Abstract – Humanvitalphysiologicalparameters (HVPP) monitoring with embedded sensors integration has improved the smart system technology in this era of a ubiquitous platform. Several IoT-based healthcare applications have been proposed for remote health monitoring. Most of the devices developed require one on one contact with doctors before any medical diagnosis is undertaken which make it difficult for frequent visitation to the health center. In this paper, embedded heartbeat and temperature sensors for remote monitoring have been developed using Arduino lily as the system controller and processing unit. The Bluetooth low power enables with Android mobile apps is used for remote monitoring and communication of HVPP in a real time. This gives medical personnel and individual customers opportunity of monitoring their vitalphysiologicalparameters such as heartbeat rate and body temperature. However, it moderates sudden attack of chronic ailment like hypertension and reduces congestion of patient in the hospitals.
Fig. 1 shows the configuration of the system. It is observed that the system consists of a number of sensor nodes that wirelessly communicate to a central coordinator in a star network topology. Wireless sensor network is a promising field that integrates sensor technologies, embedded system and wireless communication together to produce small, low cost, low power and reliable system capable of monitoring specific events. For this system, wireless protocol suite used because it provides end-to-end connectivity. The coordinator acts as a router which makes connectivity between sensor nodes and end device via internet of things , end device may be computer or mobile in which IoT platform allows monitoring of resources data from sensor node . Each sensor node is may equipped with accelerometer, temperature sensor, pulse oximeter SpO2 & heart-rate sensor and galvanic skin response sensor. The sensor nodes are attached to the humanbody and operate completely untethered. They are powered by battery. 4 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SYTEM DESIGN
RFID is a low-cost, low-power technology consisting of passive and/or battery-assisted passive (BAP) devices, named tags, which are able to transmit data when powered by the electromagnetic field generated by an interrogator, named reader. Since passive RFID tags do not need a source of energy to operate, their lifetime can be measured in decades, thus making the RFID technology well suited in a variety of application scenarios, including the healthcare. The recent availability of UHF RFID tags with increased capabilities, e.g. sensing and computation represents a further added value. In fact, RFID-based sensing in healthcare enables zero- power, low-cost, and easyto-implement monitoring and transmission of patients’ physiologicalparameters.
A low-cost sensor network system implementation to monitor crucial parameters in an indoor environment is proposed in the paper .To provide a improved risk management strategy to prevent causalities in a Reinforced Concrete (RC) and masonry building during earthquake and floods, a monitoring system is proposed in paper  which screens the health of the structural elements in RC and warn the authorities if there is any physical damage. The paper  has presented a water quality monitoring system using WSN to supply clean and safe water. The laborious, time consuming, ineffective method of conventional monitoring process which involves a long procedure, from collecting the samples manually and to send them to laboratory for analysis to get the results which are not real-time in nature has been replaced by an alternative process based on WSN which are very affordable and can be operated remotely and provide real-time results with least human intervention. In paper  a hierarchical routing protocol for water quality monitoring of river or lake is proposed by deploying a huge number of inexpensive sensor nodes in a large area using hierarchical communication structure, which reduces the overhead in communication and increases the life span of WSN as compared to LEACH, its predecessor. To monitor the traffic volume, performing vehicle classification, an IoT basedwireless sensor system is presented in this paper .In the paper  a WSN basedmonitoring system to monitor Soil quality parameters such as humidity, temperature, acidity, and conductivity is proposed. A wearable smart sensor device is designed in the paper for an elderly person which can detect the accidental falls of the person by monitoring the treble, using consumer home networks. The paper  proposed in-pipe monitoring and on-the-fly assessment of water quality in real time for drinking water distribution system by using low-cost sensor nodes. A real-time damage detection application by using an open source data analytics WSN called Snow Fort is used for structural health monitoring is proposed in the paper .The paper  introduced two resolutions which are not equally exclusive by analyzing two usual situations involved in seawater quality
Abstract: To collet humanphysiological indicators with RF technology, wireless system is a new cutting-edge areas of research. It uses different functions of sensors to collect the body's physiological indicators by small loop antenna, BPF, transceiver switch and PA to send and receive dates. Now most researches are based on 2.4GHz, but this method has small area of coverage, small gain of antenna, and it is possible to introduce big errors when testing. Therefore, this paper studies and explores the feasibility of antenna based on 433MHz. To design the RF circuit, calculations and simulations are made to get the parameters of antenna. The small loop antenna based on 433MHz has a more broad area of coverage, lower power, lower cost, and higher reliability.
