Top PDF Identifying the Potential Environmental Impacts of Engineered Nanomaterials

Identifying the Potential Environmental Impacts of Engineered Nanomaterials

Identifying the Potential Environmental Impacts of Engineered Nanomaterials

In order to help regulators understand the impacts of nanomaterials better and advance these methods the following research questions are addressed. First, current impact assessment models do not capture the important physicochemical properties of nanomaterials that drive toxicity. In the field of Life Cycle Assessment, past studies [64], [65] that involve a nano-enabled product do not quantify the impacts of nanomaterials themselves and have therefore underestimate the total impact. This is due to the complexity with modeling nanomaterial impact and exposure. Chapter 2 uses scenario analysis to define ranges for nanomaterial impact, and exposure. Then using these ranges, the analysis compares the possible magnitude of toxicity as a result of direct nanomaterial emissions with those impacts from embedded electricity and materials. This comparison helps contextualize the nanomaterial ranges in order to understand whether they are significant in the total production system. The results can also identify when nanomaterial emissions directly drive the impact of the production system and when nanomaterial emissions can be considered relatively insignificant.
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Prospects for Minimizing the Potential Environmental Impacts of the Hydro Agricultural Dam of M’Bahiakro (Côte d’Ivoire)

Prospects for Minimizing the Potential Environmental Impacts of the Hydro Agricultural Dam of M’Bahiakro (Côte d’Ivoire)

The annual variation of rainfall in the region of M’Bahi- akro is illustrated in Figure 2. The rainfall is more im- portant from April to June (120 - 150 mm) and from Sep- tember to October (105 - 155 mm). In contrast, the rain- fall is less important from November to March (0 - 50 mm) and from July to August (80 - 90 mm). These varia- tions in the rainfall allow identifying four climate periods composed of two rainy seasons and two dry seasons. The annual average rainfall is 1000 mm with a standard deviation of 231 mm and a variation coefficient of 0.21.

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IoT Applications in Future Foreseen Guided by Engineered Nanomaterials and Printed Intelligence Technologies a Technology Review

IoT Applications in Future Foreseen Guided by Engineered Nanomaterials and Printed Intelligence Technologies a Technology Review

Smart material applications in ‘Market Research Projects’ include sensors, actuators, motors, structural materials, and several types of novel coatings to name a few. Driven by the potential end-users, the market could further be segmented into industrial, consumer electronics, healthcare, retail, automotive, and many more like that. The observations made by ‘eSafety Forum’ are worth mentioning in this context. They concluded from the data available that on average one third of the serious road accidents are generally caused by driver’s fatigue. A ‘Harken Project’ was initiated for improving driver’s safety by developing embedded non-intrusive sensors for assessing cardiac and respiratory functions. Integrating sensing materials into safety belts and seat covers of the cars could thus detect the heartbeats and the respiratory conditions of the driver by eliminating the noise due to moving vehicle generated vibrations, and the body movements. The ‘Harken’ system monitors the fatigue-related physiological activity of the driver by identifying the changes in breathing and heart rates to anticipate and prevent car accidents related to fatigue by timely alerting the driver. Another European supported ‘Graphene Flagship’ program succeeded in developing graphene ink for fabricating sensors for measuring the parameters like temperature, humidity, pressure, and light by printing an electronic circuit onto an RFID tag. The low energy consumption and the ability to support high data speeds achievable from these sensors would certainly make the graphene a more useful material for new communication technologies like 5G for IoT applications [24].
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An integrated approach for the in vitro dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials

An integrated approach for the in vitro dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials

of agglomerate parameters, and is an improvement upon previous work relying on unvalidated estimates for ag- glomerate effective density [29]. Numerical calculations for particle deposition over time have been validated ex- perimentally for a variety of materials and conditions, highlighting the accuracy and wide applicability of this method to industrially-relevant ENMs. Furthermore, the RID functions presented here for 20 ENMs in a variety of in vitro conditions can assist nanotoxicologists in ad- dressing dosimetry issues in their in vitro screening studies. Adoption of the proposed dosimetry method- ology will be a major step towards the development of inexpensive, accurate, and reproducible in vitro screen- ing assays, and will overcome potential inaccuracies that may arise from reporting dose as simply the nominal media concentrations. Consideration of the variability of delivered dose may hold large implications for the inter- pretation of previously reported high-throughput toxicity screens of large panels of ENMs [36,37], and will be a major advancement for nano-environmental health and safety research in the future.
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Structure-activity relationship models for hazard assessment and risk management of engineered nanomaterials

