Top PDF Identification and characterization of the egg-laying hormone from the neurosecretary bag cells of Aplysia

Identification and characterization of the egg-laying hormone from the neurosecretary bag cells of Aplysia

Identification and characterization of the egg-laying hormone from the neurosecretary bag cells of Aplysia

vii TABLE OF CONTENrS Page INTRODUC'TIOO" l Morphology of Neurosecretory Cell 4 Neuronal Characteristics of Neurosecretory Neurons 5 Endocrine Function of Neurosecretory Neurons 5 Chemic[r]

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Characterization of Na+ and Ca2+ currents in bag cells of sexually immature aplysia californica

Characterization of Na+ and Ca2+ currents in bag cells of sexually immature aplysia californica

Aplysia californica were obtained from the University of Miami Aplysia Facility where they were raised from eggs laid by wild-caught brood stock and maintained in community tanks at 15 °C. All experiments were performed on cells from sexually immature animals. Sexual immaturity was defined by an absence of sexual behaviors such as copulation or egg laying. Subsequent observations on animals from the same cohorts as those used in experiments indicated that these cohorts did not engage in mating behavior for approximately 2 months after electrophysiological experiments.
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Characterization and modulation of Na+ and Ca2+ currents underlying the action potential in bag cells of two species of Aplysia

Characterization and modulation of Na+ and Ca2+ currents underlying the action potential in bag cells of two species of Aplysia

The bag cells of the marine opisthobranch mollusc Aplysia are a homogeneous population of peptidergic neurosecretory cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that undergo prolonged changes in excitability that serve the purpose of releasing the hormones that initiate and control egg laying (Kupferman and Kandel, 1970). Secretion from bag cells is initiated by a period of synchronized firing involving all cells of the bilaterally distributed ganglia. This prolonged electrical

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Egg laying hormone peptides in the aplysiidae family

Egg laying hormone peptides in the aplysiidae family

Previous studies showed that α-BCP in A. parvula is identical to its counterpart in A. californica (Nambu and Scheller, 1986), and α-CDCP in Lymnaea stagnalis have five consecutive amino acid residues in common with α-BCP, suggesting that α-BCPs and α-CDCP have similar receptors and may have similar functions. The α-BCP in A. californica has been reported to have autoexcitatory feedback effects on the bag cell neurons responsible for its release (Rothman et al., 1983; Rock et al., 1986; Brown and Mayeri, 1989). However, these findings contrast with the observation that α-BCP terminates the bag cell discharge and inhibits the elevation of cyclic AMP levels in bag cells, which suggests an inhibitory effect (Kauer et al., 1987; Berry, 1988). A more recent study suggests a temperature-dependent peptidergic feedback effect for α-BCP in seasonal egg laying in Aplysia californica (Redman and Berry, 1991), which implies that α-BCP is autoinhibitory at typical winter temperatures, but becomes autoexcitatory as ocean temperatures rise in the summer, and indicates this peptide may serve to regulate egg laying in response to seasonal temperature variations. The conservation of α-BCP among all Aplysiidae species examined confirms the important role of this peptide.
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Nitric oxide induces aspects of egg laying behavior in
Aplysia

Nitric oxide induces aspects of egg laying behavior in Aplysia

Egg laying in Aplysia is a complex behavior requiring the coordination of a number of different effector organs. The neuroendocrine bag cells, which secrete egg-laying hormone (ELH) and a variety of additional peptides (Rothman et al., 1983a; Sigvardt et al., 1986; Stuart et al., 1980), are a central component coordinating egg laying. There have been conflicting reports on how different aspects of egg laying are coordinated. It has been suggested that the various peptides secreted by the bag cells have different functions, and egg laying is coordinated by the simultaneous release of the different peptides (Scheller and Axel, 1984; Scheller et al., 1983). This view arises from the supposition that egg laying is a fixed act (Kandel, 1976) in which all of the components occur in a fixed sequence. A group of peptides released from the site at which a decision is made to initiate the behavior could coordinate the sequencing of the behavior. The direct effects of a variety of bag cell peptides on a number of tissues has been shown, supporting this idea. For example, ELH directly affects the gonads and causes egg release (Choate et al., 1993; Coggeshall, 1970; Rothman et al., 1983b), and directly affects central neurons in the buccal and cerebral ganglia and thereby inhibits feeding (Ram, 1982; Ram, 1983; Stuart and Strumwasser, 1980; Teyke et al., 1991), whereas additional peptides cause depolarization of the bag cells as part of a positive feedback loop (Brown and Mayeri, 1989; Kauer et al., 1987; Rothman et al., 1983a). It has also been suggested that egg laying is coordinated by feed-forward and feedback loops (Cobbs and Pinsker, 1982b; Ferguson et al., 1989b; Ter Maat and Ferguson, 1996). The performance of certain aspects of egg-laying behavior act as stimuli that in turn affect other aspects of the behavior (Cobbs and Pinsker, 1982b; Ter Maat and Ferguson, 1996). Thus, injection of only one
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Retention of carotenoids in egg yolks of laying hens supplemented with heterotrophic Chlorella