Study about Internet of Things (IoT) technology has gain popularity and becoming important for solving more problem in various disciplines, for example water monitoring system  , flood monitoring  and weather station application  . Elias S. Manolakos et al had proposed a study on wireless sensor network application to detect hazard. The purpose of the study is to monitor and report the environmental status by physical parameters such as the temperature at a rate that can be adapted to current conditions so as not to waste energy and bandwidth  . Thinagaran Perumal et al  had proposed a study on the Internet of Things for water monitoring system. In their project, they detect on desired parameters by using water level sensor. They proved that when the water level reached at a certain point, the signal will be feed in real time to social network like Twitter. Besides, a cloud server is used to display the result in the dashboard. Priya J et al  had proposed a study on IoT based water level monitoring system to inform the user on water level of liquid prevent it from overflowing. The ultrasonic sensors is used to detect and compare the water level with the container depth. While Muthamil Selvan.S et al  had proposed a research on Automatic Water Level Indicator using Ultrasonic sensors and GSM Module. IoT describes a system consist of sensors that connect items in the physical world are via wireless or wired Internet connections. Here, things are interconnected without human intervention to automatically identify intended activities  . Today, the Internet has become an integral part of the lives of people, influencing almost every human being's for everyday activities. Due to the continuous effects of a wide community, the Internet of Things (IoT) is developing enormously every day.
Kurup et al. proposed the first in-body path loss (PL) model for homogeneous human muscle tissue at 2.45 GHz in 2009 . Later they reported an extended PL model, which includes the conductivity and permittivity of the human tissues in . However, those PL models and other studies are antenna-specific and only applicable to the virtual family models provided by either of the SEMCAD X or FEKO software packages [4,5,14,15]. In this paper, the PL model is obtained by using software from Computer Simulation Technology (CST)  and the recently proposed 3D heterogeneous humanbody model developed by Kurup et al. . The PL result is believed to be more accurate because the CST software takes the loss tangent parameters of human tissues and organs into account in the simulations and the deviation value is smaller than that seen in [11–15,17]. Furthermore, it is vital to choose suitable digital modulation techniques to overcome the strong power attenuation over the shadow fading channel caused by the intra-body environment . The relationship between a large range of data rates from 250 kbps to 30 Mbps and the operating communication distance for safe transmission powers is discussed and investigated when using the selected modulation schemes. Routing protocols have been reported to discover and analyze the most energy efficient route [19,20]. Relay based protocol solutions have also been studied that minimize the energy consumption of the in-body sensor nodes by reducing the length of the transmission distance . A two relay based WBAN routing protocol has been investigated by Deepak and Babu  and the results show that the proposed routing scheme outperforms direct communication and single relay methods in terms of transmission reliability and energy efficiency. Cooperative communication techniques have gained significant attention as an effective strategy to improve energy efficiency and spatial diversity in wireless fading channels . However, the incremental relaying routing protocol strategy has not been investigated in I2O WBANs.
real time monitoring gadgets promotes the medical services extended to all citizens in future. With revolutionary techniques like artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, machine learning, internet of things and various statistical techniques in this digital era paves the assurance of such ambulatory assistant device. The dependence mapping exists between the physiological measures and methods discussed are utilized in designing a real time monitoring device with reduced sensor and circuitry, works based on acquired single biological signal. For respiration and BP estimation no single method performs well. A novel collection of methods that predicts the respiratory signal and BP well can be investigated further by exploring the technical factors influencing the accuracy through machine learning algorithms.
Vital sign monitoring system is an upcoming field in health science. It meets the Information Technology with Communication for human services conveyance to provincial and remote territories other than a few different applications in the wellbeing division.It might be as basic as to wear framework and after that let Doctor have all understanding's information next to him.Experts talking about restorative issues and looking for counsel more than a basic phone is as unpredictable as transmission of electronic medicinal records of clinical data, demonstrative testsfor example electrocardiogram, blood pressure, temperature.Essential sign checking framework do constant and store and forward intelligent therapeutic information transmitted with the assistance of IT based equipment and programming. As indicated by the World Health Organization, Vital sign checking framework is characterized as, "The conveyance of human services, where space is a divisor, by all experts utilizing Technologies for the trading of substantial information for diagnosis". The basic sign checking system means "Therapeutic Diagnosis at distance". As we expressed here with two Approaches Real Time and Store and Forward. In Real Time Approach quick Data activity is done where as in store and forward mode information is put away and later time it can be dissected. It makes utilization of data innovation, through the utilization of PCs, software, hardware and telecom systems. People living in country and remote territories are not by any means getting essential therapeutic care because authority doctors are more inclined to be situated in urban zones. Because of the new thoughts in figuring and telecom innovation, numerous components of therapeutic practice can be finished when the patient and social insurance supplier are geologically at a separation. Key sign observing framework is the exchange of electronic medical information (i. e. ECG, BP, temperature and patients record) starting with one area then onto the next.
