areas for collecting energy, to grow crops for food, fiber and energy, and recycle wastes has been suggested as the way forward. The compact city idea is now being promoted as a major component of the various strategies emerging to tackle these problems (Breheny, 1992). The rationale for its implementation lies in a set of benefits that are seen as the outcome of more compact urban forms in which travel distances are reduced lessening fuel emissions, rural land is saved from development, local facilities are supported, and local areas become more autonomous.
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The Healthy Built Environments Program: a joint initiative of the NSW Department of Health and the University of NSW

The Healthy Built Environments Program: a joint initiative of the NSW Department of Health and the University of NSW

Two health and built environment research projects are currently underway within the Healthy Built Environments Program. The first brings together industry partners NSW Landcom and Heart Foundation, and the Sydney South West Area Health Service. The Australian Research Council (ARC) has funded an investigation into how urban environments support human health. Tracking residents’ behaviours over several years, the aim is to identify environmental design features, social interventions and locational qualities in selected neighbourhood sites which positively benefit human health. The research uses a multidisciplinary approach with its team from urban planning, development and health. The second project is funded by the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI). A focussed investigation for one year, it examines the health impacts of housing. The study will identify the current level of knowledge and major research gaps, prioritise these, and propose ways to best explore the highest priority research and policy development needs. An ‘Investigative Panel’ comprising leading researchers, public health and housing policy officials from across Australasia and New Zealand will be convened to do this.
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Conference proceedings 2004

Conference proceedings 2004

Urban planning is playing an important role in achieving sustainable city development. With the development of Information Technology (IT), more and more digital systems are applied in urban planning process, which refers to e- planning systems. Building IT-based e-planning systems has been considered as a way to ensure an efficient and effective urban planning process, which can encourage public participation and make planning more transparent and more easily understood for interested citizens. As a result, there is a growing need for publicly access to these e-planning systems. During the design process of these systems, the hardware in use is only one aspect that needs be considered. Trying to understand the user is also essential to make system knowledgeable, sensitive to public’s needs and exhibit intelligence. This ongoing research is trying to use human-centred approach to enhance the interaction with e-planning systems for public participation in urban planning process. A prototype of interface will be built based on this approach. In this presentation, the research background, aim, objectives, methodology, scope and the current outcomes from this research will be discussed one by one.
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Study on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) design for sustainable built environment

Study on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) design for sustainable built environment

Sustainability in construction industry has become an issue when designing a new building [1] and the conventional on-site construction methods have long been criticised for imposing rigorous human health and safety risk, as well as causing significant environmental destruction [2]. Meanwhile, PCSP can be perceived as an alternative approaches in creating and maintaining the sustainable built environment. Finsen & Georgia (2011) [1] said that this wall system can maximise benefits from integrated strategies, which focus on all of the building’s materials and systems, as well as the way they interact.
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Arcology and arcosanti: towards a sustainable built environment

Arcology and arcosanti: towards a sustainable built environment

In the developed world, urban environments consume so many resources that they are dramatically reducing the global resource base, or natural capital, on which we depend. They account for around 78% of the carbon emissions from human activities, 76% of industrial wood use, and 60% of the water tapped for use by people (Brown, 1999). In their current form, as cities grow they need to draw on more and more of the earth’s capital. The ecological footprint (source of resources and sites of waste disposal and pollution) of cities like London, Tokyo, and Paris extend far beyond their physical boundaries (Rees & Wackernagel, 1996). The amount of land needed to generate the resources to sustain the population of London (e.g. with food and timber), for example, is only slightly less than the entire land area of the United Kingdom (Girardet, 1996). In the developing world’s fastest growing cities (Phoenix, Los Angeles, and San Diego in the American Southwest) up to 85 metric tons of natural resources are consumed per person per year (World Resource Institute, 1996). This level of consumption represents a truly massive scale of environmental alteration. Extending this kind of resource intensive economic model to developing nations, as is now occurring around the world, is simply not environmentally sustainable.
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An environment built to include rather than exclude me: Creating inclusive environments for human well-being

An environment built to include rather than exclude me: Creating inclusive environments for human well-being