Retention of carotenoids in egg yolks of laying hens supplemented with heterotrophic Chlorella

enoids; for example, after supplementation of 2 g/ kg marigold extract or 20 g/kg alfalfa concentrate into wheat-barley diets fed to quails (Karadas et al., 2006). Use of the marigold extract for 23 days resulted in a total carotenoid content of 39 mg/g in egg yolks. This corresponds with findings of the present study in P2 hens. The supplement of alfalfa concentrate produced lower values, i.e. 22.4 mg/g of egg yolk. This result is comparable with our P1 group (Figure 1A). There were, however, differences in the composition of the carotenoids. While the above authors mention the prevailing content of lutein amounting to 80% of total carotenoids, our hens deposited lutein and zeaxanthin equally (Figure 1B, 1C). Different varieties of carrots were also used as a natural source of carotenoids in laying hens (Ham- mershoj et al., 2010). A two-week supplementation of commercial diets by Purple Haze carrots at the dose of 70 g per hen per day resulted in a maximum carotenoid value of 21 mg/g of egg yolk. Comparable results were achieved in this experiment in P1 birds early during the second week of the experiment and in P2 hens after one week of supplementation by algae. Figure 1A demonstrates that the rising curve reached the plateau level after about three weeks of supplementation. Compared with controls, in P1 and P2 hens the mean values of total carotenoids increased by 46 and 119%, respectively.
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The mitochondrial genome of the egg laying flatworm Aglaiogyrodactylus forficulatus (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea)

The mitochondrial genome of the egg laying flatworm Aglaiogyrodactylus forficulatus (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea)

The mitochondrial genome of A. forficulatus shows a hith- erto unique gene order within the monogenoiden Gyro- dactylidea with four rearrangements in comparison to P. variegatus. The previously proposed sister group relation- ship of the oviparous and viviparous Gyrodactylidae is corroborated. However, more comprehensive sampling is required to further test the proposed phylogenetic hypoth- esis. All Gyrodactylidea mitochondrial genomes sequenced so far include repetitive regions, although the structure of two regions consisting of short tandemly arranged repeats that was found in the basal Gyrodactylidea lineages repre- sented by A. forficulatus and P. variegatus differs substan- tially from the structure of two longer dispersed repeats in Gyrodactylus spp. The biological function of these repeti- tive regions is yet unknown but the sequencing of mito- chondrial genomes of further Gyrodactylidae species may shed some light on the evolution of these regions.
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Article: Characterization of bacterial pathogens from egg shell, egg yolk, feed and air samples of poultry houses

Article: Characterization of bacterial pathogens from egg shell, egg yolk, feed and air samples of poultry houses

In this study poultry feed were analyzed on weekly basis for four weeks. Some of them were collected from layer farm and some are purchased from market retailers in Bahadurbazar market and aseptically collected from opened and unopened poultry feed bags using sterile 250ml beakers and transferred into sterile universal bottles. The samples were labeled properly and brought immediately to the laboratory where bacteriological study was carried out within 2 hours of samples collection. Sterile hand gloves were worn during the time of sample collection. Four types of feeds namely Starter (S), Grower (G), Layers (L) and Finishers (F) were collected from each brand of feed thus corresponding 16 samples. The feed samples were processed by homogenizing 5 grams of each sample in 45 ml of sterile physiological saline and bacterial load enumerated using Nutrient Agar; coliform, staphylococcal, and fastidious organisms were assayed using MacConkey, Mannitol salt, and blood agar respectively. Plates were incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. Alternatively food processing system is, 1 gram of feed was carried out using 9ml sterile distilled water and 0.1 ml of the dilution was cultured by spread plate technique into nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and Blood agar. The inoculated plates were then incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. Further identification of bacterial isolates were done following a series of biochemical tests which included, tests for methyl red, Voges-Proskauer reactions, indole test and Triple Sugar Iron agar slant preparation.
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The Effect of Age and Genotype on Quality of Eggs in Brown Egg‑Laying Hybrids