Structure-activity relationship models for hazard assessment and risk management of engineered nanomaterials

The widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for commercial purposes made human exposure to these materials almost inevitable. Moreover, the number of in vivo and in vitro studies reporting the potential adverse effects of exposure to ENMs is growing rapidly. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand the interactions between ENMs and biological/environmental systems. Although the need to improve our understanding of the adverse health effects of ENMs has been recognised for some time, it has not been fully met to date. There are many reasons that have caused the hazard assessment of ENMs to fall behind the innovations in nanotechnology such as knowledge gaps exist in the field of nanotoxicology, difficulties in categorization of ENMs for toxicological considerations and uncertainties regarding the evaluation and regulation of potential risks of nanoparticles. The presence of a large number of ENMs with unknown risks has led to increased interest in the use of fast, cost-effective and efficient computational methods for predicting the toxic potential of ENMs. To that end, the potential use of in silico techniques, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), to model the relationship between biological activities and physicochemical characteristics of ENMs is investigated in this paper. The focus of this paper is on defining the current level of knowledge in (Q)SAR modeling of potential hazards of ENMs and demonstrating the use of (Q)SAR to predict the potential risks specific to ENMs with a case study. Moreover, it presents an overview of the (1) existing barriers currently limiting the development of robust nano-(Q)SAR models, (2) the current obstacles to regulatory acceptance of these models and (3) the integration of (Q)SARs into the risk assessment process. The result of this study demonstrated that the use of (Q)SAR modeling approach to model the toxicity of ENMs based on specific structural and compositional features greatly facilitates (1) filling knowledge gaps regarding the effect of specific parameters on the biological activities of ENMs, (2) predicting the potential risks associated with the exposure to ENMs, (3) classifying the ENMs according to their physicochemical properties and potential hazard degree and (4) reducing the risk by modifying ENMs based on the observed correlations between structural features and biological responses.
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Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), purchased from Cheap Tubes, Inc. (Brattleboro, VT), were previously characterized through the National Institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS) NanoGo Consortium (Xia et al. 2013). Dry MWCNTs, as well as MWCNTs suspended in water, were thoroughly characterized for size and zeta potential. TEM analysis demonstrated that the dimensions of the MWCNTs were 20-30 nm in diameter and 5-10 µm in length. Measurement of the aggregate size of MWCNTs was performed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and determined to be 324+33 nm in water. Lastly, zeta potential, as measured by zetasizer, was -12.1+0.3 mV in water. MWCNTs in dry, powder form were weighed out using a milligram scale (Mettler, Toledo, OH) and then suspended in a sterile, 0.1% pluronic F-68 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) solution at a final concentration of 5 mg/mL. Suspended MWCNTs were then dispersed using a cuphorn sonicator (Qsonica, Newton, CT) for one minute at room temperature prior to delivery to the lungs of mice by oropharyngeal aspiration as described below. The endotoxin content of MWCNT stock suspensions was previously tested using the colorimetric Limulus amebocyte lysate assay (Lonza Inc., Allendale, NJ). The LPS content of all ENM suspensions was < 0.3 EU/ml (Xia et al. 2013).
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Environmental impacts of nanomaterials: providing comprehensive information on exposure, transport and ecotoxicity - the project DaNa2.0

Environmental impacts of nanomaterials: providing comprehensive information on exposure, transport and ecotoxicity - the project DaNa2.0

An overview on the huge variety of organisms, primary cells and cell lines used to study potential hazardous ef- fects of nanomaterials is given in Table 1, summarising the 25 market-relevant ENMs currently listed in the knowledge base together with the corresponding environ- mental test systems. For 23 out of the 25 listed ENMs in the knowledge base, there is ecotoxicological information available. As for the human toxicology, the body of litera- ture on environmental effects of nanomaterials is growing rapidly resulting in the aforementioned problems with comparability. In most cases, different types of the same nanomaterials were used or experimental conditions var- ied from study to study making it increasingly difficult to interpret and compare the results [9]. In order to deal with these issues, the DaNa expert team developed the ‘Litera- ture Criteria Checklist’ to manage and monitor the quality
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Longitudinal follow-up of health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials: a panel study