Abstract: Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the “absence of disease” are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) more holistic definition of health as “wellbeing” is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100) living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples’ experience of “inclusive community environs” and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include
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Building a Sustainable and Desirable Economy-in-Society-in-Nature

Building a Sustainable and Desirable Economy-in-Society-in-Nature

Now, however, we live in a radically different world—one that is relatively full of humans and their built capital infrastructure. We need to reconceptualize what the economy is and what it is for. We have to first remember that the goal of any economy should be to sustainably improve human well-being and quality of life and that material consumption and GDP are merely means to that end. We have to recognize, as both ancient wisdom and new psychological research tell us, that too much of a focus on material consumption can actually reduce human well-being. We have to understand better what really does contribute to sustainable human well- being and recognize the substantial contributions of natural and social capital, which are now the limiting factors to improving well-being in many countries. We have to be able to distinguish between real poverty, in terms of low quality of life, and low monetary income. Ultimately we have to create a new model of the economy that acknowledges this new “full- world” context and vision. 2
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Application of BIM in sustainability analysis

Application of BIM in sustainability analysis

Sustainable design (also called environmental design, environmentally sustainable design, environmentally-conscious design, etc) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment and services to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. The intention of sustainable design is to ―eliminate negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design‖. Manifestations of sustainable designs require no non-renewable resources, impact on the environment minimally, and relate people with the natural environment. Applications of this philosophy range from the microcosm — small objects for everyday use, through to the macrocosm — buildings, cities, and the earth’s physical surface. It is a philosophy that can be applied in the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, urban planning, engineering, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, and fashion design. Sustainable design is mostly a general reaction to global environmental crises, the rapid growth of economic activity and human population, depletion of natural resources, damage to ecosystems and loss of biodiversity.
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STUDY OF TRADIONAL GOAN HOUSES FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

STUDY OF TRADIONAL GOAN HOUSES FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

Abstract: Indian traditional architecture has remained a testimony to the ancient wisdom which we had had inherited from our ancestors. Traditional architecture has been referred as school of sustainability. Be it be the socio-cultural aspects or environment and ecology by age. The respect to nature in terms of climatic responsiveness and optimal use of building material from locale co-existed in traditional architecture. The elements of environment like water, air, solar system, forest resources etc. They are valuable & big assets for human welfare. Since Technology & industrial development began, man started to use & over exploitation of Resources. Most of the building materials we use are made from natural resources. Today building industry is mainly responsible for spoiling the Earth atmosphere. And such an overutilization increases the demand of resources & man will face the ecological crisis &Can degrade the natural resources & thereby nature. So we have to maintain the ecosystem balanced. That means the conservation of all natural resources can sustain the life on Earth. The design of Traditional Goan Houses demonstrate the maximum use of natural materials, Use of natural light, use of natural air & its circulation etc. so as to get maximum benefits to users even on micro climate level. The design arrangements & natural materials, responds positively in all seasons & keep the houses cheerful & comfortable, throughout the year. This study aims to analyze traditional Goan houses, and to reveal their sustainable characteristics. In the scope of the work, the traditional Goan houses are examined in terms of sustainable design principles. Before explaining more about the obtained solutions within traditional Goan houses, in order to present a better understanding to the work, the following part of the study continues with the explanations of the general information about Old Goa, and main characteristics of the traditional Goan houses.
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A critical review of sustainable built environment development in Iran

A critical review of sustainable built environment development in Iran

The geographical and geological situation of Iran depicts a country in a stressed climate. In most parts of the country, heat and dryness of air and soil have prevailed for centuries, which is why wind, water and the sun have played signi fi cant roles in traditional Iranian architecture and urban planning. Environmentally responsive architecture and urban planning in older Iranian cities led to a series of logical solutions to aid human comfort (Eiraji and Akbari Namdar, 2011). At the urban level, the city network, street patterns and urban structure orientation in older Iranian cities such as Kerman, Isfahan and Yazd (Figure 1) were shaped based on geographical and climatic features such as wind direction and sun exposure (Arjomand Kermani and Luiten, 2009), and the spatial morphology of these cities is compact and dense (Figure 2). It is considered that the application of appropriate urban form, type of construction, spatial distribution of land use and optimal density can reduce energy consumption in urban environments (Owens, 1991). The compact nature of both the urban fabric and individual buildings in older Iranian cities minimises heat gain in summer and heat loss in winter, therefore leading to reduced energy needs for cooling or heating. Such a design also allows for a very noticeable reduction in the whole infrastructure network and transportation system (NematiMehr, 2008).
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Search | Preprints