The Effect of Age and Genotype on Quality of Eggs in Brown Egg‑Laying Hybrids

the  interaction between hens’ age and genotype in eggshell proportion. Zaheer (2015) states that eggshell represents 9 – 12% of the  whole egg, which corresponds with the  results from our analysis. Eggshell thickness was also significantly influenced by age and genotype. The  eggshell thickness values fluctuated during the  monitored period in relation to genotype. Also Ledvinka and  Klesalová (2002) and Bozkurt and Tekerli (2009) agree that eggshell thickness decreases with the age. Vice versa Zita et al. (2009) claim that eggshell thickness increases with the age. Zita et al. (2009) and Sokołowicz  et  al. (2018) found out that genotype has a  significant effect on eggshell thickness as well. There was found the interaction between the  age and genotype in eggshell thickness. Results from Zita et al. (2009) also show interaction between hens’ age and genotype in eggshell thickness. Ketta and Tůmová (2017) state that eggshell thickness varies between 0.28 and 0.41 mm, which corresponds with the results from our analysis. Eggshell strength was significantly influenced by age and genotype. Even though the fluctuations in eggshell strength were obvious during the  monitored period, it can be stated that eggshell strength decreased with the  age. Also according to Krawczyk (2009), eggshell strength decreases with the  age. Kocevski  et  al. (2011) also state that genotype influences eggshell quality, especially eggshell strength. On contrary, Sokołowicz  et  al. (2018) claim that eggshell strength is not influenced by genotype. Unlike our results, Zita  et  al. (2009) found a  significant interaction between hens’ age and genotype in eggshell strength. Eggshell colour was significantly influenced by age and genotype as well. Eggshell colour varied during the whole monitored period, nevertheless the results show that darker eggshell colour was found in eggs from younger ISA Brown hens than in eggs from older ISA Brown hens. Eggshell colour of eggs from Hy‑Line Brown hens fluctuated during the  monitored period. This is in agreement with results from Ledvinka  et  al. (2014). Zita et al. (2009) claim that eggshell colour is significantly influenced by genotype. Zaheer (2015) and Sokołowicz et al. (2018) confirm this fact as well. There was found the interaction between the age and genotype in eggshell colour. Zita et al. (2009) also found the interaction between genotype and hens’ age in eggshell colour.
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NEURONAL FEEDBACK IN EGG LAYING BEHAVIOUR OF THE POND SNAIL LYMNAEA STAGNALIS

NEURONAL FEEDBACK IN EGG LAYING BEHAVIOUR OF THE POND SNAIL LYMNAEA STAGNALIS

As shown in Fig. 2B, some of these lesions had a dramatic effect on turning-phase behaviour. Animals with lesions of the pleuroparietal connectives, all visceral nerves, or the intestinal nerve showed significantly less shell turning and fewer rasping movements, and a significantly higher rate of locomotion, than both groups of control animals. The higher locomotory level was because animals moved around the whole tank until the eggs started to leave the vagina. The other lesions did not significantly affect any of the three turning-phase behavioural patterns. The almost complete abolition of turning-phase behaviour after bilateral lesions of the pleuroparietal connectives, all visceral nerves or the intestinal nerve suggests that sensory input is important for the expression of turning behaviour. The results suggest that the information from the reproductive tract enters the CNS mainly via the intestinal nerve and is then transferred to the anterior ganglia of the CNS via the pleuroparietal connectives.
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Effect of a Neuropeptide Gene on Behavioral States in Caenorhabditis elegans Egg-Laying

Effect of a Neuropeptide Gene on Behavioral States in Caenorhabditis elegans Egg-Laying

of behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactive loco- phase. For example, in both HSN-ablated animals and motion, nose touch insensitivity, and defective osmotic serotonin-deficient mutants, the inactive egg-laying phase avoidance (Nelson et al. 1998b). Although many ques- is abnormally long, whereas egg-laying within the active tions remain concerning the molecular and cellular phase is unimpaired (Waggoner et al. 1998). Thus, mechanisms through which the flp-1-encoded peptides serotonin released from the HSNs apparently stimulates influence these behaviors, it is clear that the peptides egg-laying by facilitating the switch from the inactive to encoded by flp-1 have many specific effects on behavior the active egg-laying state. Similar experiments have that are at least partially distinct from the other C. elegans implicated acetylcholine, released from both the HSNs
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Egg laying in inappropriate nests by the Brown-headed Cowbird ( Molothrus ater ): acts of parasitism or emergency egg dumping?