Longitudinal follow-up of health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials: a panel study

this panel study. First, misclassification of exposure may lead to the underestimation of health effects. Since the researchers did not conduct environmental and personal sampling of nanoparticles, misclassification of exposure was possible. Second, negative confounders may under- estimate the health effects and lead to no difference be- tween exposed and control groups. Since the study evaluated and controlled confounders during data ana- lysis for each effect marker, confounding bias was un- likely to be of concern in this study though some residual confounding could not be completely excluded. Third, loss to follow-up may lead to bias if loss to follow-up is associated with both exposure (risk levels) and disease (effect markers). Since loss to follow-up was not found to be associated with exposure (risk levels) in this study, loss to follow-up bias was not possible. Fourth, negligible exposure to engineered nanoparticles may lead to negative health impacts. Based on field stud- ies conducted by Taiwan Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) that measured the emission of nanoparticles in different operations or processes in nanotechnology industry (Table 10), nanoparticle
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Bioenergy production and environmental impacts

Bioenergy production and environmental impacts

Compared with the conventional fossil fuel, bioenergy has obvious advantages due to its renewability and large quantity, and thus plays a crucial role in helping defend the energy security. However, the bioenergy development may potentially cause serious environmental alterations, which remain unclear. The study summarizes the environ- mental impacts of bioenergy production based on the compilation and published data. Our analysis shows that more and more attention is being paid to the environmental protection as the development of bioenergy, and among the influencing terms of bioenergy production, water issues (i.e., water quantity and quality) gain the greatest concern, whereas the least attention has been given to soil erosion. Although we recognize that the bioenergy production can indeed exert negative effects on the environment in terms of water quantity and quality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity and soil organic carbon, and soil erosion, the adverse impacts varied greatly depending on biomass types, land locations, and management practices. Identifying the reasonable cultivation locations, appropriate bioenergy crop types, and optimal management practices can be beneficial to environment and sustainable development of bioenergy. In this field, Chinese bioenergy production has lagged behind and does not match its rising energy consumption, but it has a great potential of and demand for biomass-based energy especially under its urbanization, in spite of the negative environmental impacts. Therefore, this article is expected to serve as a reference and guideline on what has been done in the bioenergy-oriented countries that might stimulate development of more effective and environmentally sound guidelines for promoting bioenergy production in China and other developing countries as well.
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Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

An uncertainty analysis revealed knowledge gaps per- vade nearly all aspects of ENM environmental health and safety [4]. Owing to their small size and large sur- face area, ENMs may have chemical, physical, and biolo- gical properties distinctly different from, and produce effects distinct from or of a different magnitude than, fine particles of similar chemical composition. This is discussed in II, A, 2. The physico-chemical properties of ENMs that impact their uptake. ENM properties often differ from individual atoms, molecules, and from bulk matter. These differences include a high rate of pulmonary deposition, the ability to travel from the lung to systemic sites, and a high inflammatory potential [1]. Further contributing to our lack of understanding of the potential health effects of ENMs is that most production is still small scale. As such, potential adverse effects from the anticipated increase in large scale production and marketing of ENM-containing products and use are generally unknown. Furthermore, the number of novel ENMs being created continues to grow at a high rate, illustrated by the accelerating rate of nanotechnology- related patent applications [37,38].
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Rapid Environmental Impact Screening for Engineered Nanomaterials

Rapid Environmental Impact Screening for Engineered Nanomaterials

In addressing this question, businesses concerned with the potential toxicology of nano-based products face two interrelated challenges regarding testing: speed and cost. Given both domestic and global competition, firms are under pressure to develop and introduce new nanotechnology-based products into the marketplace rapidly or face potential losses in market share, revenues, and strategic position. This means that companies need toxicity screening methods that can fit into product development cycles, which will allow environmental and human health problems to be identified early and hopefully engineered out of products before they are introduced into the marketplace. These screening techniques also have to be affordable. Given the many small businesses and start-ups involved with nanotechnology, financial constraints will limit their options vis-à-vis toxicity testing. Realizing this need, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies launched an initiative to work with firms and scientists to develop and apply fast-turnaround toxicity screening methods to emerging nanotech products. This proof-of-concept study involved the development and application of a genomic-based, ecotoxitity screening method to nano-scale iron particles being used for environmental remediation. Ecotoxicity is an area that has received far less attention and funding than the study of the potential human health impacts of nanomaterials. The screening was completed in less than four months with the complete cooperation of the company and the test showed no significant ecotoxicity effects for two important indicator species. It is important to remember that the findings do not constitute a product endorsement but an additional set of data that the company and consumers can evaluate to make more informed decisions.
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Environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials

Environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials

ZnO NPs which have widespread applications in electronics, clothing, paints, cosmetic products, catalysts as well as in biosensors and medical devices are shown to have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential 48,49 . Various studies showed that ZnO NPs were cytotoxic for human lung epithelial cells They are shown to upset glucose metabolism in such cells cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and induce apoptosis 50,51 . Han Z et al carried out in- vitro studies on mice injected with single doses of ZnO nanoparticles which were taken up by Leydig and Sertoli cells, causing cytotoxicity due to DNA damage brought about by increase in reactive oxygen species 52 . Johnson et al showed that the exposure to ZnO NPs led to autophagocytosis of immune cells, due to rise in the levels of the autophagosome protein LC3A reactive oxygen species (ROS) production 53 . Several others reported DNA damage in human epidermal cells, and apoptosis in pulmonary epithelial cell lines through ROS and oxidative stress even when exposure to ZnO NPs was very low 49,54,55 .
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Engineered Gold Nanoparticles and Plant Adaptation Potential

Engineered Gold Nanoparticles and Plant Adaptation Potential

The cell shape and size adjustment at the initial stages of plant growth was identified to cause severe functional impairments associated with the tissue differentiation and the solute transport [28]. Moreover, the exact mech- anism of plant defence against nanotoxicity is elusive. Perhaps, the possible detoxification pathways and forma- tion of an effective scavenging system composed of non- enzymatic antioxidants and enzymatic antioxidants might enable plants to tolerate and resist oxidative stress caused by nanoparticles [29–32]. In an experiment, Cor- redor and coworkers [33] have demonstrated that nano- particles are competent to penetrate in living plant tissues, migrate to different regions of the plant system and movements over small distance are favoured. Metal nanoparticles available in aqueous medium or soil matrix may move through the symplastic or apoplastic region to penetrate the epidermis of roots, pass through the cortex, and finally translocate and distribute to the stems and leaves via the xylem and phloem [33, 34]. Thus, accordingly, the engineered gold nanoparticles can enter in the plant system and lead to favourable or
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Comparative lung toxicity of engineered nanomaterials utilizing in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches

Comparative lung toxicity of engineered nanomaterials utilizing in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches

We thank Debora Andrews, Judy Richards, and Richard Jaskot for technical assistance in toxicologic analyses and Drs. Kevin Dreher and James Samet for their review of this manuscript. The project was supported by grant from the EPA-UNC Toxicology Training Agreement (CR-83515201-0), with the Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This paper has been reviewed by the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that contents necessarily reflect the views and polices of Agency, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
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Meta-analysis of transcriptomic responses as a means to identify pulmonary disease outcomes for engineered nanomaterials

Meta-analysis of transcriptomic responses as a means to identify pulmonary disease outcomes for engineered nanomaterials

Since inhalation is an important route of exposure for ENMs in occupational settings, and since the pul- monary transcriptomic responses following exposure to some ENMs are fairly well c[r]

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The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC

The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC

lung to the blood. Understanding the particle characteris- tics (size, charge, lipophilicity, protein adsorption) that impact the translocation process and the potential for dose rate effects on translocation will be important both in terms of dose rate effects on competing clearance mech- anisms (mucociliary) and potentially on barrier function. Beyond that, understanding clearance kinetics of Nano- particles will also be important in understanding their potential for adverse effects. Therefore NP have the poten- tial of affecting cardiovascular disease both indirectly via pulmonary inflammation and directly through particle distribution although important, this property of redistri- bution has yet to be demonstrated for NP present in real PM10. Of note, many of the effects attributed to exposure to high levels of ambient particulates are also present in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (presumably independent of ambient particle exposure status). COPD and other disorders associated with reduced lung function are strong risk factors for car- diovascular events, independent of smoking. While the mechanism(s) for this observation is/are largely unknown, there is evidence that suggests that low-grade, systemic inflammation related to COPD may play an important role. In a severity-dependent fashion, circulat- ing levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and other inflammatory biomarkers are 1.5 – 3.0 times higher among individuals with COPD than in those without [35] Importantly, COPD patients with elevated C-reactive pro- tein and other inflammatory biomarkers have a higher risk of cardiac events than those with normal C-reactive protein levels. The risk of cardiovascular events may be further amplified by the use of bronchodilators that adversely alter the delicate balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic forces within the autonomic nervous sys- tem. In sum, COPD is a risk factor for cardiovascular dis- eases. Persistent systemic inflammation may, in part, be responsible for this relationship. It is important to keep in mind that the effects of ambient air pollution involve a complex interplay between the complex constituents of the ambient particles and underlying disease. However, it is clearly appropriate to include endpoints reflective of ambient particulate exposure in studies of the effects of engineered Nanoparticles to understand the potential for different types of particles to elicit these effects and the rel- ative dose/response.
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Carbon nanomaterials in clean and contaminated soils: environmental implications and applications