Search | Preprints

Can ‘restoration and therapy in design’ signify something more than the places like hospitals and healing gardens? Can those restorative environments be brought inside the working and living environments to mitigate the psychological problem at the source? The main objective of this paper is to look at the strategies and developments of Biophilic design with respect to therapy and restoration in order to achieve sustainability in terms of quality of life within the immediate built-environment. The paper explores the mental health issues under the domains of built-environment and indoor environment with respect to their connection with nature. Biophilic design has gained a favourable momentum within the last four decades and is now visualised as a medium that bridges the gap between humans and the nature. Out of a variety of measures of sustainable environmental design, biophilic design focuses on the end-results of naturally nurtured or inspired habitats and workplaces. It embodies strategies of Green and Intelligent buildings, works as a mitigation strategy for foul indoor environment and establishes
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Built environment or household life cycle stages which explains sustainable travel more?: Case of Kyoto Osaka Kobe, Japan, built area

Built environment or household life cycle stages which explains sustainable travel more?: Case of Kyoto Osaka Kobe, Japan, built area

Changing the built environment has been suggested as a method to reduce automobile use (3) and some studies have shown a difference in travel behavior between neighborhoods built prior to 1945 and those built after (4). On the other hand, some authors assert that individual and household circumstances have greater influence over travel behavior than do land use patterns (5). Personal preference may also contribute to differences seen between neighborhoods. If people who prefer to walk or cycle seek out neighborhoods where they feel comfortable doing so, the impact of the built environment may be exaggerated. This is termed “residential self-selection” and is discussed further below. Other research on the same group of people before and after a move suggest that travel behavior may be especially entrenched for private automotive vehicle users (6, 7) and that the built environment has low explanatory power.
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Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009

Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009

To include these pressures, we used the inter-calibrated DMSP-OLS layers 28 used for the built environments mapping. The equations for intercalibrating across years are second order quadratics trained using data from Sicily, which was chosen as it had negligible infrastructure change over this period and where DN average roughly 14 (ref. 28). For our purposes, DN values of six or less where excluded from consideration prior to calibration of data, as the shape of the quadratic function leads to severe distortion of very low DN values. The inter-calibrated DN data from 1994 were then rescaled using an equal quintile approach into a 0–10 scale (Table 2). To scale the data, we divided the calibrated night light data into 10 equal sample bins (each bin with a DN greater than 1 contains the same number of pixels) based on the DN values and then assigned them scores of 1 through 10, starting with the lowest DN bin. DN values of 0 were assigned a score of 0. The thresholds used to bin the 1994 data where then used to convert the 2009 data into a comparable 0–10 scale.
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The Articulation of the High-Rise Residential Building Envelope: A Review from the Perspective of the Sustainability Concept

The Articulation of the High-Rise Residential Building Envelope: A Review from the Perspective of the Sustainability Concept

architects to be willing to understand a place, be sensitive toward place, build without damaging, understand orientation, place naturalness, preservation and even transportation to and from the place; 2) Connecting with Nature: the correlation between a place and its natural characteristics although the building is located in an urban context; 3) Understanding the Natural Processes: understand the natural process that will happen, what the life cycle of environment and human beings is; 4) Understanding Environmental Impact: awareness of every impact of the developmental process by always conducting an evaluation of buildings, materials, and even frpm the stage of the construction process; 5) Embracing Co-creative Design Processes: listening to every input from various parties: collaboration with consultants, expertise from various scientific disciplines, the local neighborhood community, the prospective user; 6) Understanding People: a good sustainable design should be able to accommodate culture, race, ethnicity, religion and various human interests. The attitude of empathy should also be developed toward a powerless community (community with disabilities)
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Clients' activities at the design front end