Egg laying in inappropriate nests by the Brown-headed Cowbird ( Molothrus ater ): acts of parasitism or emergency egg dumping?

as fledging the parasite’s young (Lowther 2010). The Brown-headed Cowbird, therefore, has been designat- ed a generalist parasite because of its use of so many hosts, in contrast to many species of parasitic cuckoos in which females parasitize only a single host species (Davies 2000). Among the species whose clutches have been recorded receiving one or more Brown-headed Cowbird eggs are ones in which the young parasite, even if hatched, stands no chance of survival because the patterns of development of host and cowbird are completely incompatible. This is termed “inappropriate” laying, although it has also been called “egg-dumping” and “freak” or “accidental” laying by other authors (e.g., Friedmann 1966; Friedmann et al. 1977). The host species may be precocial (e.g., ducks and shorebirds) and, because the young leave the nest within a few hours of hatching, the cowbird is left behind. Other in - appropriate hosts, however, may be altricial (e.g., doves and cuckoos); although the young develop in the nest, the cowbird’s diet requirements are not met. Specula- tion on the reasons for inappropriate laying has focused on indiscriminate laying by Brown-headed Cowbirds or females committed to laying their eggs on a given morning forced at the last minute to lay elsewhere, after discovering their previously selected nest has been destroyed.
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Identification and characterization of specific binding proteins for growth hormone in normal human sera

Identification and characterization of specific binding proteins for growth hormone in normal human sera

The well-recognized "big" forms (45,000-100,000 mol wt) of immunoreactive human growth hormone (hGH) in human serum have been reported to be random aggregates or formal polymers. However, we have now investigated the possibility that they are protein-bound forms. After incubation of monomeric 125I-hGH with normal serum, gel chromatography indicated a peak of bound 125I-hGH (at approximately 120,000 mol wt), which was

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Identification, Synthesis and Characterization of Process Related Impurity of Male Hormone Testosterone Undecanoate

Identification, Synthesis and Characterization of Process Related Impurity of Male Hormone Testosterone Undecanoate

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass and the growth of body hair [1]. Testosterone is first reported in 1935 [2]. Testosterone undecanoate is an androgen and anabolic steroid and a testosterone ester [3-5]. Testosterone undecanoate was first reported in 1953 [6]. It is used in androgen replacement therapy primarily for the treatment of male hypogonadism or as hormone replacement therapy in transgender men and has also been investigated for use as a male contraceptive [7]. It is marketed under the brand names Aveed, Andriol, Androxon, Cernos Depot, Nebido etc.
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Isolation and Antimicrobial Characterization of Aerobic Pathogenic Bacteria from Egg Shell and Egg Contents in Table Eggs in Erbil

Isolation and Antimicrobial Characterization of Aerobic Pathogenic Bacteria from Egg Shell and Egg Contents in Table Eggs in Erbil

Whereas in agreement with the result of Board and Tranter (1995) founded that the level of contamination on egg shells have a wide range of variation from 2-7 log cfu/egg shell, as well as results of Bruce and Drysdale, (1994) founded that the eggs laid in dirty environment was enclosed more bacteria than eggs laid in clean environment. In this study the samples from cage farm were found predominantly contaminated with Staphylococcus spp 22, 22% and aerobacteriaceae 22, 22% which E. coli composed 11.11% (Table 2, 3).Similarly, studies have found that the highest grade of eggshell contamination with Staphylococcus spp which can tolerate dry and extreme conditions was present in dust, soil and feces, which is the major reason of its Contamination of eggshells [18, 19].
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Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

prepared according to Wang et al. [25], and mea- sured by gas chromatography of FAME in a Chrom- pack CP 900 apparatus fitted with a flame ionization detector. Analytical gas chromatography was carried out on a Hewlett–Packard 6890 gas chromatograph series II (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, California, USA) equipped with HP Innowax (30 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 ml film thickness) capillary column. Each sample was injected with a split ratio of 1:100 and a con- tinuous flow rate of 1.5 ml/min of chromatographic grade helium was used. The oven temperature was initially held for 20 min at 165 °C, ramped at 5 °C/min up to 240 °C and held isothermal for 25 min. Injector and FID detector temperature were held at 250 °C. FAMEs were identified by comparison of their reten- tion time with respect to pure standard purchased from Sigma and analyzed under the same conditions. FAMEs were quantified according to their percentage area, obtained by integration of the peaks. The results were expressed as a percentage of individual fatty acids in the lipid fraction as described by Pordomingo et al. [26].
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Purification and characterization of β-secretase inhibitory peptide from sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) by enzymatic hydrolysis

Purification and characterization of β-secretase inhibitory peptide from sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) by enzymatic hydrolysis