Carbon nanomaterials in clean and contaminated soils: environmental implications and applications

When the potential for biofilm development on CNMs is considered in relation to their HOC sorptive ability and aggregation within soils, it has been suggested that CNMs may be useful for enhancing biodegradation of organic pol- lutants that cannot be easily concentrated. With CNM ag- gregates behaving as an organic chemical collector and ac- cumulator, biofilm development on CNMs potentially in- creases the bioavailability/bioaccessibility of the contami- nant (Yang et al., 2006b). Given adequate reversibility of or- ganic compound adsorption and limited desorption hystere- sis, sorption of bacterial cells to the surface of CNM ag- gregates may shorten the diffusion distance, facilitating the utilisation of the sorbed organic compound by the bacteria. This is well illustrated by Yan et al. (2004), who studied the removal efficiency of microcystin (MC) toxins from so- lution by Ralstonia solanacearum bacteria (Gram-negative cells which are able to readily coalesce on fibrous mate- rial) immobilised as a biofilm on a nontoxic form of CNTs. Their results showed that the removal efficiencies of MCs were 20 % greater by CNT biological composites than ei- ther CNTs or bacteria alone (Yan et al., 2004). The find- ings were explained through absorption of large amounts of MCs and R. solanacearum by CNTs, resulting in a concerted biodegradation reaction (Yan et al., 2004). In a similar in- vestigation, Kanepalli and Donna (2006) used CNT-bacteria nanocomposites to assess the bioremediation of highly per- sistent trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. The study re- vealed that TCE instantly sorbed to bacteria nanocomposites, which was later released to bacteria that were immobilised on the surface and metabolised.
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Observations of environmental changes and potential dietary impacts in two communities in Nunavut, Canada

Observations of environmental changes and potential dietary impacts in two communities in Nunavut, Canada

As numerous studies suggest, Indigenous populations of the Arctic including Inuit, have already experienced climate change and its impacts 11-17 . Some of these climate changes observed in the regions studied, include unpredictable weather, earlier break up and later freeze up of ice, thinning ice, melting glaciers, decreasing lake and stream levels, and changes in animal populations and travel conditions 12,13,15 . These changes can affect the access and availability of country food in either positive or negative ways, depending on the locations of traditional ground, availability of mode of transportation for the hunters, and the changes of distribution of the animals in relation to the location of the villages.
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Identifying potential for successful entrepreneurs

Identifying potential for successful entrepreneurs

The contents are the responsibility of the University of Hawaii and Southern Christian College and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID, the United States Government, or Higher[r]

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Land use changes and potential impacts on environmental outcomes in Lam Dong province

Land use changes and potential impacts on environmental outcomes in Lam Dong province

degradation; for example, when a rich forest is converted to a poor forest on a steeply slope, it is more susceptible to landslides and soil erosion. After having Y* value and other parameters calculated in different steps, they were fed into the Python scripts to start the simulation of future land use. The Agent-based modelling (ABM) approach was deployed to simulate land use changes based on farmers' decision-making processes to answer the question of how some environmental outcomes could potentially be impacted in the future. Due to the integration of spatial data in this ABM, it is more precisely to be called a Spatially explicit Agent-based model (SeABM). It described when and how a household or agent makes its land use decisions against other factors throughout the projected period. How a LULC change could be determined from different factors was described in section 5.1. Data used for the probit regression were from 2000-2010 so the simulation could be considered as the trend to forecast the LULC's dynamics in the next 10-year period from 2010 to 2020. Outputs of the econometric model played an important role in the simulation framework, as it indicated when agents would make a land use decision considering demography and spatial factors.
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