Wireless network technology-basedinternet of things (IoT) has increased significantly and exciting to study, especially vital sign monitoring (body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure). Vital sign monitoring is crucial to carry out to strengthen medical diagnoses and the continuity of patient health. Vital sign monitoring conducted by medical personnel to diagnose the patient's health condition is still manual. Medical staff must visit patients in each room, and the equipment used is still cable-based. Vital sign examination like this is certainly not practical because it requires a long time in the process of diagnosis. The proposed vital sign monitoring system design aims to assist medical personnel in diagnosing the patient's illness. Vital sign monitoring system uses HRM-2511E sensor for heart detection, DS18b20 sensor for body temperature detection, and MPX5050DP sensor for blood pressure detection. Vital sign data processing uses a raspberry pi as a data delivery media-basedinternet of things (IoT). Based on the results of the vital sign data retrieval shows that the tool designed functioning correctly. The accuracy of the proposed device for body temperature is 99.51%, heart rate is 97.90%, and blood pressure is 97.69%.
The lack of medical resource (such as the shortage of doctors and hospitals) has being become an important social issue due to population increasing and ageing. The traditional medical diagnosis mode (face to face) cannot satisfy people’ requirements . In order to solve this issue, the concept of telemedicine is proposed. Using the telemedicine, the medical system runs more efficiently than before, especially moni- tors the patients with the chronic diseases. Recently, more and more advanced tech- nologies and conceptions are proposed. For healthcare, the internet of things (IoTs) and the wearable devices promote the development of telemedicine . IoTs is a good medium in telemedicine, which integrates equipment and expertise in the medical field together . The wearable device combines the sensors and processing devices into a single device, which is suitable for monitor. The patient can take wearable device everywhere without any limitation.
In many applications, a WSN communicates with a Local Area Network or Wide Area Network through a gateway. The Gateway acts as a bridge between the WSN and the other network. This enables data to be stored and processed by devices with more resources, for example, in a remotely located server. A wireless wide area network used primarily for low-power devices is known as a Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN).
Implementation of IOT is founded on an structure consisting of many levels: from the area information order coating at the end to the applying coating at the top. The split structure is usually to be developed in ways that could match certain requirements of varied industries, enterprises, societies, institutes, governments etc . The split architecture offers not one but two specific departments with the Online level between so that you can satisfy the requirements of a common mass media with regard to communication. Both the decrease cellular levels play a role in facts saving though both the cellular levels towards the top accounts for Online of Things facts usage within applications. The functionalities of the various layers are discussed briefly in the following:
The general objective of this thesis was completed for the designed and implementation a Wireless Sensor Network, applying IoT for a continuous monitoring. Regarding, the full implementation on Agropolis was not boarded considering the ports availability and configuration issues on the RAC number 3. The location accessibility and the bounded schedule limited the specific objective, but it was replaced for a controlled enviroment. The technology evolution generate big changes in the industry and lifetime of the object. New devices implementations are necessary to optimize and innovate the process in all the departments. The agricultural sector is aware of those changes which require techniques updates regarding the market high demand for products of better quality. Greenhouse crops monitoring moderates the possible impacts that the plant handled during certain periods of the year. Plagues and parasites presence are related to changes of weather and water retention of the crop.
Invasive methods are exclusively used in the hospital environment and use probes that sense the air flow. The most common non-invasive methods are the impedance pneumography and the inductive plethysmography. Impedance pneumographic devices measure the voltage drop across thoracic electrodes, which increases during inspiration and decreases during expiration. Inductive plethysmography employs arrays of sinusoidally arranged copper wires excited by a low-current, high-frequency electrical oscillator circuit. Movement of the thorax causes variations in the magnetic fields, which are measured as voltage changes over time. Other methods for assessing the respiration rate include non-contact approaches. For example, EMFIT, a company from Finland, produces a non-contact monitoring system capable of detecting heart beating and breathing rate of in-bed patients. It is based on elastic, permanently charged ferro- electret film that converts mechanical stress into proportionate electrical energy . Other non-contact technologies under development include the use of reflection radio waves, capacitive and optical sensors, microwave Doppler radar and thermal image processing [5, 120, 162, 180, 207].