Many studies reported that β-secretase cleavage is re- ported to occur in acidic compartments such as the endosomal system and the trans-Golgi network, al- though significant amounts of the glycoprotein are also present in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface [Cook et al. 1997, Huse et al. 2002]. β-secretase shows maximum activity at pH 4.0–4.5, and an acidic pH is usually employed for in-vitro assays. β-secretase exerts its enzymatic activity via a general acid-based mechanism common to aspartyl proteases. To do so, we measure β-secretase inhibitory activity of enzymatic hydrolysates under pH 4.5 condition. Peptides from six hydrolysates were evaluated for their β-secretase inhibi- tory activities by IC 50 value (mg/mL). As shown in Fig. 1,
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Identification and Characterization of Bovine Mammary Peptide Transporters in Response to Tripeptide and Lactogenic Hormone Treatment

Identification and Characterization of Bovine Mammary Peptide Transporters in Response to Tripeptide and Lactogenic Hormone Treatment

Peptide transporters have 12 transmembrane domains with a large extracellular loop between transmembrane domains 9 and 10. Both the amino and the carboxy terminals are on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. These proteins also contain potential sites in the intracellular loop for protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation (Chen et al. 2002; Lyons et al. 2014). The crystal structures of di- and tripeptide-bound complexes of a bacterial homolog of PepT1 revealed at least two mecha- nisms for peptide recognition. The dipeptide was laterally oriented in the binding site, whereas the tripeptide revealed an alternative vertical binding mode (Lyons et al. 2014). Molecular studies on the regulation of PepT gene expression in mam- mals indicates that the promoter of PepT1 has both an amino acid responsive element (Fei et al. 2000) and binding sites for transcription fac- tors, such as Cdx2, PPARα and Sp1 (Shiraga et al. 1999). Moreover, the transcriptional activation of PepT1 is also regulated by clock-controlled genes, albumin D site-binding protein, and the insulin/ growth factor-TOR signaling pathway (Meissner et al. 2004). These regulatory mechanisms are conserved from worms and birds to mammals.
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Nano-calcium carbonate: Effect on performance traits and egg quality in laying hens

Nano-calcium carbonate: Effect on performance traits and egg quality in laying hens

Abstract A ten-week trial was carried out to determine the effect of different levels of nano- calcium carbonate (NCC) on egg production performance and egg quality. A completely randomized experiment was designed comprising 6 treatments, each with 4 replicates of 5 hens. Groups 1 and 2 were fed diets containing 8.06% and 6.045% calcium carbonate (CC) as positive and negative control respectively. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 received diets with 4.03% CC plus 2.015, 1.01, 0.252 and 0.126% NCC respectively. Egg production at 32 wks of age was significantly reduced by the lowest dietary supplementation with NCC (T6) (P<0.05). However, dietary treatments had no significant effect on egg weight, egg mass and FCR (P>0.05). The lowest egg shape index was recorded for the birds fed T6 at 31 and 33 wks of age (P<0.05). Hens fed T6 had the lowest egg specific gravity at 29 wks of age compared to those fed other diets. However, the lowest egg specific gravity at 33 wks of age be- longed to the birds which received T3. Dietary treatments had no effect on the Haugh unit. Hens on T6 had the highest yolk color at 33 wks of age compared to those receiving other treatments (P<0.05). It was concluded that it is possible to utilize NCC at the level of 0.252 to 2.015% instead of 4.03% CC in laying hen diets. However, longer term studies are suggested to determine the potential of nano-calcium carbonate, as a new calcium source, on egg production performance and egg quality in laying hens.
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Recombinant proteins from Gallibacterium anatis induces partial protection against heterologous challenge in egg-laying hens

Recombinant proteins from Gallibacterium anatis induces partial protection against heterologous challenge in egg-laying hens

After euthanasia at 48  h post challenge, gross lesions found in the peritoneum, ovary and oviduct were recorded and scored from 0 to 5 according to sever- ity (Table 2). When analyzing the data, a binary division of the lesion scores was made according to presence or absence of a protective response (Table 2). Lesion scores 0, 1 and 2 were regarded as inflammatory reaction with- out significant infection and considered as a protective response against infection. Lesions scores 3, 4 and 5 were regarded as inflammation with infection and consid- ered as a response with no protection, i.e., infection had overwhelmed the inflammatory response. Furthermore, swabs were sampled from the peritoneum, ovary and three fixed points in the oviduct; infundibulum, magnum and uterus. All swabs were streaked on BHI blood agar plates and incubated in a closed plastic bag for 18  h at 37 °C. The growth of G. anatis was scored from 0 to 4: 0 (no colonies), 1 (<10 colonies), 2 (10–200 colonies), 3 (>200 colonies), and 4 (dense/florid growth/distinction of colonies not possible). The total bacterial load was calcu- lated by summation of all scores giving each bird maxi- mal total score of 20.
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