Clients' activities at the design front end

As a consequence of the lack of redesign expertise, service models were not sufficiently defined when design development started. Therefore, the healthcare delivery system redesign was influencing and being influenced by specific building requirements. One of the biggest tensions … is that the buildings agenda drives the process, rather than the service agenda... I have people who are managing it hard to meet the deadlines, and practitioners are saying we haven’t got through that yet, so we don’t know if we want that sink on the right or on the left hand side, so stop asking us until we have worked through that... there is a tension really in trying to control the flow … of aligning the service redesign processes and managing change with people… and the building is two steps ahead rather than the service redesign - PCT director of
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Valuing sustainable change in the built environment : using SuROI to appraise built environment projects

Valuing sustainable change in the built environment : using SuROI to appraise built environment projects

Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) endures as the predominant tool used to assess the relative economic merits of public and third sector built environment projects (HM Treasury, 2003; Ding, 2005; Brandon and Lombardi, 2011; Bichard, 2015). CBA is designed to capture the trade-off between the total benefits received by society from the proposed project against the anticipated societal costs. Literature, however, suggests the use of price determined from existing market transactions to evaluate social and environmental costs and benefits present a serious limitation to those seeking appraising sustainable benefit (Spash, 1997; Ding, 2005). At the core of this argument are concerns that the price mechanism is unable to value the indirect impacts of a project that form a major part of the sustainable benefit likely to emerge, given that such benefits are typically of an intangible nature such as wellbeing or stronger communities making them immensely difficult to value using conventional technics (Vardakoulias, 2013; Bichard, 2015). Thus such benefits are at best seen as secondary or at worse disregarded in the final analysis of a project’s merit when CBA is adopted. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, the New Economics Foundation (2013) identifies the introduction of alternative forms of cost benefit analysis designed both to complement the conventional approach and to overcome these difficulties, by providing additional mechanisms to allow project teams to capture the wider social impacts of both policy and publically supported projects (Fujiwara, 2010; Fujiwara and Campbell 2011). These alternative forms include Social Cost Benefit Analysis (SCBA), a form of cost benefit analysis recommended for the evaluation of large scale policy initiatives where decision makers seek to express a proposal’s value to UK society (Dunn, 2012), and SROI, an adjusted form of CBA adopting a much broader view of value that places far more importance on the appraisal of impact and outcomes associated with aspects of wellbeing and stronger communities that sit at the core of regeneration activities (Nicholls et al, 2012; Vardakoulias, 2013).
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Performance Evaluation of Energy Conscious Building by Using Integrated Approach towards Sustainability

Performance Evaluation of Energy Conscious Building by Using Integrated Approach towards Sustainability

Researcher defined green building as: healthy facilities designed and built in are source-efficient manner, using ecologically based principles. It is worth noting that green building has been used as a tem interchangeable with sustainable building and high performance building. Researcher pointed out that there are four pillars of green buildings, i.e. minimization of impacts on the environment, enhancing the health conditions of occupants, there turn on investment to developers and local community, and the life cycle consideration during the planning and development process. Common elements of these definitions are: life cycle perspective, environmental sustainability, health issues and impacts on the community.
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Ten questions concerning air fresheners and indoor built environments

Ten questions concerning air fresheners and indoor built environments

Fragrance-free policies have been implemented in workplaces, schools, hospitals, and other indoor environments, around the world, to restrict the use of fragranced products such as air fresh- eners. An example is the [48]; which states that “ Scented or fra- granced products are prohibited at all times in all interior space owned, rented, or leased by CDC. This includes the use of: Incense, candles, or reed diffusers; Fragrance-emitting devices of any kind; Wall-mounted devices, similar to fragrance-emitting devices, that operate automatically or by pushing a button to dispense de- odorizers or disinfectants; Potpourri; Plug-in or spray air fresh- eners; Urinal or toilet blocks; Other fragranced deodorizer/re- odorizer products. ”
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