A basic issue in any design of a NLG system is un- derstanding the audience of the generated text. For health monitoring used e.g. at home this issue is highly relevant as a variety of people with diverse backgrounds may use a system. For example, a physician should have an interpretation using spe- cial terms, in contrast for a lay user where infor- mation should be presented in a simple way. For instance, for a decreasing trend in heart rate lower than defined values, the constructed message for the doctor could be: “There is a Bradycardia at . . . ”. But for the patient itself it could be just: “Your heart rate was low at . . . ”. It is also im- portant to note that the generated text for the same user in various situations should also differ. For instance a high heart rate at night presents a dif- ferent situation than having a high heart rate dur- ing the high levels of activity. Consequently, all the modules in NLG systems (data analysis, docu- ment planning, etc.) need to consider these aspects related to the end user.
ABSTRACT: -Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) security is the field of study that aims at solutions that provide multiple points of protection against physical and electronic theft from ATMs and protecting their installations. The implementation is achieved with the use of Machine-to machine (M2M) communications technology. M2M communications is a topic that has recently attracted much attention It provides real-time monitoring and control without the need for human intervention. anti-skimming defend system to silent indicate systems, integrated ATM video surveillance cameras and ATM monitoring options, security specialists are ready to help the people get more out of the ATM security and ATM loss prevention systems. The setup is proposed for ATM security, comprising of the modules namely, authentication of shutter lock, web enabled control, sensors and camera control.
IEEE 802.15.6 is the first WBAN standard that serves various medical and non-medical applications and supports communications inside and around the humanbody. IEEE 802.15.6 standard  uses different frequency bands for data transmission including: The Narrowband (NB) which includes the 400, 800, 900 MHz and the 2.3 and 2.4 GHz bands; the Ultra Wideband (UWB)4, which uses the 3.111.2 GHz; and the HumanBody Communication (HBC)  which uses the frequencies within the range of 1050MHz. This standard is a step forward in wearable wireless sensor networks as it is designed specifically for use with a wide range of data rates, less energy consumption, low range, ample number of nodes (256) per bodyarea network and different node priorities according to the application requirements. The channel access is handled using CSMA/CA  or slotted Aloha access procedure. It provides flexibility in security features, since it defines three security schemes. IEEE 802.15.6 standard can reach data rates up to 10 Mbps while being extremely low power. In addition, it can consider some movements of body (i.e. straight walking from one point to another), which is not suitable for emerging WBAN applications requiring scenarios such as sitting, laying, standing up, jogging, swimming and running. This standard can satisfy most of the WBAN applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. But, it is not able to meet the constraints of the emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions.
This system consists of MSP430 master controller, Arduino Nano as slave controller along with temperature sensor (LM35), Humidity sensor (DHT11), pH sensor (SEN0161), Light sensor (BH1750), Moisture sensor (FC28), IR obstacle sensor (EK1254) and Wi-Fi module (ESP8266) in order to send data to IoT. The master controller collects the data from the sensors connected to its ports. The data collected are from analog as well as digital sensors. The analog sensor values are processed in analog to digital converting (ADC) unit in master controller and analyzed further. The digital sensor values are directly fed to the controller digital input ports. The values sensed by the sensors are displayed in the LCD and also sent to webpage. By using Wi-Fi module the data are transmitted and analyzed for monitoring and controlling the environment of greenhouse. The variations of the values of sensor are continuously plotted at regular intervals in webpage using ThingSpeak cloud .
Abstract—To realize the remote monitoring and intelligent management of the home environment, intelligent home remote monitoring system is developed based on the Internet of thingstechnology. By using RF transceiver chip and GPRS technology, a smart home system scheme for wireless networks is estab- lished. The hardware and software design of sensor nodes and GPRS wireless communication base station is completed. Sensor nodes are used to monitor the acquisition of field data. Based on GPRS technology, the wireless communica- tion base station realizes the uploading of monitoring data. The wireless com- munication between the node and the base station is realized by radio frequency transceiver chip SI4432. The results show that the system reaches the aim of expected design function. Therefore, it can be concluded that the system can meet the intelligent monitoring of the home environment.